Microstructural and Microvascular Alterations in Psychotic Spectrum Disorders: A Three-Compartment Intravoxel Incoherent Imaging and Free Water Model
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS:Microvascular and inflammatory mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs). However, data evaluating these hypotheses remain limited. STUDY DESIGN:We applied a three-compartment intravoxel incoherent motion free water imaging (IVIM-FWI) technique that estimates the perfusion fraction (PF), free water fraction (FW), and anisotropic diffusion of tissue (FAt) to examine microvascular and microstructural changes in gray and white matter in 55 young adults with a PSD compared to 37 healthy controls (HCs). STUDY RESULTS:We found significantly increased PF, FW, and FAt in gray matter regions, and significantly increased PF, FW, and decreased FAt in white matter regions in the PSD group versus HC. Furthermore, in patients, but not in the HC group, increased PF, FW, and FAt in gray matter and increased PF in white matter were significantly associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests assessing memory and processing speed. We additionally report significant associations between IVIM-FWI metrics and myo-inositol, choline, and N-acetylaspartic acid magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex, which further supports the validity of PF, FW, and FAt as microvascular and microstructural biomarkers of PSD. Finally, we found significant relationships between IVIM-FWI metrics and the duration of psychosis in gray and white matter regions. CONCLUSIONS:The three-compartment IVIM-FWI model provides metrics that are associated with cognitive deficits and may reflect disease progression.
Decreased basal ganglia and thalamic iron in early psychotic spectrum disorders are associated with increased psychotic and schizotypal symptoms
Iron deficits have been reported as a risk factor for psychotic spectrum disorders (PSD). However, examinations of brain iron in PSD remain limited. The current study employed quantitative MRI to examine iron content in several iron-rich subcortical structures in 49 young adult individuals with PSD (15 schizophrenia, 17 schizoaffective disorder, and 17 bipolar disorder with psychotic features) compared with 35 age-matched healthy controls (HC). A parametric approach based on a two-pool magnetization transfer model was applied to estimate longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), which reflects both iron and myelin, and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF), which is specific to myelin. To describe iron content, a synthetic effective transverse relaxation rateÂ (R2*) was modeled using a linear fitting of R1 and MPF. PSD patients compared to HC showed significantly reduced R1 and synthetic R2*Â across examined regions including the pallidum, ventral diencephalon, thalamus, and putamen areas. This finding was primarily driven by decreases in the subgroup with schizophrenia, followed by schizoaffective disorder. No significant group differences were noted for MPF between PSD and HC while for regional volume, significant reductions in patients were only observed in bilateral caudate, suggesting that R1 and synthetic R2*Â reductions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients likely reflect iron deficits that either occur independently or precede structural and myelin changes. Subcortical R1 and synthetic R2*Â were also found to be inversely related to positive symptoms within the PSD group and to schizotypal traits across the whole sample. These findings that decreased iron in subcortical regions are associated with PSD risk and symptomatology suggest that brain iron deficiencies may play a role in PSD pathology and warrant further study.
Cortical Myelin Profile Variations in Healthy Aging Brain: A T1w/T2w Ratio Study
Demyelination is observed in both healthy aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. While the significance of myelin within the cortex is well acknowledged, studies focused on intracortical demyelination and depth-specific structural alterations in normal aging are lacking. Using the recently available Human Connectome Project Aging dataset, we investigated intracortical myelin in a normal aging population using the T1w/T2w ratio. To capture the fine changes across cortical depths, we employed a surface-based approach by constructing cortical profiles traveling perpendicularly through the cortical ribbon and sampling T1w/T2w values. The curvatures of T1w/T2w cortical profiles may be influenced by differences in local myeloarchitecture and other tissue properties, which are known to vary across cortical regions. To quantify the shape of these profiles, we parametrized the level of curvature using a nonlinearity index (NLI) that measures the deviation of the profile from a straight line. We showed that NLI exhibited a steep decline in aging that was independent of local cortical thinning. Further examination of the profiles revealed that lower T1w/T2w near the gray-white matter boundary and superficial cortical depths were major contributors to the apparent NLI variations with age. These findings suggest that demyelination and changes in other T1w/T2w related tissue properties in normal aging may be depth-specific and highlight the potential of NLI as a unique marker of microstructural alterations within the cerebral cortex.
The effects of plasticity-based cognitive rehabilitation on resting-state functional connectivity in chronic traumatic brain injury: A pilot study
BACKGROUND:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in chronic impairments to cognitive function, and these may be related to disrupted functional connectivity (FC) of the brain at rest. OBJECTIVE:To investigate changes in default mode network (DMN) FC in adults with chronic TBI following 40 hours of auditory processing speed training. METHODS:Eleven adults with chronic TBI underwent 40-hours of auditory processing speed training over 13-weeks and seven adults with chronic TBI were assigned to a non-intervention control group. For all participants, resting-state FC and cognitive and self-reported function were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit 13-weeks later. RESULTS:No significant group differences in cognitive function or resting-state FC were observed at baseline. Following training, the intervention group demonstrated objective and subjective improvements on cognitive measures with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed significant (pâ€Š< â€Š0.001) groupÃ—time interactions, suggesting training-related changes in DMN FC, and semipartial correlations demonstrated that these were associated with changes in cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS:Changes in the FC between the DMN and other resting-state networks involved in the maintenance and manipulation of internal information, attention, and sensorimotor functioning may be facilitated through consistent participation in plasticity-based auditory processing speed training in adults with chronic TBI.
Inverse Relationships Between Basal Ganglia Iron and Positive Psychotic Symptoms in Early Psychotic Spectrum Disorders [Meeting Abstract]
Perfusion and Diffusion Abnormalities in the Hippocampal Subfields in Psychotic Spectrum Disorders Associate With Memory Deficits [Meeting Abstract]
Psychotic Spectrum Disorder Depressive Subtype and Increased Perfusion in Temporal and Insular Regions [Meeting Abstract]
Functional connectivity of the default mode, dorsal attention and fronto-parietal executive control networks in glial tumor patients
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is an emerging tool to explore the functional connectivity of different brain regions. We aimed to assess the disruption of functional connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN), Dorsal Attention Network(DAN) and Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN) in patients with glial tumors. METHODS:rsfMRI data acquired on 3T-MR of treatment-naive glioma patients prospectively recruited (2015-2019) and matched controls from the 1000 functional-connectomes-project were analyzed using the CONN functional toolbox. Seed-Based Connectivity Analysis (SBCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA, with 10 to 100 components) were performed to study reliably the three networks of interest. RESULTS:). For the FPN, increased connectivity was noted in the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and frontal cortex. No difference in the connectivity of the networks of interest was demonstrated between low- and high-grade gliomas, as well as when stratified by their IDH1-R132H (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutation status. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Altered functional connectivity is reliably found with SBCA and ICA in the DMN, DAN, and FPN in glioma patients, possibly explained by decreased connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres across the corpus callosum due to disruption of the connections.
White Matter Microstructural Changes in Psychotic Spectrum Disorder are Associated With Cognitive Function and Symptoms [Meeting Abstract]
IVIM Modeling Shows Increased Perfusion and Free Water in Psychotic Spectrum Disorders Relate to Illness Duration and Cognitive Function [Meeting Abstract]