Severity and duration of hypoxemia during outpatient endoscopy in obese patients: a retrospective cohort study
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:We sought to quantify the severity and duration of hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients during outpatient endoscopy procedures performed under deep sedation. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study using intraprocedural pulse oximetry readings from 11,595 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score I-III adult patients who underwent deep sedation for elective endoscopy at free standing ambulatory centres between June 2015 and June 2016. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted logistic regression analyses explored the relationship between increasing categories of body mass index (BMI) and intraoperative hypoxemia, severe hypoxemia, and prolonged hypoxemia. RESULTS:Hypoxemia occurred in 600 (13%) patients with normal BMI, 314 (18%) with class I obesity, 159 (27%) with class II obesity, and 24 (19%) with class III obesity. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for any occurrence of intraoperative hypoxemia increased from 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 1.90; P < 0.001) in the class I obesity group to 2.61 (95% CI, 2.05 to 3.30; P < 0.001) in patients with class II obesity, when compared with patients with normal BMI. Adjusted odds ratio of severe hypoxemia were significant in the class I obesity group (AOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.89; P = 0.003), and the class II obesity group (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.57; P < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratio of prolonged hypoxemia increased with each category of BMI from 1.97 (95% CI, 1.08 to 3.69) in the overweight group to 9.20 (95% CI, 4.74 to 18.03) in patients with class III obesity. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of severe hypoxemia increased nearly six-fold in obese patients and 8.5-fold in class III obese patients when compared with those of normal BMI. Intravenous fentanyl was associated with intraoperative hypoxemia independent of BMI. Patients who represent the highest risk for hypoxia should be stratified to procedure locations with adequate resources for the safest care.