Pericardial lymphangioma: a rare benign albeit variably symptomatic tumefactive lesion [Case Report]
Primary pericardial-based tumefactive lesions include pericardial cysts, mature teratomas, and lymphangiomas, and while benign they may result in clinical symptomatology that leads to their radiologic detection. We present the case of a 5-year-old boy with a heart murmur who was otherwise healthy and without significant medical history. Transthoracic echocardiogram, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a pericardial multicystic mass imparting compression upon the right atrium and ventricle. The case proceeded to surgery in which complete resection of the mass was performed without complication, and the patient was discharged three days after. Pathology examination of the lesion determined it to be a pericardial lymphangioma with characteristic histologic features of sequestered vascular channels lined by endothelium that specifically expressed lymphatic-specific podoplanin (also known as D2-40), and with associated adipose tissue, smooth muscle bundles, and reactive lymphoid aggregates. Although a rare underlying etiology for mediastinal and specifically pericardial tumors, lymphangiomas should be considered in the differential of tumefactive lesions in this anatomic location.
N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure undergoing cardiac surgery
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to measure circulating N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels in pediatric patients undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart lesions with left ventricular volume overload and to determine whether presurgical and immediate postoperative N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels could predict patient outcomes after surgical intervention. METHODS: Thirty-eight children aged 1 to 36 months undergoing surgical repair of cardiac lesions with left ventricular volume overload were studied. Plasma N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured preoperatively and at 2, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgical intervention and were assessed for their predictive value of postoperative outcomes. Plasma N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels were also measured in 34 similarly aged healthy children. RESULTS: Patient preoperative N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher than those of healthy control subjects (3085 +/- 4046 vs 105 +/- 78 pg/mL). Preoperative N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels correlated with the complexity of surgical repair, as measured by cardiopulmonary bypass time (r = 0.529, P < .001), and with postoperative measures, including fractional inhaled oxygen requirements registered at 12 hours (r = 0.443, P = .005) and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.445, P = .005). Plasma N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels increased 5-fold within 12 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (14,685 +/- 14,317 pg/mL). Multivariable regression analysis showed that the preoperative N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide level was a significant predictor of duration of intensive care unit stay (P = .02) and that the peak postoperative N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide level was a significant predictor of the intensity of overall medical management, as assessed by using the therapeutic intervention scoring system (P = .01). CONCLUSION: Plasma N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels measured preoperatively and postoperatively can be a prognostic indicator in the management of the pediatric patient after surgical intervention for congenital heart repair.
Sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibition preserves ventricular function after ventricular fibrillation in the intact swine heart
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibition attenuates ventricular dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the intact porcine heart. METHODS: Twelve pigs (weight, 30-45 kg) were evenly divided into 2 groups. Baseline ventricular function studies were based on echocardiography, conductance, aortic flow, and left ventricular pressure. Animals were given vehicle (control) or benzamide-N-(aminoiminomethl)-4-(4-[2-furanylcarbonyl]-1-piperazinyl)-3-(m ethylsulfonyl)methanesulfonate (BIIB 513; 3 mg/kg administered intravenously). Ten minutes later, hearts were subjected to 75 seconds of ventricular fibrillation. After reperfusion for 40 minutes, function studies were repeated. Hearts were arrested and excised. Postmortem data included passive pressure-volume curves and myocardial water content. RESULTS: Preload recruitable stroke work was significantly decreased from baseline after ischemia and reperfusion in the control group (27.7 +/- 2.5 vs 48.0 +/- 5.6 mm Hg [+/- SEM], P =.001) but not in the BIIB 513 group (43.0 +/- 5.8 vs 45.5 +/- 4.1 mm Hg, P = not significant). In vivo diastolic and postmortem passive left ventricular compliance were reduced after ischemia and reperfusion for control animals but remained unchanged for animals receiving BIIB 513. Time required to recover baseline blood pressure after ventricular fibrillation was significantly longer for control animals (159 +/- 15 vs 88 +/- 14 seconds [+/- SEM], P =.008). Myocardial water content (78.97% +/- 0.94% vs 77.86% +/- 0.46% [+/- SEM]) and normalized left ventricular mass (137.24 +/- 6.17 vs 128.41 +/- 1.96 g [+/- SEM]) were insignificantly increased in control animals. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibition attenuates ventricular dysfunction after 75 seconds of ventricular fibrillation and 40 minutes of reperfusion. This family of agents might prove useful in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing ventricular fibrillation for implantable cardioverter defibrillator testing
Correlation of the Tei index with invasive measurements of ventricular function in a porcine model
BACKGROUND: The Doppler myocardial performance (Tei) index has been reported to be clinically useful in assessing left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in both adults and children. However, there are limited data to compare the Tei index with invasive measurements of ventricular function. We used a porcine model to directly correlate the Tei index with invasive indices of systolic and diastolic function. METHODS: Pressure volume loops were obtained from 10 pigs (32-45 kg). A micromanometer and a conductance catheter were placed in the left ventricle to record pressure and volume, respectively. A flow probe was placed around the ascending aorta to record cardiac output. Baseline pressure volume loops were generated during preload reduction through caval occlusion. Epicardial echocardiograms were performed just before the caval occlusion. Invasive indices including preload recruitable stroke work, ventricular stiffness constant, and cardiac output were assessed, as were noninvasive echocardiographic indices including Tei index and ejection fraction. An ischemic insult, ventricular fibrillation, was induced to alter ventricular function. After cardioversion and 40 minutes of reperfusion, echocardiographic and invasive measurements were repeated. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the percent change in Tei and the percent change in preload recruitable stroke work after ventricular fibrillation (r = -0.70, P =.02), although the correlation between the actual values of Tei and preload recruitable stroke work were not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the percent change in Tei and the percent change in cardiac output (r = -0.65, P =.03). There was a direct correlation between the value of Tei and the ventricular stiffness constant at baseline (r = 0.63, P <.05). As anticipated, the value of Tei was inversely related to ejection fraction by epicardial echocardiogram at baseline (r = -0.85, P <.001). The percent change in Tei was inversely related to the percent change in ejection fraction as well (r = -0.69, P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: This animal model is one of the first studies to demonstrate a direct correlation between the Tei index and systolic and diastolic invasive measurements of ventricular function. This supports the clinical use of this index as a measure of global ventricular function.
Changes in left ventricular properties during transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects [Meeting Abstract]
Na+/H+ exchange inhibition preserves ventricular function after VF in the intact swine LV [Meeting Abstract]