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Up-to-Date Colonoscopy Use in Asian and Hispanic Subgroups in New York City, 2003-2016

Liang, Peter S; Dubner, Rachel; Xia, Yuhe; Glenn, Matthew; Lin, Kevin; Nagpal, Neha; Ng, Sandy; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Troxel, Andrea B; Kwon, Simona C
BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer screening uptake in the United States overall has increased, but racial/ethnic disparities persist and data on colonoscopy uptake by racial/ethnic subgroups are lacking. We sought to better characterize these trends and to identify predictors of colonoscopy uptake, particularly among Asian and Hispanic subgroups. STUDY/METHODS:We used data from the New York City Community Health Survey to generate estimates of up-to-date colonoscopy use in Asian and Hispanic subgroups across 6 time periods spanning 2003-2016. For each subgroup, we calculated the percent change in colonoscopy uptake over the study period and the difference in uptake compared to non-Hispanic Whites in 2015-2016. We also used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of colonoscopy uptake. RESULTS:All racial and ethnic subgroups with reliable estimates saw a net increase in colonoscopy uptake between 2003 and 2016. In 2015-2016, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Central/South Americans had higher colonoscopy uptake, whereas Chinese, Asian Indians, and Mexicans had lower uptake. On multivariable analysis, age, marital status, insurance status, primary care provider, receipt of flu vaccine, frequency of exercise, and smoking status were the most consistent predictors of colonoscopy uptake (≥4 time periods). CONCLUSIONS:We found significant variation in colonoscopy uptake among Asian and Hispanic subgroups. We also identified numerous demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related predictors of colonoscopy uptake. These findings highlight the importance of examining health disparities through the lens of disaggregated racial/ethnic subgroups and have the potential to inform future public health interventions.
PMID: 36753456
ISSN: 1539-2031
CID: 5420872

Guideline concordant care for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer by disaggregated Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander groups: A National Cancer Database Analysis

Lee, Sarah S.; Gold, Heather T.; Kwon, Simona C.; Pothuri, Bhavana; Lightfoot, Michelle D.S.
Objective: Despite the within-group heterogeneity, Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NH/PI) patients are often grouped together. We compared the patterns of guideline-concordant care for locally advanced cervical cancer for disaggregated AA and NH/PI patients. Methods: Patients with stage II-IVA cervical cancer between 2004 and 2020 were identified from the National Cancer Database. AA patients were disaggregated as East Asian (EA), South Asian (SA), and Southeast Asian (SEA). NH/PI patients were classified as a distinct racial subgroup. The primary outcome was the proportion undergoing guideline-concordant care, defined by radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy, brachytherapy, and completion of treatment within eight weeks. Results: Of 48,116 patients, 2107 (4%) were AA and 171 (<1%) were NH/PI. Of the AA patients, 36% were SEA, 31% were EA, 12% were SA, and 21% could not be further disaggregated due to missing or unknown data. NH/PI patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an early age (53% NH/PI vs. 30% AA, p < 0.001) and have higher rates of comorbidities (18% NH/PI vs. 14% AA, p < 0.001). Within the AA subgroups, only 82% of SEA patients received concurrent chemotherapy compared to 91% of SA patients (p = 0.026). SA patients had the longest median OS (158 months) within the AA subgroups compared to SEA patients (113 months, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Disparities exist in the receipt of standard of care treatment for cervical cancer by racial and ethnic subgroups. It is imperative to disaggregate race and ethnicity data to understand potential differences in care and tailor interventions to achieve health equity.
SCOPUS:85183202826
ISSN: 0090-8258
CID: 5628962

Correction: Identifying opportunities for collective action around community nutrition programming through participatory systems science

Chebli, Perla; Đoàn, Lan N; Thompson, Rachel L; Chin, Matthew; Sabounchi, Nasim; Foster, Victoria; Huang, Terry T K; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Yi, Stella S
PMID: 38300397
ISSN: 1573-7225
CID: 5627282

Guideline concordant care for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer by disaggregated Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander groups: A National Cancer Database Analysis

Lee, Sarah S; Gold, Heather T; Kwon, Simona C; Pothuri, Bhavana; Lightfoot, Michelle D S
OBJECTIVE:Despite the within-group heterogeneity, Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NH/PI) patients are often grouped together. We compared the patterns of guideline-concordant care for locally advanced cervical cancer for disaggregated AA and NH/PI patients. METHODS:Patients with stage II-IVA cervical cancer between 2004 and 2020 were identified from the National Cancer Database. AA patients were disaggregated as East Asian (EA), South Asian (SA), and Southeast Asian (SEA). NH/PI patients were classified as a distinct racial subgroup. The primary outcome was the proportion undergoing guideline-concordant care, defined by radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy, brachytherapy, and completion of treatment within eight weeks. RESULTS:Of 48,116 patients, 2107 (4%) were AA and 171 (<1%) were NH/PI. Of the AA patients, 36% were SEA, 31% were EA, 12% were SA, and 21% could not be further disaggregated due to missing or unknown data. NH/PI patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an early age (53% NH/PI vs. 30% AA, p < 0.001) and have higher rates of comorbidities (18% NH/PI vs. 14% AA, p < 0.001). Within the AA subgroups, only 82% of SEA patients received concurrent chemotherapy compared to 91% of SA patients (p = 0.026). SA patients had the longest median OS (158 months) within the AA subgroups compared to SEA patients (113 months, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Disparities exist in the receipt of standard of care treatment for cervical cancer by racial and ethnic subgroups. It is imperative to disaggregate race and ethnicity data to understand potential differences in care and tailor interventions to achieve health equity.
PMID: 38262236
ISSN: 1095-6859
CID: 5624882

