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A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in New York City

Frontera, Jennifer A; Sabadia, Sakinah; Lalchan, Rebecca; Fang, Taolin; Flusty, Brent; Millar-Vernetti, Patricio; Snyder, Thomas; Berger, Stephen; Yang, Dixon; Granger, Andre; Morgan, Nicole; Patel, Palak; Gutman, Josef; Melmed, Kara; Agarwal, Shashank; Bokhari, Matthew; Andino, Andres; Valdes, Eduard; Omari, Mirza; Kvernland, Alexandra; Lillemoe, Kaitlyn; Chou, Sherry H-Y; McNett, Molly; Helbok, Raimund; Mainali, Shraddha; Fink, Ericka L; Robertson, Courtney; Schober, Michelle; Suarez, Jose I; Ziai, Wendy; Menon, David; Friedman, Daniel; Friedman, David; Holmes, Manisha; Huang, Joshua; Thawani, Sujata; Howard, Jonathan; Abou-Fayssal, Nada; Krieger, Penina; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Czeisler, Barry M; Torres, Jose; Yaghi, Shadi; Ishida, Koto; Scher, Erica; de Havenon, Adam; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Liu, Mengling; Wisniewski, Thomas; Troxel, Andrea B; Balcer, Laura; Galetta, Steven
OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among COVID-19 patients, we prospectively followed hospitalized SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, multi-center, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the NYC metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS:Of 4,491 COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were: toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis, or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all P<0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA-scores, intubation, past history, medical complications, medications and comfort-care-status, COVID-19 patients with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, P<0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
PMID: 33020166
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 4626712

Cost comparison of andexanet versus prothrombin complex concentrates for direct factor Xa inhibitor reversal after hemorrhage

Frontera, Jennifer A; Bhatt, Prachi; Lalchan, Rebecca; Yaghi, Shadi; Ahuja, Tania; Papadopoulos, John; Joset, Danielle
Andexanet-alpha is a specific reversal agent for direct factor Xa inhibitors (dFXaI). We aimed to project utilization rates and cost of andexanet for reversal of dFXaI-related major hemorrhage compared to 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4F-PCC). A retrospective, multicenter review was conducted between 1/1/2014 and 7/15/2018 of patients who received 4F-PCC for reversal of dFXaI-related life-threatening hemorrhages. Total hospital reimbursements/patient were calculated based on national average MS-DRG payments adjusting for Medicare discounts. The projected cost for andexanet (based on dose and insurance) and % reimbursement/patient was compared to the actual cost of 4F-PCC. Hemostasis at 24 h (excellent/good vs. poor) and 30-day thrombotic complications were assessed. Of 126 patients who received 4F-PCC to reverse dFXaI, 46 (~ 10 per-year) met inclusion criteria. The median projected cost of andexanet was $22,120/patient, compared to $5670/patient for 4F-PCC (P < 0.001). The median hospital reimbursement was $11,492/hospitalization. The projected cost of andexanet alone would exceed the entire hospital reimbursement in 74% of patients by a median of $7604, while 4F-PCC cost exceeded the total hospital payments in 7% of patients in the same cohort (P < 0.001). Hemostasis was excellent/good in 72% of patients post-4F-PCC, compared to 82% in andexanet trials. Thromboembolic events occurred in 4% of patients following 4F-PCC versus 10% in andexanet trials. The projected cost of andexanet would exceed the national average hospital reimbursement/patient in nearly 75% of patients by over $7500/hospitalization. 4F-PCC was significantly less expensive, had lower rates of thrombosis, but also lower rates of good/excellent hemostasis compared to published data for andexanet.
PMID: 31664662
ISSN: 1573-742x
CID: 4162322

Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome

Martingano, Daniel; Lalchan, Rebecca; Aglialoro, George C
PMID: 29710363
ISSN: 1945-1997
CID: 3056912

Acute dystonia in the setting of recanalized left MCA with no residual neurological deficits [Meeting Abstract]

Lalchan, R; Bo, R; M, Liff J; Frontera, J; Kwon, P; Tiwari, A
Introduction: Adult onset focal dystonia often affects the upper extremities and cervical region but less often the lower extremities. Dystonia is the second most reported movement disorder post-stroke and often has a delayed presentation ranging from weeks to months. Most reports are in cases where there is permanent and substantial tissue injury. The clinical significance of Basal ganglia infarction or petechial hemorrhage following endovascular therapy for MCA occlusion is not well understood. The development of dystonia in the setting of a recanalized LMCA has never been reported before. Methods: A 39-year-old female presented with Left MCA occlusion. She had no other medical history except for an idiopathic left basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke 6 months ago with residual mild forearm weakness. She underwent urgent mechanical thrombectomy with successful sequential recanalization of her inferior followed by superior division. The latter was complicated by a mild self-limiting subarachnoid hemorrhage in the left sylvian fissure. She had small petechial hemorrhages in the left basal ganglia on MRI. However, she recovered completely in 5 days and was discharged with a NIHSS of 1 (similar to baseline) as well as mRS of 2. Ten months later, she developed a painful, fixed right lower extremity dystonia where her ankle was inverted and plantarflexed with her toes curled. This was treated with multiple anticholinergic & GABAergic medications as well as Botox to only achieve partial success. Currently
EMBASE:619447246
ISSN: 1664-5545
CID: 2862352