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Asymmetrical pedicle subtraction osteotomy for correction of concurrent sagittal-coronal imbalance in adult spinal deformity: a comparative analysis

Lau, Darryl; Haddad, Alexander F; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher P
OBJECTIVE:Rigid multiplanar thoracolumbar adult spinal deformity (ASD) cases are challenging and many require a 3-column osteotomy (3CO), specifically asymmetrical pedicle subtraction osteotomy (APSO). The outcomes and additional risks of performing APSO for the correction of concurrent sagittal-coronal deformity have yet to be adequately studied. METHODS:The authors performed a retrospective review of all ASD patients who underwent 3CO during the period from 2006 to 2019. All cases involved either isolated sagittal deformity (patients underwent standard PSO) or concurrent sagittal-coronal deformity (coronal vertical axis [CVA] ≥ 4.0 cm; patients underwent APSO). Perioperative and 2-year follow-up outcomes were compared between patients with isolated sagittal imbalance who underwent PSO and those with concurrent sagittal-coronal imbalance who underwent APSO. RESULTS:A total of 390 patients were included: 338 who underwent PSO and 52 who underwent APSO. The mean patient age was 64.6 years, and 65.1% of patients were female. APSO patients required significantly more fusions with upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) in the upper thoracic spine (63.5% vs 43.3%, p = 0.007). Radiographically, APSO patients had greater deformity with more severe preoperative sagittal and coronal imbalance: sagittal vertical axis (SVA) 13.0 versus 10.7 cm (p = 0.042) and CVA 6.1 versus 1.2 cm (p < 0.001). In APSO cases, significant correction and normalization were achieved (SVA 13.0-3.1 cm, CVA 6.1-2.0 cm, lumbar lordosis [LL] 26.3°-49.4°, pelvic tilt [PT] 38.0°-20.4°, and scoliosis 25.0°-10.4°, p < 0.001). The overall perioperative complication rate was 34.9%. There were no significant differences between PSO and APSO patients in rates of complications (overall 33.7% vs 42.3%, p = 0.227; neurological 5.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.547; medical 20.7% vs 25.0%, p = 0.482; and surgical 6.5% vs 11.5%, p = 0.191, respectively). However, the APSO group required significantly longer stays in the ICU (3.1 vs 2.3 days, p = 0.047) and hospital (10.8 vs 8.3 days, p = 0.002). At the 2-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in mechanical complications, including proximal junctional kyphosis (p = 0.352), pseudarthrosis (p = 0.980), rod fracture (p = 0.852), and reoperation (p = 0.600). CONCLUSIONS:ASD patients with significant coronal imbalance often have severe concurrent sagittal deformity. APSO is a powerful and effective technique to achieve multiplanar correction without higher risk of morbidity and complications compared with PSO for sagittal imbalance. However, APSO is associated with slightly longer ICU and hospital stays.
PMID: 32764181
ISSN: 1547-5646
CID: 4618572

Complication profile associated with S1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy compared with 3-column osteotomies at other thoracolumbar levels for adult spinal deformity: series of 405 patients with 9 S1 osteotomies

