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Patient-Reported Hip Pain and Function are Worse Among Elite Nordic Ski Athletes Competing in Ski Jumping Versus Nordic Combined: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Vasavada, Kinjal D; Shankar, Dhruv S; Ross, Keir A; Avila, Amanda; Buzin, Scott; Jazrawi, Isabella B; Carter, Cordelia W; Chen, Andrew L; Borowski, Lauren E; Milton, Heather A; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Nordic ski athletes are at increased risk of developing hip pain and dysfunction secondary to femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS), but it is unclear whether hip symptomatology differs between ski jumping (SJ) and Nordic combined (NC) athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported hip pain and dysfunction between elite Nordic ski athletes participating in SJ versus NC. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted involving SJ and NC athletes who competed at the international and U.S. national level during the 2021-2022 season. Subjects were excluded if they had hip surgery within two years prior to enrollment. Subjects were asked to undergo diagnostic workup for FAIS including physical examination and plain radiographic imaging. Subjects were asked to complete a survey that collected information on athletic and training history and to complete the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). Demographics, athletic/training history, and HOOS sub-scores were compared between the SJ and NC groups using Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS:Twenty-four athletes (13 SJ, 11 NC) were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, BMI, or age of menarche between the two groups (all p>0.05). There were also no statistically significant differences in the number of prior sports participated in, total hours of participation in prior sports, or total hours of training in Nordic specialization (all p>0.05). Among the 18 athletes who underwent physical examination (9 SJ, 9 NC), there were no statistically significant inter-group differences in hip range of motion or incidence of positive impingement tests (all p>0.05). Among the 19 athletes who underwent imaging (9 SJ, 10 NC), there were no statistically significant inter-group differences in the incidence of cam or pincer morphology in at least one hip (all p>0.05). SJ athletes had statistically significantly worse HOOS sub-scores for hip symptoms and stiffness, hip function in sports/recreational activities, and hip-related quality of life compared to NC athletes (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Elite SJ athletes have worse self-reported hip function compared to elite NC athletes despite comparable demographics, athletic history, and duration of ski training. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:IV.
PMID: 38278215
ISSN: 2059-7762
CID: 5625472

Female patients have greater improvement in pain symptoms and physical activity after fasciotomy for treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg

Shankar, Dhruv S.; Vasavada, Kinjal D.; Gillinov, Lauren A.; Kirschner, Noah; Mojica, Edward S.; Blaeser, Anna M.; Borowski, Lauren E.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Cardone, Dennis A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify sex differences in postoperative outcomes and return-to-sport rates after fasciotomy for treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the lower leg. It was hypothesised that male CECS patients would have a higher rate of return to sport than female CECS patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving patients who underwent primary fasciotomy of one to four leg compartments for treatment of CECS at a single centre from 2010 to 2020. Each affected leg was treated as a separate subject. Postoperative outcomes included CECS pain frequency and severity, return to sport and Tegner activity level. Multivariable regression was used to determine if sex was an independent predictor of outcomes after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Eighty-one legs (44 M, 37 F) of 47 unique patients (34 of whom had bilateral symptoms) were included with a mean follow-up time of 51.5 ± 31.4 months. Male subjects were older (p < 0.001) and had higher body mass index (p < 0.001) compared to female subjects. Most subjects (84.0%) underwent two- or four-compartment fasciotomies. Female sex was found to be predictive of lower overall postoperative pain severity (p = 0.007), higher odds of return to sport (p = 0.04) and higher postoperative Tegner score (p = 0.005). However, female sex was not predictive of postoperative pain frequency, odds of reoperation or odds of return to sport to at least the presymptomatic level (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Female sex is independently predictive of reduced overall pain severity, higher odds of return to sport and higher postoperative improvement in Tegner score following fasciotomy for treatment of lower-limb CECS. Level of Evidence: III.
ISSN: 0942-2056
CID: 5661602

Psychiatric Disorders Are Predictive of Worse Pain Severity and Functional Outcomes After Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Leg

Bi, Andrew S; Shankar, Dhruv S; Avendano, John P; Borowski, Lauren E; Jazrawi, Laith M; Cardone, Dennis A
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether concomitant psychiatric diagnoses and medication use were associated with postfasciotomy outcomes in patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective comparative cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Single academic medical center from 2010 to 2020. PATIENTS/METHODS:All patients above 18 years old who underwent fasciotomy for CECS. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS/INDEPENDENT VARIABLES/UNASSIGNED:Psychiatric history was recorded from electronic health records including disease diagnosis and medications. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:The 3 main outcome measures were postoperative pain using the Visual Analog Scale, functional outcomes using the Tegner Activity Scale, and return to sport. RESULTS:Eighty one subjects (legs), 54% male, with an average age of 30 years and follow-up of 52 months were included. 24 subjects (30%) had at least one psychiatric diagnosis at the time of surgery. Regression analysis found psychiatric history to be an independent predictor of worse postoperative pain severity and postoperative Tegner scores (P < 0.05). Furthermore, subjects with psychiatric disorders not on medication had worse pain severity (P < 0.001) and Tegner scores (P < 0.01) versus controls, whereas subjects with a psychiatric disorder on medication had better pain severity (P < 0.05) versus controls. CONCLUSIONS:History of psychiatric disorder was predictive of worse postoperative pain and activity outcomes after fasciotomy for CECS. Use of psychiatric medication was associated with improvement in pain severity in some domains.
PMID: 36808120
ISSN: 1536-3724
CID: 5433852

