Elevated Anti-Xa in the Setting of Prophylactic Unfractionated Subcutaneous Heparin Administration
Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with subcutaneous unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin is a common practice in hospitalized patients. Typically, prophylactic doses of these medications have poor bioavailability and thus do not reach therapeutic serum concentrations. However, in certain circumstances, heparin binding proteins may become saturated. Here we report a case series of 5 patients who had elevated anti-Xa levels while receiving prophylactic dosing of subcutaneous unfractionated heparin.
Epigenetic memory of coronavirus infection in innate immune cells and their progenitors
Inflammation can trigger lasting phenotypes in immune and non-immune cells. Whether and how human infections and associated inflammation can form innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) has remained unclear. We found that circulating HSPC, enriched from peripheral blood, captured the diversity of bone marrow HSPC, enabling investigation of their epigenomic reprogramming following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Alterations in innate immune phenotypes and epigenetic programs of HSPC persisted for months to 1 year following severe COVID-19 and were associated with distinct transcription factor (TF) activities, altered regulation of inflammatory programs, and durable increases in myelopoiesis. HSPC epigenomic alterations were conveyed, through differentiation, to progeny innate immune cells. Early activity of IL-6 contributed to these persistent phenotypes in human COVID-19 and a mouse coronavirus infection model. Epigenetic reprogramming of HSPC may underlie altered immune function following infection and be broadly relevant, especially for millions of COVID-19 survivors.
Post-ICU Syndrome in a Cohort of COVID-19 Survivors in New York City
RATIONALE/BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a dramatic increase in the number of survivors of critical illness. These survivors are at increased risk of physical, psychological, and cognitive impairments known collectively as Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). Little is known about the prevalence of PICS in COVID-19 survivors. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To report the prevalence of physical, psychological, and cognitive impairment among COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors receiving follow-up care in an ICU recovery clinic, to assess for associations between PICS and ICU-related factors, and to compare the cohort of ICU survivors who attended post-ICU clinic to a cohort of ICU survivors who did not. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 ICU survivors admitted from March to May 2020 who were subsequently seen in a post-ICU recovery clinic in New York City. We abstracted medical chart data on available clinical screening instruments for physical, psychological, and cognitive impairment. Associations between these outcomes and care-related variables were tested. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital treatments of the post-ICU clinic cohort were compared to COVID-19 ICU survivors from the same institution who were not seen in post-ICU clinic. RESULTS:87 COVID-19 ICU survivors were seen in our post-ICU recovery clinic. The median age was 62 years and 74% were male. The median length of hospitalization was 51 days and the median length of ICU stay was 22 days. At the post-ICU follow-up visit, 29%, 21%, and 13% of patients reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, respectively. 25% had cognitive impairment. The overall prevalence of PICS was 90%. There were no associations between length of ICU stay, delirium, exposure to benzodiazepines, steroids, or systemic paralytics with positive screens for physical, psychological, or cognitive impairment. Baseline characteristics and ICU-related factors were similar in the cohort of COVID-19 ICU survivors who attended ICU recovery clinic and those who did not. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PICS is common in COVID-19 survivors. We did not find any association with length of ICU stay, the use of benzodiazepines, steroids, or paralytics.
Care of the postcoronavirus disease 2019 patient
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In under a year, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken the lives of hundreds of thousands of Americans, leaving millions of survivors in its wake. The enormous number of people who survived acute illness but continue to have symptoms has highlighted the need for standardized evaluation of the post-COVID-19 patient. This review, based on the current literature and our experience, aims to guide the care of patients who have survived COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS:The literature on this topic is rapidly expanding and covers both pulmonary and nonpulmonary complications of COVID-19. Pulmonary complications include dyspnea with normoxia, organizing pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. Nonpulmonary complications include neurologic, cardiac, and thromboembolic disease. Special consideration should be taken for COVID-19 survivors of intensive care. SUMMARY:The current review outlines the major clinical findings in post-COVID-19 patients and provides a guidelines to the evaluation and management of prolonged symptoms.
Peritraumatic Stress Symptoms during Early Post-Intensive Care Unit Recovery [Letter]
Derivation and Validation of a Diagnostic Prediction Tool for Interstitial Lung Disease
BACKGROUND:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) results in high morbidity and health-care utilization. Diagnostic delays remain common and often occur in nonpulmonology settings. Screening for ILD in these settings has the potential to reduce diagnostic delays and improve patient outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION:This study sought to determine whether a pulmonary function test (PFT)-derived diagnostic prediction tool (ILD-Screen) could accurately identify incident ILD cases in patients undergoing PFT in nonpulmonology settings. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:Clinical and physiologic PFT variables predictive of ILD were identified by using iterative multivariable logistic regression models. ILD status was determined by using a multi-reader approach. An ILD-Screen score was generated by using final regression model coefficients, with a scoreÂ â‰¥ 8 considered positive. ILD-Screen test performance was validated in an independent external cohort and applied prospectively to PFTs over 1 year to identify incident ILD cases at our institution. RESULTS:, diffusion capacity, and PFT indication. The ILD-Screen showed consistent test performance across cohorts, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.83 when applied prospectively. A positive ILD-Screen strongly predicted ILD (OR, 18.6; 95%Â CI, 9.4-36.9) and outperformed common ILD clinical features, including cough, dyspnea, lung crackles, and restrictive lung physiology. Prospective ILD-Screen application resulted in a higher proportion of patients undergoing chest CT imaging compared with a historical control cohort (74%Â vsÂ 56%, respectively; PÂ = .003), with a significantly shorter median time to chest CT imaging (5.6 vsÂ 21.1Â months; PÂ < .001). INTERPRETATION:The ILD-Screen showed good test performance in predicting ILD across diverse geographic settings and when applied prospectively. Systematic ILD-Screen application has the potential to reduce diagnostic delays and facilitate earlier intervention in patients with ILD.