Lau, Darryl; Haddad, Alexander F; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher P
OBJECTIVE:There is an increased recognition of disproportional lumbar lordosis (LL) and artificially high pelvic incidence (PI) as a cause for positive sagittal imbalance and spinal pelvic mismatch. For such cases, a sacral pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) may be indicated, although its morbidity is not well described. In this study, the authors evaluate the specific complication risks associated with S1 PSO. METHODS:A retrospective review of all adult spinal deformity patients who underwent a 3-column osteotomy (3CO) for thoracolumbar deformity from 2006 to 2019 was performed. Demographic, clinical baseline, and radiographic parameters were recorded. The primary outcome of interest was perioperative complications (surgical, neurological, and medical). Secondary outcomes of interest included case length, blood loss, and length of stay. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the risk of S1 PSO compared with 3CO at other levels. RESULTS:A total of 405 patients underwent 3CO in the following locations: thoracic (n = 55), L1 (n = 25), L2 (n = 29), L3 (n = 141), L4 (n = 129), L5 (n = 17), and S1 (n = 9). After S1 PSO, there were significant improvements in the sagittal vertical axis (14.8 cm vs 6.7 cm, p = 0.004) and PI-LL mismatch (31.7° vs 9.6°, p = 0.025) due to decreased PI (80.3° vs 65.9°, p = 0.006). LL remained unchanged (48.7° vs 57.8°, p = 0.360). The overall complication rate was 27.4%; the surgical, neurological, and medical complication rates were 7.7%, 6.2%, and 20.0%, respectively. S1 PSO was associated with significantly higher rates of overall complications: thoracic (29.1%), L1 (32.0%), L2 (31.0%), L3 (19.9%), L4 (32.6%), L5 (11.8%), and S1 (66.7%) (p = 0.018). Similarly, an S1 PSO was associated with significantly higher rates of surgical (thoracic [9.1%], L1 [4.0%], L2 [6.9%], L3 [5.7%], L4 [10.9%], L5 [5.9%], and S1 [44.4%], p = 0.006) and neurological (thoracic [9.1%], L1 [0.0%], L2 [6.9%], L3 [2.8%], L4 [7.0%], L5 [5.9%], and S1 [44.4%], p < 0.001) complications. On multivariate analysis, S1 PSO was independently associated with higher odds of overall (OR 7.93, p = 0.013), surgical (OR 20.66, p = 0.010), and neurological (OR 14.75, p = 0.007) complications. CONCLUSIONS:S1 PSO is a powerful technique for correction of rigid sagittal imbalance due to an artificially elevated PI in patients with rigid high-grade spondylolisthesis and chronic sacral fractures. However, the technique and intraoperative corrective maneuvers are challenging and associated with high surgical and neurological complications. Additional investigations into the learning curve associated with S1 PSO and complication prevention are needed.
PMID: 32559748
ISSN: 1547-5646
CID: 4618552

Comparison of perioperative complications following posterior column osteotomy versus posterior-based 3-column osteotomy for correction of rigid cervicothoracic deformity: a single-surgeon series of 95 consecutive cases

Lau, Darryl; Deviren, Vedat; Joshi, Rushikesh S; Ames, Christopher P
OBJECTIVE:The correction of severe cervicothoracic sagittal deformities can be very challenging and can be associated with significant morbidity. Often, soft-tissue releases and osteotomies are warranted to achieve the desired correction. There is a paucity of studies that examine the difference in morbidity and complication profiles for Smith-Petersen osteotomy (SPO) versus 3-column osteotomy (3CO) for cervical deformity correction. METHODS:A retrospective comparison of complication profiles between posterior-based SPO (Ames grade 2 SPO) and 3CO (Ames grade 5 opening wedge osteotomy and Ames grade 6 closing wedge osteotomy) was performed by examining a single-surgeon experience from 2011 to 2018. Patients of interest were individuals who had a cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) > 4 cm and/or cervical kyphosis > 20° and who underwent corrective surgery for cervical deformity. Multivariate analysis was utilized. RESULTS:A total of 95 patients were included: 49 who underwent 3CO and 46 who underwent SPO. Twelve of the SPO patients underwent an anterior release procedure. The patients' mean age was 63.2 years, and 60.0% of the patients were female. All preoperative radiographic parameters showed significant correction postoperatively: cSVA (6.2 cm vs 4.5 cm [preoperative vs postoperative values], p < 0.001), cervical lordosis (6.8° [kyphosis] vs -7.5°, p < 0.001), and T1 slope (40.9° and 35.2°, p = 0.026). The overall complication rate was 37.9%, and postoperative neurological deficits were seen in 16.8% of patients. The surgical and medical complication rates were 17.9% and 23.2%, respectively. Overall, complication rates were higher in patients who underwent 3CO compared to those who underwent SPO, but this was not statistically significant (total complication rate 42.9% vs 32.6%, p = 0.304; surgical complication rate 18.4% vs 10.9%, p = 0.303; and new neurological deficit rate 20.4% vs 13.0%, p = 0.338). Medical complication rates were similar between the two groups (22.4% [3CO] vs 23.9% [SPO], p = 0.866). Independent risk factors for surgical complications included male sex (OR 10.88, p = 0.014), cSVA > 8 cm (OR 10.36, p = 0.037), and kyphosis > 20° (OR 9.48, p = 0.005). Combined anterior-posterior surgery was independently associated with higher odds of medical complications (OR 10.30, p = 0.011), and preoperative kyphosis > 20° was an independent risk factor for neurological deficits (OR 2.08, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:There was no significant difference in complication rates between 3CO and SPO for cervicothoracic deformity correction, but absolute surgical and neurological complication rates for 3CO were higher. A preoperative cSVA > 8 cm was a risk factor for surgical complications, and kyphosis > 20° was a risk factor for both surgical and neurological complications. Additional studies are warranted on this topic.
PMID: 32384278
ISSN: 1547-5646
CID: 4618542

