Underuse of Behavioral Treatments for Headache: a Narrative Review Examining Societal and Cultural Factors
Migraine affects over 40 million Americans and is the world's second most disabling condition. As the majority of medical care for migraine occurs in primary care settings, not in neurology nor headache subspecialty practices, healthcare system interventions should focus on primary care. Though there is grade A evidence for behavioral treatment (e.g., biofeedback, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and relaxation techniques) for migraine, these treatments are underutilized. Behavioral treatments may be a valuable alternative to opioids, which remain widely used for migraine, despite the US opioid epidemic and guidelines that recommend against them. Identifying and removing barriers to the use of headache behavioral therapy could help reduce the disability as well as the personal and social costs of migraine. These techniques will have their greatest impact if offered in primary care settings to the lower socioeconomic status groups at greatest risk for migraine. We review the societal and cultural challenges that impose barriers to optimal use of non-pharmacological treatment services. These barriers include insufficient knowledge of migraine/headache behavioral treatments and insufficient availability of clinicians trained in non-pharmacological treatment delivery; limited access in underserved communities; financial burden; and stigma associated with both headache and mental health diagnoses and treatment. For each barrier, we discuss potential approaches to minimizing its effect and thus enhancing non-pharmacological treatment utilization.Case ExampleA 25-year-old graduate student with a prior history of headaches in college is attending school in the evenings while working a full-time job. Now, his headaches have significant nausea and photophobia. They are twice weekly and are disabling enough that he is unable to complete homework assignments. He does not understand why the headaches occur on Saturdays when he pushes through all week to get through his examinations that take place on Friday evenings. He tried two different migraine preventive medications, but neither led to the 50% reduction in headache days his doctor had hoped for. His doctor had suggested cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) before initiating the medications, but he had been too busy to attend the appointments, and the challenges in finding an in-network provider proved difficult. Now with the worsening headaches, he opted for the CBT and by the fifth week had already noted improvements in his headache frequency and intensity.
International Practice Recommendations for the Recognition and Management of Hearing and Vision Impairment in People with Dementia
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Hearing, vision, and cognitive impairment commonly co-occur in older people. However, the rate of recognition and appropriate management of combined hearing and vision impairment in people with dementia impairment is low. The aim of this work was to codevelop internationally relevant, multidisciplinary practice recommendations for professionals involved in the diagnosis, care, and management of older people with these concurrent conditions. METHODS:We applied consensus methods with professional and lay expert stakeholders, using an adapted version of the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development. The development involved 4 phases and included: (1) collating existing evidence, (2) filling the gaps in evidence, (3) prioritising evidence, and (4) refining the final list of recommendations. Each phase encompassed various methodologies including a review of existing guidelines within the 3 clinical domains, systematic reviews, qualitative studies, a clinical professional consortium, surveys, and consensus meetings with interdisciplinary domain experts. RESULTS:The task force evaluated an initial list of 26 recommendations, ranking them in the order of priority. A consensus was reached on 15 recommendations, jwhich are classified into 6 domains of "awareness and knowledge," "recognition and detection," "evaluation," "management," "support," and "services and policies." Pragmatic options for implementation for each domain were then developed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This is the first set of international, interdisciplinary practice recommendations that will guide the development of multidisciplinary services and policy to improve the lives of people with dementia and hearing and vision impairment.
Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Literature From 2009 Through 2014
OBJECTIVE:To conduct an updated, systematic review of the clinical literature, classify studies based on the strength of research design, and derive consensual, evidence-based clinical recommendations for cognitive rehabilitation of people with TBI or stroke. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:Online Pubmed and print journal searches identified citations for 250 articles published from 2009 through 2014. STUDY SELECTION/METHODS:186 articles were selected for inclusion after initial screening. 50 articles were initially excluded (24 healthy, pediatric or other neurologic diagnoses, 10 non-cognitive interventions, 13 descriptive protocols or studies, 3 non-treatment studies). 15 articles were excluded after complete review (1 other neurologic diagnosis, 2 non-treatment studies, 1 qualitative study, 4 descriptive papers, 7 secondary analyses). 121 studies were fully reviewed. DATA EXTRACTION/METHODS:Articles were reviewed by CRTF members according to specific criteria for study design and quality, and classified as providing Class I, Class II, or Class III evidence. Articles were assigned to 1 of 6 possible categories (based on interventions for attention, vision and neglect, language and communication skills, memory, executive function, or comprehensive-integrated interventions). DATA SYNTHESIS/RESULTS:Of 121 studies, 41 were rated as Class I, 3 as Class Ia, 14 as Class II, and 63 as Class III. Recommendations were derived by CRTF consensus from the relative strengths of the evidence, based on the decision rules applied in prior reviews. CONCLUSIONS:CRTF has now evaluated 491 papers (109 Class I or Ia, 68 Class II, and 314 Class III) and makes 29 recommendations for evidence-based practice of cognitive rehabilitation (9 Practice Standards, 9 Practice Guidelines and 11 Practice Options). Evidence supports Practice Standards for attention deficits after TBI or stroke; visual scanning for neglect after right hemisphere stroke; compensatory strategies for mild memory deficits; language deficits after left hemisphere stroke; social communication deficits after TBI; metacognitive strategy training for deficits in executive functioning; and comprehensive-holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation to reduce cognitive and functional disability after TBI or stroke.