Paresthesia Is Predictive of Symptom Recurrence After Fasciotomy for Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Leg

Shankar, Dhruv S.; Blaeser, Anna M.; Gillinov, Lauren A.; Vasavada, Kinjal D.; Fariyike, Babatunde B.; Mojica, Edward S.; Borowski, Lauren E.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Cardone, Dennis A.
Background: Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of lower extremity pain among athletes. The condition can be managed operatively by fasciotomy to relieve excess compartment pressure. However, symptom recurrence rates after fasciotomy are considerable, ranging from 3% to 17%. Hypothesis: Leg paresthesia and its distribution during ECS episodes would be a significant predictor of outcomes after fasciotomy. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent fasciotomy for ECS at our center from 2010 to 2020 (institutional review board no. 21-00107). We measured postoperative outcomes including pain frequency and severity, Tegner activity level, and return to sport. Significant predictors of outcomes were identified using multivariable linear and logistic regression. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: A total of 78 legs (from 42 male and 36 female participants) were included in the study with average follow-up of 52 months (range, 3-126 months); 33 participants (42.3%) presented with paresthesia. Paresthesia was an independent predictor of worse outcomes, including more severe pain at rest (P = 0.05) and with daily activity (P = 0.04), reduced postoperative improvement in Tegner scores (P = 0.04), and lower odds of return to sport (P = 0.05). Those with paresthesia symptoms in the tibial nerve distribution had worse outcomes than those without paresthesia in terms of preoperative-to-present improvement in pain frequency (P < 0.01), pain severity at rest (P < 0.01) and with daily activity (P = 0.04), and return to sport (P = 0.04). Conclusion: ECS patients who present with paresthesia have worse pain and activity outcomes after first-time fasciotomy, but prognosis is worst among those with tibial nerve paresthesia. Clinical Relevance: Paresthesia among ECS patients is broadly predictive of more severe recurrent leg pain, reduced activity level, and decreased odds of return to sport after fasciotomy.
ISSN: 1941-7381
CID: 5460112

Characterizing femoroacetabular impingement in professional Nordic Skiers

Vasavada, Kinjal; Ross, Keir Alexander; Lott, Ariana; Shankar, Dhruv; Marulanda, David; Mojica, Edward S; Carter, Cordelia W; Borowski, Lauren; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Studies have shown a high prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) among elite athletes yet there is a paucity of data on FAI in Nordic skiers. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiographic FAI in professional Nordic Combined Skiers and Ski jumpers compared to controls and assess functional outcomes including hip range of motion (ROM) and pain in patients with radiographic evidence of FAI compared to those without it. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A cohort of elite Nordic Skiers underwent medical history, physical examination, and pelvic radiographs at their visit with a fellowship-trained sports medicine physician. On pelvis radiographs, Alpha angle>55 degrees was deemed cam-positive, and positive crossover signs, Tönnis<0, or LCEA>40 were deemed pincer positive. Further stratification was performed by sex, ski event type, hip pain, presence of cam lesions, and presence of pincer lesions. Spearman correlation matrix was performed to measure the association between radiographic measurements and ROM. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Nineteen Nordic skiers and nineteen age, sex, and BMI matched controls were included in the study. There were no significant differences in age, sex, BMI, and hip pain between groups. While Nordic skiers demonstrated decreased ROM bilaterally on external rotation compared to controls, skiers had larger ROM bilaterally on extension, abduction, adduction compared to controls. Skiers were significantly more likely to have bilateral crossover sign and alpha angles>55 compared to controls. Subgroup analysis showed that Cam positive patients had higher flexion and adduction ROM and pincer positive patients had significantly higher flexion and abduction ROM compared to patients without cam and pincer lesions respectively. Patients with hip pain had significantly lower right hip abduction ROM compared to patients without hip pain. No significant correlations were seen between radiographic measurements and ROM. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Similar to other elite 'hip heavy' sport athletes, Nordic skiers gave a notably higher prevalence of radiographic cam and pincer type morphology and significantly higher ROM compared to nonathletic controls. Clinicians evaluating Nordic skiers should be aware of these baseline findings with respect to a possible elevated long-term risk of symptomatic FAI in these athletes as well as other conditions related to radiographic FAI.
PMID: 35324395
ISSN: 2326-3660
CID: 5200602

Musculoskeletal Considerations for Exercise and Sport: Before, During, and After Pregnancy

Borowski, Lauren E; Barchi, Elizabeth I; Han, Julie S; Friedman, David A; Carter, Cordelia W
There is little written in the orthopaedic literature regarding common musculoskeletal problems that women encounter in relation to pregnancy and their clinical and surgical management. Exercise and other physical activity are generally recommended for most women before, during, and after pregnancy. Unfortunately, a variety of musculoskeletal issues may keep women from starting, continuing, or resuming a healthy exercise regimen throughout a notable portion of their reproductive years. Untreated and undertreated orthopaedic conditions in female athletes may therefore have further unintended negative effects on maternal and fetal health. This article reviews the existing literature on musculoskeletal health considerations before, during, and after pregnancy to provide practical information to orthopaedic surgeons who treat women of all ages and athletic abilities.
PMID: 34043597
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 4888242

Nonoperative Treatment of Meniscus Tears

Chapter by: Cardone, Dennis; Borowski, Lauren; Essilfie, Anthony A
in: The management of meniscal pathology : from meniscectomy to repair and transplantation by Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M [Eds]
Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2020]
pp. 53-60
ISBN: 9783030494872
CID: 5301122