Utility of neuromonitoring during lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy for adult spinal deformity

Lau, Darryl; Dalle Ore, Cecilia L; Reid, Patrick; Safaee, Michael M; Deviren, Vedat; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P
OBJECTIVE:The benefits and utility of routine neuromonitoring with motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during lumbar spine surgery remain unclear. This study assesses measures of performance and utility of transcranial motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during lumbar pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). METHODS:This is a retrospective study of a single-surgeon cohort of consecutive adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who underwent lumbar PSO from 2006 to 2016. A blinded neurophysiologist reviewed individual cases for MEP changes. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine whether changes correlated with neurological deficits. Measures of performance were calculated. RESULTS:A total of 242 lumbar PSO cases were included. MEP changes occurred in 38 (15.7%) cases; the changes were transient in 21 cases (55.3%) and permanent in 17 (44.7%). Of the patients with permanent changes, 9 (52.9%) had no recovery and 8 (47.1%) had partial recovery of MEP signals. Changes occurred at a mean time of 8.8 minutes following PSO closure (range: during closure to 55 minutes after closure). The mean percentage of MEP signal loss was 72.9%. The overall complication rate was 25.2%, and the incidence of new neurological deficits was 4.1%. On multivariate analysis, MEP signal loss of at least 50% was not associated with complication (p = 0.495) or able to predict postoperative neurological deficits (p = 0.429). Of the 38 cases in which MEP changes were observed, the observation represented a true-positive finding in only 3 cases. Postoperative neurological deficits without MEP changes occurred in 7 cases. Calculated measures of performance were as follows: sensitivity 30.0%, specificity 84.9%, positive predictive value 7.9%, and negative predictive value 96.6%. Regarding the specific characteristics of the MEP changes, only a signal loss of 80% or greater was significantly associated with a higher rate of neurological deficit (23.0% vs 0.0% for loss of less than 80%, p = 0.021); changes of less than 80% were not associated with postoperative deficits. CONCLUSIONS:Neuromonitoring has a low positive predictive value and low sensitivity for detecting new neurological deficits. Even when neuromonitoring is unchanged, patients can still have new neurological deficits. The utility of transcranial MEP monitoring for lumbar PSO remains unclear but there may be advantages to its use.
PMID: 31151094
ISSN: 1547-5646
CID: 4618472

Developing an Automated Registry (Autoregistry) of Spine Surgery Using Natural Language Processing and Health System Scale Databases