Barriers to Behavioral Treatment Adherence for Headache: An Examination of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Psychiatric Factors
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Nonpharmacological interventions, such as biofeedback, cognitive behavioral therapy, and relaxation techniques are Level-A evidence-based treatments for headache. The impact of these interventions is often equivalent to or greater than pharmacological interventions, with fewer side effects.Â Despite such evidence, the rate of participation in nonpharmacological interventions for headache remains low. Once obstacles to optimizing use of behavioral interventions, such as local access to nonpharmacological treatment and primary headache providers are traversed, identification of barriers contributing to low adherence is imperative given the high levels of disability and cost associated with treating headache disorders. In this review of factors in adults associated with underuse of nonpharmacological interventions, we discuss psychological factors relevant to participation in nonpharmacological treatment, including attitudes and beliefs, motivation for change, awareness of triggers, locus of control, self-efficacy, acceptance, coping styles, personality traits, and psychiatric comorbidities associated with treatment adherence. Finally, future prospects and approaches to optimizing treatment matching and minimizing adherence issues are addressed. METHODS:An interdisciplinary team conducted this narrative review. Neuropsychologists conducted a literature search during the month of July 2017 using a combination of the keywords ("headache" or "migraine") and ("adherence" or "compliance") or "barriers to treatment" or various "psychological factors" discussed in this narrative review. Content experts, a psychiatrist, and a complementary and integrative health specialist provided additional commentary and input to this narrative review resulting in integration of additional noteworthy studies, book chapters and books. RESULTS:Various psychological factors, such as attitudes and beliefs, lack of motivation, poor awareness of triggers, external locus of control, poor self-efficacy, low levels of acceptance, and engagement in maladaptive coping styles can contribute to nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS:To maximize adherence, clinicians can assess and address an individual's level of treatment acceptance, beliefs that may present as barriers, readiness for change, locus of control, self-efficacy and psychiatric comorbidities. Identification of barriers to adherence as well as the application of relevant assessment and intervention techniques have the potential to facilitate adherence and ultimately improve treatment success.
Survey of international interest in research collaboration among ACRM membership [Meeting Abstract]
Objective(s): This study, conducted by the Research and Organization Resources Task Force of the International Networking Group of ACRM, explored current ACRM membership involvement and interest in forming research collaborations with international agencies, organizations, and institutions. Design: The design employed a survey format totaling 13 items, using multiple-choice and a few open-ended formats, sent out to individuals listed as ACRM members between 10/14/13 and 1/31/14. Items queried professional identity, current involvement and interest in international collaboration, collaboration barriers, and suggestions for agencies/organizations of interest. Setting: ACRM seeks to serve people with disabling conditions by supporting research based in parameters of physical and psychological well-being. As the only professional association representing all interdisciplinary rehabilitation team members, it is ideally suited to play a central role in exploration and analysis of information on international research collaborations. Participants: There were 106 survey respondents, comprising approximately 15-20% of the total ACRM membership. Interventions: There were no treatment interventions that were a part of this study. Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome data were in the form of response counts, percentages, and pie charts. Respondents could also specify organizations of interest to them as potential sites of future research collaboration. Results: Approximately 60% of respondents identified as researchers, with approximately 75% from the US, approximately 10% from Canada, and 25% from Latin America, European and Asian countries. One-fourth were physiatrists, but the same proportion identified with more integrative health domains. Respondents offered several suggestions for organizations/agencies that they considered potentially interesting and rewarding. Conclusions: There is expressed interest among ACRM members in collaborating with international researchers. Task force members will explore in particular a suggestion offered by respondents: "To provide pathways for connections with international collaborators."