Reallocating time between device-measured 24-hour activities and cardiovascular risk in Asian American immigrant women: An isotemporal substitution model

Park, Chorong; Larsen, Britta; Kwon, Simona C; Xia, Yuhe; LaNoue, Marianna; Dickson, Victoria V; Reynolds, Harmony R; Spruill, Tanya M
The 24-hour day consists of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and sleep, and changing the time spent on one activity affects the others. Little is known about the impact of such changes on cardiovascular risk, particularly in Asian American immigrant (AAI) women, who not only have a higher cardiovascular risk but also place greater cultural value on family and domestic responsibilities compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of reallocating 30 minutes of each 24-hour activity component for another on BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure in AAI women. Seventy-five AAI women completed 7 days of hip and wrist actigraphy monitoring and were included in the analysis (age = 61.5±8.0 years, BMI = 25.5±3.6 kg/m2, waist circumference = 85.9±10.2 cm). Sleep was identified from wrist actigraphy data, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA, and sedentary behavior identified from hip actigraphy data. On average, the women spent 0.5 hours in MVPA, 6.2 hours in light PA, 10 hours in sedentary activities, and 5.3 hours sleeping within a 24-hour day. According to the isotemporal substitution models, replacing 30 minutes of sedentary behavior with MVPA reduced BMI by 1.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference by 4.0 cm. Replacing that same sedentary time with sleep reduced BMI by 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference by 1.4 cm. Replacing 30 minutes of light PA with MVPA decreased BMI by 1.6 kg/m2 and waist circumference by 4.3 cm. Replacing 30 minutes of light PA with sleep also reduced BMI by 0.8 kg/m2 and waist circumference by 1.7 cm. However, none of the behavioral substitutions affected blood pressure. Considering AAI women's short sleep duration, replacing their sedentary time with sleep might be a feasible strategy to reduce their BMI and waist circumference.
PMCID:10781047
PMID: 38198483
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 5628652

Methods for Retrospectively Improving Race/Ethnicity Data Quality: A Scoping Review

Chin, Matthew K; Ðoàn, Lan N; Russo, Rienna G; Roberts, Timothy; Persaud, Sonia; Huang, Emily; Fu, Lauren; Kui, Kiran Y; Kwon, Simona C; Yi, Stella S
Improving race/ethnicity data quality is imperative to ensuring underserved populations are represented in datasets used to identify health disparities and inform healthcare policy. We performed a scoping review of methods that retrospectively improve race/ethnicity classification in secondary datasets. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science Core Collection in July 2022. A total of 2,441 abstracts were dually screened, 453 full-text articles were reviewed, and 120 articles were included. Study characteristics were extracted and described in a narrative analysis, including: method type used for race/ethnicity classification; races/ethnicities targeted for classification; publication year; method inputs; reference population (if applicable); target population; and whether the article included a validation process. Six main method types for improving race/ethnicity were identified: Expert Review (n=9; 8%), Name Lists (n = 27; 23%), Name Algorithms (n=55; 46%), Machine Learning (n=14; 12%), Data Linkage (n=9; 8%), and Other (n=6; 5%). The main racial/ethnic groups targeted for classification were Asian (n = 56; 47%) and White (n = 51; 43%). Eighty-six articles (72%) included some form of validation evaluation. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different method types and potential harms of identified methods. We recommend the need for innovative methods to better identify racial/ethnic subgroups and further validation studies. Accurately collecting and reporting disaggregated data by race/ethnicity is critical to address the systematic missingness of relevant demographic data that can erroneously guide policymaking and hinder the effectiveness of healthcare practices and intervention.
PMID: 37045807
ISSN: 1478-6729
CID: 5456972

Identifying opportunities for collective action around community nutrition programming through participatory systems science

