Poor Accuracy of Manually Derived Head Computed Tomography Parameters in Predicting Intracranial Hypertension After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
Frontera, Jennifer A; Fang, Taolin; Grayson, Kammi; Lalchan, Rebecca; Dickstein, Leah; Hussain, M Shazam; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron S; Mazzuchin, Daniel; Melmed, Kara R; Rutledge, Caleb; Zhou, Ting; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:The utility of head computed tomography (CT) in predicting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to be limited in traumatic brain injury; however, few data exist in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] or intraparenchymal hemorrhage [IPH]) who underwent external ventricular drain (EVD) placement. Head CT scans performed immediately prior to EVD placement were quantitatively reviewed for features suggestive of elevated ICP, including temporal horn diameter, bicaudate index, basal cistern effacement, midline shift, and global cerebral edema. The modified Fisher score (mFS), intraventricular hemorrhage score, and IPH volume were also measured, as applicable. We calculated the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these radiographic features for the coprimary outcomes of elevated ICP (> 20 mm Hg) at the time of EVD placement and at any time during the hospital stay. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant radiographic factors associated with elevated ICP. RESULTS:Of 608 patients with intracranial hemorrhages enrolled during the study time frame, 243 (40%) received an EVD and 165 (n = 107 SAH, n = 58 IPH) had a preplacement head CT scan available for rating. Elevated opening pressure and elevated ICP during hospitalization were recorded in 48 of 152 (29%) and 103 of 165 (62%), respectively. The presence of ≥ 1 radiographic feature had only 32% accuracy for identifying elevated opening pressure (PPV 30%, NPV 58%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.537, 95% asymptotic confidence interval [CI] 0.436-0.637, P = 0.466) and 59% accuracy for predicting elevated ICP during hospitalization (PPV 63%, NPV 40%, AUC 0.514, 95% asymptotic CI 0.391-0.638, P = 0.820). There was no significant association between the number of radiographic features and ICP elevation. Head CT scans without any features suggestive of elevated ICP occurred in 25 of 165 (15%) patients. However, 10 of 25 (40%) of these patients had elevated opening pressure, and 15 of 25 (60%) had elevated ICP during their hospital stay. In multivariable models, mFS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68) and global cerebral edema (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27-6.75) were significantly associated with elevated ICP; however, their accuracies were only 69% and 60%, respectively. All other individual radiographic features had accuracies between 38 and 58% for identifying intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:More than 50% of patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage without radiographic features suggestive of elevated ICP actually had ICP > 20 mm Hg during EVD placement or their hospital stay. Morphological head CT findings were only 32% and 59% accurate in identifying elevated opening pressure and ICP elevation during hospitalization, respectively.
A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in New York City
Frontera, Jennifer A; Sabadia, Sakinah; Lalchan, Rebecca; Fang, Taolin; Flusty, Brent; Millar-Vernetti, Patricio; Snyder, Thomas; Berger, Stephen; Yang, Dixon; Granger, Andre; Morgan, Nicole; Patel, Palak; Gutman, Josef; Melmed, Kara; Agarwal, Shashank; Bokhari, Matthew; Andino, Andres; Valdes, Eduard; Omari, Mirza; Kvernland, Alexandra; Lillemoe, Kaitlyn; Chou, Sherry H-Y; McNett, Molly; Helbok, Raimund; Mainali, Shraddha; Fink, Ericka L; Robertson, Courtney; Schober, Michelle; Suarez, Jose I; Ziai, Wendy; Menon, David; Friedman, Daniel; Friedman, David; Holmes, Manisha; Huang, Joshua; Thawani, Sujata; Howard, Jonathan; Abou-Fayssal, Nada; Krieger, Penina; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Czeisler, Barry M; Torres, Jose; Yaghi, Shadi; Ishida, Koto; Scher, Erica; de Havenon, Adam; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Liu, Mengling; Wisniewski, Thomas; Troxel, Andrea B; Balcer, Laura; Galetta, Steven
OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among COVID-19 patients, we prospectively followed hospitalized SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, multi-center, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the NYC metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS:Of 4,491 COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were: toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis, or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all P<0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA-scores, intubation, past history, medical complications, medications and comfort-care-status, COVID-19 patients with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62, P<0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
Cost comparison of andexanet versus prothrombin complex concentrates for direct factor Xa inhibitor reversal after hemorrhage
Frontera, Jennifer A; Bhatt, Prachi; Lalchan, Rebecca; Yaghi, Shadi; Ahuja, Tania; Papadopoulos, John; Joset, Danielle
Andexanet-alpha is a specific reversal agent for direct factor Xa inhibitors (dFXaI). We aimed to project utilization rates and cost of andexanet for reversal of dFXaI-related major hemorrhage compared to 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4F-PCC). A retrospective, multicenter review was conducted between 1/1/2014 and 7/15/2018 of patients who received 4F-PCC for reversal of dFXaI-related life-threatening hemorrhages. Total hospital reimbursements/patient were calculated based on national average MS-DRG payments adjusting for Medicare discounts. The projected cost for andexanet (based on dose and insurance) and % reimbursement/patient was compared to the actual cost of 4F-PCC. Hemostasis at 24Â h (excellent/good vs. poor) and 30-day thrombotic complications were assessed. Of 126 patients who received 4F-PCC to reverse dFXaI, 46 (~â€‰10 per-year) met inclusion criteria. The median projected cost of andexanet was $22,120/patient, compared to $5670/patient for 4F-PCC (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). The median hospital reimbursement was $11,492/hospitalization. The projected cost of andexanet alone would exceed the entire hospital reimbursement in 74% of patients by a median of $7604, while 4F-PCC cost exceeded the total hospital payments in 7% of patients in the same cohort (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Hemostasis was excellent/good in 72% of patients post-4F-PCC, compared to 82% in andexanet trials. Thromboembolic events occurred in 4% of patients following 4F-PCC versus 10% in andexanet trials. The projected cost of andexanet would exceed the national average hospital reimbursement/patient in nearly 75% of patients by over $7500/hospitalization. 4F-PCC was significantly less expensive, had lower rates of thrombosis, but also lower rates of good/excellent hemostasis compared to published data for andexanet.
COST COMPARISON OF ANDEXANET VERSUS PCC FOR DIRECT FACTOR XA INHIBITOR REVERSAL AFTER HEMORRHAGE [Meeting Abstract]
Frontera, Jennier; Joset, Danielle; Lalchan, Rebecca; Ahuja, Tania; Papadopoulis, John
Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
Martingano, Daniel; Lalchan, Rebecca; Aglialoro, George C
Acute dystonia in the setting of recanalized left MCA with no residual neurological deficits [Meeting Abstract]
Lalchan, R; Bo, R; M, Liff J; Frontera, J; Kwon, P; Tiwari, A
Introduction: Adult onset focal dystonia often affects the upper extremities and cervical region but less often the lower extremities. Dystonia is the second most reported movement disorder post-stroke and often has a delayed presentation ranging from weeks to months. Most reports are in cases where there is permanent and substantial tissue injury. The clinical significance of Basal ganglia infarction or petechial hemorrhage following endovascular therapy for MCA occlusion is not well understood. The development of dystonia in the setting of a recanalized LMCA has never been reported before. Methods: A 39-year-old female presented with Left MCA occlusion. She had no other medical history except for an idiopathic left basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke 6 months ago with residual mild forearm weakness. She underwent urgent mechanical thrombectomy with successful sequential recanalization of her inferior followed by superior division. The latter was complicated by a mild self-limiting subarachnoid hemorrhage in the left sylvian fissure. She had small petechial hemorrhages in the left basal ganglia on MRI. However, she recovered completely in 5 days and was discharged with a NIHSS of 1 (similar to baseline) as well as mRS of 2. Ten months later, she developed a painful, fixed right lower extremity dystonia where her ankle was inverted and plantarflexed with her toes curled. This was treated with multiple anticholinergic & GABAergic medications as well as Botox to only achieve partial success. Currently