Emotional health and coping in spina bifida after goal management training: A randomized controlled trial
OBJECTIVE: Executive function impairments are common after spina bifida (SB) and potentially have a detrimental effect on the individual's emotional health and coping. Goal management training (GMT) is a cognitive rehabilitation method for improving executive function. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of GMT on aspects of perceived emotional health and coping in individuals with SB. METHOD: Thirty-eight adult subjects with SB were included in this randomized controlled trial. Inclusion was based upon the presence of executive functioning complaints. Experimental subjects (n = 24) received 21 hr of GMT, with efficacy of GMT being compared with results of subjects in a wait-list condition (n = 14). Four self-report questionnaires assessing emotional health and coping were utilized as outcome measures. All subjects were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Findings indicated positive effects of GMT relative to the control group on measures of emotional health. Of note, the GMT group showed significant improvement, compared with control subjects, on a self-report inventory of depressive and anxiety symptoms after training, lasting at least 6 months posttreatment. Furthermore, both groups showed improvements after training on mental health components of health-related quality of life. Finally, the GMT group showed a significant increase in task-focused coping and a decrease in avoidant coping after training compared with pretreatment baseline assessment scores. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings indicate that by us a compensatory intervention to manage executive dysfunction, effective and lasting benefits can be achieved with regard to aspects of perceived emotional health and coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
An efficient method for assigning neurorehabilitation outpatients to treatment [Meeting Abstract]
Goal Management Training improves everyday executive functioning for persons with spina bifida: Self-and informant reports six months post-training
Executive dysfunction accounts for significant disability for many patients with spina bifida (SB), thus indicating the need for effective interventions aimed at improving executive functioning in this population. Goal Management Training (GMT) is a cognitive rehabilitation approach that targets disorganised behaviour resulting from executive dysfunction, and has received empirical support in studies of other patient groups. The purpose of this study was to determine if GMT would lead to perceived improved executive functioning in the daily lives of patients with SB, as evidenced by reduced report of dysexecutive problems in daily life on self- and informant questionnaires. Thirty-eight adults with SB were included in this randomised controlled trial (RCT). Inclusion was based upon the presence of executive functioning complaints. Experimental subjects (n = 24) received 21 hours of GMT, with efficacy of GMT being compared to results of subjects in a wait-list condition (n = 14). All subjects were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up. Self-report measures indicated that the GMT group's everyday executive functioning improved significantly after training, lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. There were no significant effects on informant-report questionnaires. Overall, these findings indicate that executive difficulties in everyday life can be ameliorated for individuals with congenital brain dysfunction.
Anxiety as a primary predictor of functional impairment after acquired brain injury: A brief report
Objective: Cognitive and emotional symptoms are primary causes of long-term functional impairment after acquired brain injury (ABI). Although the occurrence of post-ABI emotional difficulties is well-documented, most investigators have focused on the impact of depression on functioning after ABI, with few examining the role of anxiety. Knowledge of the latter's impact is essential for optimal treatment planning in neurorehabilitation settings. The purpose of the present study is therefore to examine the predictive relationships between cognition, anxiety, and functional impairment in an ABI sample. Method: Multiple regression analyses were conducted with a sample of 54 outpatients with ABI. Predictors selected from an archival data set included standardized neuropsychological measures and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Dependent variables were caregiver ratings of functional impairments in the Affective/Behavioral, Cognitive, and Physical/Dependency domains. Results: Anxiety predicted a significant proportion of the variance in caregiver-assessed real-life affective/behavioral and cognitive functioning. In contrast, objective neuropsychological test scores did not contribute to the variance in functional impairment. Neither anxiety nor neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted impairment in everyday physical/dependency function. Conclusion: These findings support the role of anxiety in influencing functional outcome post-ABI and suggest the necessity of addressing symptoms of anxiety as an essential component of treatment in outpatient neurorehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Goal management training of executive functions in patients with spina bifida: a randomized controlled trial
Executive dysfunction causes significant real-life disability for patients with spina bifida (SB). However, no previous research has been directed toward the amelioration of executive functioning deficits amongst persons with SB. Goal Management Training (GMT) is a compensatory cognitive rehabilitation approach, addressing underlying deficits in sustained attention to improve executive function. GMT has received empirical support in studies of other patient groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of GMT in treating subjects with SB, using inpatient intervention periods. We hypothesized post-intervention changes in scores on neuropsychological measures to reflect improved attentional control, including sustained attention and inhibitory control. Thirty-eight adult subjects with SB were included in this randomized controlled trial. Inclusion was based upon the presence of executive functioning complaints. Experimental subjects (n = 24) received 21 hr of GMT, with efficacy of GMT being compared to results of subjects in a wait-list condition (n = 14). All subjects were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Findings indicated superior effects of GMT on domain-specific neuropsychological measures and on a functional "real-life" measure, all lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. These results show that deficits in executive functioning can be ameliorated in patients with congenital brain dysfunction. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1-14).