Chebli, Perla; Đoàn, Lan N; Thompson, Rachel L; Chin, Matthew; Sabounchi, Nasim; Foster, Victoria; Huang, Terry T K; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Yi, Stella S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To apply principles of group model building (GMB), a participatory systems science approach, to identify barriers and opportunities for collective impact around nutrition programming to reduce cancer risk for immigrant communities in an urban environment. METHODS:We convened four in-person workshops applying GMB with nine community partners to generate causal loop diagrams (CLDs)-a visual representation of hypothesized causal relationships between variables and feedback structures within a system. GMB workshops prompted participants to collaboratively identify programmatic goals and challenges related to (1) community gardening, (2) nutrition education, (3) food assistance programs, and (4) community-supported agriculture. Participants then attended a plenary session to integrate findings from all workshops and identify cross-cutting ideas for collective action. RESULTS:Several multilevel barriers to nutrition programming emerged: (1) food policies center the diets and practices of White Americans and inhibit culturally tailored food guidelines and funding for culturally appropriate nutrition education; (2) the lack of culturally tailored nutrition education in communities is a missed opportunity for fostering pride in immigrant food culture and sustainment of traditional food practices; and (3) the limited availability of traditional ethnic produce in food assistance programs serving historically marginalized immigrant communities increases food waste and worsens food insecurity. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Emergent themes coalesced around the need to embed cultural tailoring into all levels of the food system, while also considering other characteristics of communities being reached (e.g., language needs). These efforts require coordinated actions related to food policy and advocacy, to better institutionalize these practices within the nutrition space.
PMID: 37481755
ISSN: 1573-7225
CID: 5599442

IDEAL: A Community-Academic-Governmental Collaboration Toward Improving Evidence-Based Data Collection on Race and Ethnicity

Kader, Farah; Ðoàn, Lan N; Chin, Matthew K; Scherer, Maya; Cárdenas, Luisa; Feng, Lloyd; Leung, Vanessa; Gundanna, Anita; Lee, Matthew; Russo, Rienna; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga G; John, Iyanrick; Cho, Ilseung; Kwon, Simona C; Yi, Stella S
PMCID:10599325
PMID: 37824700
ISSN: 1545-1151
CID: 5603912

Assessing Equitable Inclusion of Underrepresented Older Adults in Alzheimer's Disease, Related Cognitive Disorders, and Aging-Related Research: A Scoping Review

Godbole, Nisha; Kwon, Simona C; Beasley, Jeannette M; Roberts, Timothy; Kranick, Julie; Smilowitz, Jessica; Park, Agnes; Sherman, Scott E; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Chodosh, Joshua
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The rapidly aging and diversifying U.S. population is challenged by increases in prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging-related disorders. We conducted a scoping review to assess equitable inclusion of diverse older adult populations in aging research focused on National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored research. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:The scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-Scr) Protocol. The search was limited to NIH-funded studies focusing on aging, AD and Alzheimer's disease-related dementias (ADRD) and included adults aged 55+. The priority populations and health disparities put forth by the NIA Health Disparities Framework serve as a model for guiding inclusion criteria and for interpreting the representation of these underrepresented groups, including racial ethnic minorities, socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural populations, groups with disabilities, and LGBTQ communities. RESULTS:Our search identified 1,177 records, of which 436 articles were included in the analysis. Inclusion of individuals with ADRD and mild cognitive impairment, racial ethnic minorities, rural populations, socioeconomically disadvantaged, groups with disabilities, and LGBTQ communities were poorly specified in most studies. Studies used multiple recruitment methods, conducting studies in community settings (59%) and hospitals/clinics (38%) most frequently. Incentives, convenience factors, and sustained engagement via community-based and care partners were identified as key strategies for improved retention. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This scoping review identified gaps in existing literature and aims for future work, including stronger research focus on, better inclusion of, and improved data collection and reporting of older adults from underrepresented groups.
PMID: 35472166
ISSN: 1758-5341
CID: 5217412

A Culturally Adapted Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention Among Muslim Women in New York City: Results from the MARHABA Trial

Wyatt, Laura C; Chebli, Perla; Patel, Shilpa; Alam, Gulnahar; Naeem, Areeg; Maxwell, Annette E; Raveis, Victoria H; Ravenell, Joseph; Kwon, Simona C; Islam, Nadia S
We examine the efficacy of MARHABA, a social marketing-informed, lay health worker (LHW) intervention with patient navigation (PN), to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Muslim women in New York City. Muslim women were eligible if they were overdue for a mammogram and/or a Pap test. All participants attended a 1-h educational seminar with distribution of small media health education materials, after which randomization occurred. Women in the Education + Media + PN arm received planned follow-ups from a LHW. Women in the Education + Media arm received no further contact. A total of 428 women were randomized into the intervention (214 into each arm). Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, mammogram screening increased from 16.0 to 49.0% in the Education + Media + PN arm (p < 0.001), and from 14.7 to 44.6% in the Education + Media arm (p < 0.001). Pap test screening increased from 16.9 to 42.3% in the Education + Media + PN arm (p < 0.001) and from 17.3 to 37.1% in the Education + Media arm (p < 0.001). Cancer screening knowledge increased in both groups. Between group differences were not statistically significant for screening and knowledge outcomes. A longer follow-up period may have resulted in a greater proportion of up-to-date screenings, given that many women had not yet received their scheduled screenings. Findings suggest that the educational session and small media materials were perhaps sufficient to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Muslim American women. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03081507.
PMID: 35585475
ISSN: 1543-0154
CID: 5249272