Cheung, Alexander T M; Kurland, David B; Neifert, Sean; Mandelberg, Nataniel; Nasir-Moin, Mustafa; Laufer, Ilya; Pacione, Donato; Lau, Darryl; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Kondziolka, Douglas; Golfinos, John G; Oermann, Eric Karl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Clinical registries are critical for modern surgery and underpin outcomes research, device monitoring, and trial development. However, existing approaches to registry construction are labor-intensive, costly, and prone to manual error. Natural language processing techniques combined with electronic health record (EHR) data sets can theoretically automate the construction and maintenance of registries. Our aim was to automate the generation of a spine surgery registry at an academic medical center using regular expression (regex) classifiers developed by neurosurgeons to combine domain expertise with interpretable algorithms. METHODS:We used a Hadoop data lake consisting of all the information generated by an academic medical center. Using this database and structured query language queries, we retrieved every operative note written in the department of neurosurgery since our transition to EHR. Notes were parsed using regex classifiers and compared with a random subset of 100 manually reviewed notes. RESULTS:A total of 31 502 operative cases were downloaded and processed using regex classifiers. The codebase required 5 days of development, 3 weeks of validation, and less than 1 hour for the software to generate the autoregistry. Regex classifiers had an average accuracy of 98.86% at identifying both spinal procedures and the relevant vertebral levels, and it correctly identified the entire list of defined surgical procedures in 89% of patients. We were able to identify patients who required additional operations within 30 days to monitor outcomes and quality metrics. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the feasibility of automatically generating a spine registry using the EHR and an interpretable, customizable natural language processing algorithm which may reduce pitfalls associated with manual registry development and facilitate rapid clinical research.
PMID: 37345933
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5542832

Surgical Outcomes of Cerebral Palsy Patients With Scoliosis and Lumbar Hyperlordosis: A Comparative Analysis With 2-year Minimum Follow-up

Lau, Darryl; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Miyanji, Firoz; Shah, Suken A; Lonner, Baron S; Sponseller, Paul D; Yaszay, Burt; Hwang, Steven W; ,
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter database. OBJECTIVE:To compare outcomes of patients with cerebral palsy (CP) who undergo surgery for scoliosis with normal lordosis (NL) versus hyperlordosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Surgical correction of scoliosis with lumbar hyperlordosis is challenging. Hyperlordosis may confer higher perioperative morbidity, but this is not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A multicenter database was queried for CP patients who underwent surgery from 2008 to 2017. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. Two groups were identified: lumbar lordosis <75° (NL) versus ≥ 75° hyperlordosis (HL). Perioperative, radiographic, and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS:Two hundred seventy-five patients were studied: 236 NL and 39 HL (-75 to -125°). The mean age was 14.1 years, and 52.4% were male. Patients with hyperlordosis had less cognitive impairment (76.9% vs. 94.0%, P =0.008) and higher CPCHILD scores (59.4 vs. 51.0, P =0.003). Other demographics were similar between the groups. Patients with hyperlordosis had greater lumbar lordosis (-90.5 vs. -31.5°, P <0.001) and smaller sagittal vertical axis (-4.0 vs. 2.6 cm, P <0.001). Patients with hyperlordosis had greater estimated blood loss (2222.0 vs. 1460.7 mL, P <0.001) but a similar perioperative complication rate (20.5% vs. 22.5%, P =0.787). Significant correction of all radiographic parameters was achieved in both groups. The HL group had postoperative lumbar lordosis of -68.2° and sagittal vertical axis of -1.0 cm. At a 2-year follow-up, patients with hyperlordosis continued to have higher CPCHILD scores and gained the greatest benefit in overall quality of life measures (20.0 vs. 6.1, P =0.008). The reoperation rate was 10.2%: implant failure (3.6%), pseudarthrosis (0.7%), and wound complications (7.3%). There were no differences in the reoperation rate between the groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical correction of scoliosis with hyperlordosis is associated with greater estimated blood loss but similar radiographic results, perioperative morbidity, and reoperation rate as normal lordosis. Patients with hyperlordosis gained greater overall health benefits. Correction of ≥25% of hyperlordosis seems satisfactory. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3.
PMID: 37000681
ISSN: 1528-1159
CID: 5613292

Carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK spinal implants for primary and metastatic spine tumors: a systematic review on implant complications and radiotherapy benefits

Khan, Hammad A; Ber, Roee; Neifert, Sean N; Kurland, David B; Laufer, Ilya; Kondziolka, Douglas; Chhabra, Arpit; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Lau, Darryl
OBJECTIVE:By minimizing imaging artifact and particle scatter, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) spinal implants are hypothesized to enhance radiotherapy (RT) planning/dosing and improve oncological outcomes. However, robust clinical studies comparing tumor surgery outcomes between CF-PEEK and traditional metallic implants are lacking. In this paper, the authors performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim to describe clinical outcomes in patients with spine tumors who received CF-PEEK implants, focusing on implant-related complications and oncological outcomes. METHODS:A systematic review of the literature published between database inception and May 2022 was performed in accordance with the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The PubMed database was queried using the terms "carbon fiber" and "spine" or "spinal." The inclusion criteria were articles that described patients with CF-PEEK pedicle screw fixation and had a minimum of 5 patients. Case reports and phantom studies were excluded. RESULTS:This review included 11 articles with 326 patients (237 with CF-PEEK-based implants and 89 with titanium-based implants). The mean follow-up period was 13.5 months, and most tumors were metastatic (67.1%). The rates of implant-related complications in the CF-PEEK and titanium groups were 7.8% and 4.7%, respectively. The rate of pedicle screw fracture was 1.7% in the CF-PEEK group and 2.4% in the titanium group. The rates of reoperation were 5.7% (with 60.0% because of implant failure or junctional kyphosis) and 4.8% (all because of implant failure or junctional kyphosis) in the CF-PEEK and titanium groups, respectively. When reported, 72.5% of patients received postoperative RT (41.0% stereotactic body RT, 30.8% fractionated RT, 25.6% proton, 2.6% carbon ion). Four articles suggested that implant artifact was reduced in the CF-PEEK group. Local recurrence occurred in 14.4% of CF-PEEK and 10.7% of titanium-implanted patients. CONCLUSIONS:While CF-PEEK harbors similar implant failure rates to traditional metallic implants with reduced imaging artifact, it remains unclear whether CF-PEEK implants improve oncological outcomes. This study highlights the need for prospective, direct comparative clinical studies.
PMID: 37382293
ISSN: 1547-5646
CID: 5540372

A Nationwide Study Characterizing the Risk and Outcome Profiles of Multilevel Fusion Procedures in Neuromuscular Scoliosis Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Price, Gabrielle; Martini, Michael L; Caridi, John M; Lau, Darryl; Oermann, Eric K; Neifert, Sean N
BACKGROUND:Spine abnormalities are a common manifestation of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1); however, the outcomes of surgical treatment for NF1-associated spinal deformity are not well explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome and risk profiles of multilevel fusion surgery for NF1 patients. METHODS:The National Inpatient Sample was queried for NF1 and non-NF1 patient populations with neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent multilevel fusion surgery involving eight or more vertebral levels between 2004 and 2017. Multivariate regression modeling was used to explore the relationship between perioperative variables and pertinent outcomes. RESULTS:Of the 55,485 patients with scoliosis, 533 patients (0.96%) had NF1. Patients with NF1 were more likely to have comorbid solid tumors (P < 0.0001), clinical depression (P < 0.0001), peripheral vascular disease (P < 0.0001), and hypertension (P < 0.001). Following surgery, NF1 patients had a higher incidence of hydrocephalus (0.6% vs. 1.9% P = 0.002), seizures (4.9% vs. 5.7% P = 0.006), and accidental vessel laceration (0.3% vs.1.9% P = 0.011). Although there were no differences in overall complication rates or in-hospital mortality, multivariate regression revealed NF1 patients had an increased probability of pulmonary (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8, P = 0.004) complications. There were no significant differences in utilization, including nonhome discharge or extended hospitalization; however, patients with NF1 had higher total hospital charges (mean -$18739, SE 3384, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that NF1 is associated with certain complications following multilevel fusion surgery but does not appear to be associated with differences in quality or cost outcomes. These results provide some guidance to surgeons and other healthcare professionals in their perioperative decision making by raising awareness about risk factors for NF1 patients undergoing multilevel fusion surgery. We intend for this study to set the national baseline for complications after multilevel fusion in the NF1 population.
PMID: 36586581
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5418972