Putting It All Together: Clinical Considerations in the Care of Critically Ill Obstetric Patients with COVID-19
Pregnant patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for the clinical condition newly described in 2019 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and illness severity to warrant intensive care have a complex disease process that must involve multiple disciplines. Guidelines from various clinical societies, along with direction from local health authorities, must be considered when approaching the care of an obstetric patient with known or suspected COVID-19. With a rapidly changing landscape, a simplified and cohesive perspective using guidance from different clinical society recommendations regarding the critically-ill obstetric patient with COVID-19 is needed. In this article, we synthesize various high-level guidelines of clinical relevance in the management of pregnant patients with severe disease or critical illness due to COVID-19. KEY POINTS: Â· When caring for severely ill obstetric patients with COVID-19, one must be well versed in the complications that may need to be managed including, but not limited to adult respiratory distress syndrome with need for mechanical ventilation, approach to refractory hypoxemia, hemodynamic shock, and multiorgan system failure.. Â· Prone positioning can be done safely in gravid patients but requires key areas of support to avoid abdominal compression.. Â· For the critically ill obstetric patient with COVID-19, the focus should be on supportive care as a bridge to recovery rather than delivery as a solution to recovery..
Diagnostic test interpretation and referral delay in patients with interstitial lung disease
BACKGROUND:Diagnostic delays are common in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A substantial percentage of patients experience a diagnostic delay in the primary care setting, but the factors underpinning this observation remain unclear. In this multi-center investigation, we assessed ILD reporting on diagnostic test interpretation and its association with subsequent pulmonology referral by a primary care physician (PCP). METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis of patients referred to the ILD programs at UC-Davis and University of Chicago by a PCP within each institution was performed. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen and pulmonary function test (PFT) were reviewed to identify the date ILD features were first present and determine the time from diagnostic test to pulmonology referral. The association between ILD reporting on diagnostic test interpretation and pulmonology referral was assessed, as was the association between years of diagnostic delay and changes in fibrotic features on longitudinal chest CT. RESULTS:One hundred and forty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Prior to pulmonology referral, 66% (nÂ =â€‰97) of patients underwent chest CT, 15% (nÂ =â€‰21) underwent PFT and 15% (nâ€‰=â€‰21) underwent abdominal CT. ILD features were reported on 84, 62 and 33% of chest CT, PFT and abdominal CT interpretations, respectively. ILD reporting was associated with shorter time to pulmonology referral when undergoing chest CT (1.3 vs 15.1â€‰months, respectively; pÂ =â€‰0.02), but not PFT or abdominal CT. ILD reporting was associated with increased likelihood of pulmonology referral within 6 months of diagnostic test when undergoing chest CT (rate ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.56; pÂ =â€‰0.04), but not PFT or abdominal CT. Each year of diagnostic delay was associated with a 1.8% increase in percent fibrosis on chest CT. Patients with documented dyspnea had shorter time to chest CT acquisition and pulmonology referral than patients with documented cough and lung crackles. CONCLUSIONS:Determinants of ILD diagnostic delays in the primary care setting include underreporting of ILD features on diagnostic testing and prolonged time to pulmonology referral even when ILD is reported. Interventions to modulate these factors may reduce ILD diagnostic delays in the primary care setting.
Underreporting of Interstitial Lung Abnormalities on Lung Cancer Screening Computed Tomography [Letter]
Interstitial lung abnormality is prevalent and associated with worse outcome in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement
BACKGROUND:Interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) is found in 5-10% of the general population and is associated with increased mortality risk. Risk factors for ILA, including advanced age and smoking history also increase the risk for aortic stenosis (AS). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an increasingly utilized intervention for patients with severe AS, and requires a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest to assess aortic valve dimensions. OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of ILA on HRCT performed in patients referred for TAVR. METHODS:Consecutive pre-TAVR HRCTs performed over a 5-year period were reviewed. ILA was defined as bilateral, nondependent reticular opacities. All-cause mortality among TAVR recipients was compared between ILA cases and non-ILA controls matched 2:1 by age and gender using Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan Meier estimator. RESULTS:Of 623 HRCTs screened, ILA was detected in 92 (14.7%), including 62 patients that underwent TAVR. Among ILA cases, 17 (27.4%) had a typical or probable usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, suggesting a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Survival was worse in ILA cases compared to non-ILA controls (pâ€¯=â€¯0.008) and ILA was an independent predictor of mortality after multivariable adjustment (HR 3.29, 95% CI 1.34-8.08; pâ€¯=â€¯0.009). CONCLUSIONS:ILA is a common finding among patients with severe AS and is associated with increased mortality in those undergoing TAVR. Further research is needed to elucidate the biology underpinning this observation and determine whether ILA evaluation and risk stratification modulates this mortality risk.