Combined retropleural thoracotomy and posterior spinal approach for thoracic dumbbell Schwannoma: Case series and review of the literature

Kurland, David B; Lau, Darryl; Dalle Ore, Cecilia L; Haddad, Alexander; Deviren, Vedat; Ames, Christopher P
BACKGROUND:Dumbbell schwannomas of the thoracic spine are challenging to cure surgically. Surgeons are familiar with posterolateral approaches to the spine, however, these may provide inadequate exposure for large tumors extending to ventral extraspinal compartments. Ventrolateral transpleural approaches offer direct access to the ventral thoracic spine and intrathoracic cavity, though are associated with increased morbidity and pulmonary complications, and may necessitate a staged procedure in order to address concomitant dorsal pathology. Herein we describe our experience with single-stage, posterior approach to dumbbell schwannomas with large ventral extraspinal components, and review the literature regarding surgical approaches for these tumors. METHODS:Retrospective review of patients who underwent a single-stage, posterior spinal surgery for thoracic dumbbell schwannomas from 2008 to 2018. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years and ventral thoracic tumor component. RESULTS:Three patients underwent a simultaneous retropleural thoracotomy and posterior spinal approach, through a single incision, for the resection of dumbbell (intradural and extradural) schwannomas. Mean age was 49.7 years and 2 patients were female. All patients were neurologically intact at baseline. Lesions were 4-8.2 cm in the largest dimension (mean 6.1 cm). GTR was achieved in all patients. One pleural rent occurred intraoperatively; there were no other intraoperative or perioperative complications. At a mean follow-up of 14.1 months all patients remained motor and sensory intact and there was no evidence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:The combined retropleural thoracotomy-posterior spinal approach provides safe and sufficient access for resection of large dumbbell schwannomas of the thoracic spine.
PMID: 36343501
ISSN: 1532-2653
CID: 5357082

Failure in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Comprehensive Review of Current Rates, Mechanisms, and Prevention Strategies

Burke, John F; Scheer, Justin K; Lau, Darryl; Safaee, Michael M; Lui, Austin; Jha, Sonya; Jedwood, Chloe; Thapar, Isabelle; Belfield, Bethany; Nobahar, Nami; Wang, Albert J; Wang, Elaina J; Catalan, Tony; Chang, Diana; Fury, Marissa; Maloney, Patrick; Aryan, Henry E; Smith, Justin S; Clark, Aaron J; Ames, Christopher P
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Literature review. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review is to summarize recent literature on adult spinal deformity (ASD) treatment failure as well as prevention strategies for these failure modes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:There is substantial evidence that ASD surgery can provide significant clinical benefits to patients. The volume of ASD surgery is increasing, and significantly more complex procedures are being performed, especially in the aging population with multiple comorbidities. Although there is potential for significant improvements in pain and disability with ASD surgery, these procedures continue to be associated with major complications and even outright failure. METHODS:A systematic search of the PubMed database was performed for articles relevant to failure after ASD surgery. Institutional review board approval was not needed. RESULTS:Failure and the potential need for revision surgery generally fall into 1 of 4 well-defined phenotypes: clinical failure, radiographic failure, the need for reoperation, and lack of cost-effectiveness. Revision surgery rates remain relatively high, challenging the overall cost-effectiveness of these procedures. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:By consolidating the key evidence regarding failure, further research and innovation may be stimulated with the goal of significantly improving the safety and cost-effectiveness of ASD surgery.
PMID: 36094109
ISSN: 1528-1159
CID: 5341932