Increasing Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Female Juveniles: The Need for Collaboration to Improve Treatment
BACKGROUND:Â Youth in juvenile detention centers are at a highÂ risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD). The current study assesses the trends of chlamydia and gonorrhea (GC) infections and treatment among females within a single county's juvenile correctional facilities. METHODS:This is a retrospective review of aggregate data of female adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who underwent STD screening from 2009 to 2016 in San Bernardino County. RESULTS:Chlamydia infections among adolescent females increased from 11.8% in 2009 to 17.0% in 2016 (p = 0.0002), and GC infections increased from 1.3% in 2009 to 6.0% in 2016 (p < 0.0001). Treatment rates of chlamydia were stable, ranging from 66.7% to 70.8% of positive female adolescents were treated between 2009 and 2016 (p=0.1752). The treatment rate for GC increased from 33% in 2009 to 78.3% in 2016, but annual trends were not statistically significant (p=0.8419). CONCLUSIONS:Chlamydia and GC infections among female adolescents discovered during routine screeningÂ upon booking into a county juvenile detention system increased over the study time period. Effective collaboration between public health and various community organizations is needed to improve awareness and prevention of STDs amongst at-risk adolescents.
Streptococcus Dysgalactiae Subspecies Equisimilis Endogenous Endophthalmitis Associated with Aortic Valve Abscess
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe a case of endogenous endophthalmitis from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in the setting of an aortic valve abscess Methods: Retrospective case report. RESULTS:A 72-year-old white male presented with fevers, encephalopathy, and decreased vision in his left eye. His visual acuity was 20/20 in his right eye and finger counting in the left eye. Workup revealed an aortic valve abscess. Examination of his left eye revealed dense anterior chamber fibrin and no view of the retina. B-scan ultrasonography revealed loculated hyperechoic areas consistent with vitreous inflammation. A vitreous tap and injections with vancomycin and ceftazidime were performed. Visual acuity worsened to no-light perception 5Â days later. Vitreous and blood cultures grew Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. He received another intravitreal injection of vancomycin with no improvement. CONCLUSIONS:Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is an emerging pathogen and may cause severe intraocular infections with a poor visual outcome.
[Express] Molecular, cellular and behavioral changes associated with pathological pain signaling occur after dental pulp injury
Retinal vessel abnormalities as a possible biomarker of brain volume loss in obese adolescents
Objective: Endothelial dysfunction in childhood obesity may precede cerebrovascular damage and cognitive impairment in adulthood. A noninvasive proxy of microvascular health is required to identify the risk for microvascular damage in obese children. DESIGN AND METHODS: The associations of hippocampal volumes and global cerebral atrophy were assessed with retinal vessel caliber in 40 normal BMI controls and 62 obese age-matched nondiabetic adolescents and the contribution of inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance to retinal vessel caliber was evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to controls, obese adolescents had smaller retinal arterioles (8.3% decrease, P < 0.05) and wider venules (5.4% increase, P < 0.01). Larger retinal arteriole diameters were associated with less global cerebral atrophy (B = -0.24 [95% confidence interval, CI: -0.48, -0.002]) and larger hippocampal volumes (B = 0.01 [95% CI: 0, 0.02]). Venule diameters (B = 84.2 [95% CI: 30.3, 138.1]) were predicted by inflammation (fibrinogen). Arteriolar diameters were predicted by insulin resistance, indicated by logHOMA (homeostatic model assessment, HOMA) values (B = -17.03 [95% CI: -28.25, -5.81)] and body mass index (BMI) (B = -.67 [95% CI: -1.09, -0.24)]. All analyses were adjusted for mean arterial pressure, sleep apnea, and vessel diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of brain health, BMI, and insulin resistance are associated with retinal vessel caliber. If confirmed in larger studies, retinal arteriolar caliber may serve as a possible noninvasive proxy for brain atrophy in obese adolescents, and the identification of elevated risk for cerebral microvascular disease in adulthood.
Retinal vessel abnormalities are associated with elevated fasting insulin levels and cerebral atrophy in nondiabetic individuals
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of insulin resistance short of diabetes on the arteriolar-to-venular ratio (AVR) and whether AVR is related to cerebral atrophy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-six nondiabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance and varying degrees of insulin resistance ranging in age from 43 to 77 years. METHODS: Insulin resistance was assessed by fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment. Arteriolar-to-venular ratio was determined using digital retinal photography with a nonmydriatic camera, and retinal data were analyzed using a reliable semiautomated method. Cerebral atrophy was derived by means of manual tracing and thresholding procedures on structural magnetic resonance images. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Arteriolar-to-venular ratio and cerebral atrophy. RESULTS: Hyperinsulinemia negatively impacted AVR. Furthermore, AVR was associated with cerebral atrophy. Both of these findings were independent of the effects of age and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings indicate that insulin resistance short of diabetes and independent of age and hypertension has a negative impact on retinal vessel health. Moreover, impaired retinal vessel health related to brain atrophy also was independent of hypertension and white matter hyperintensities. Given the connections between retinal and cerebral vasculature, this may offer a partial explanation for the presence of cognitive and brain abnormalities among individuals with insulin resistance. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article
Fractal dimensions of retinal vascular patterns seen on intravenous fluorescein anigiograrn photographs of normal eyes and eyes with background diabetic retinopathy [Meeting Abstract]
Epilepsy severity is not a determinant of pregabalin's efficacy as treatment of partial seizures [Meeting Abstract]
Pregabalin reduces the frequency of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic (SGTC) partial seizures [Meeting Abstract]
Combined modified grid and panretinal photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy [In Process Citation]
PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of combined macular modified grid and peripheral panretinal photocoagulation in diabetic eyes with both macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated 52 eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Treatment was performed in two sessions consisting of initial modified grid to the macula and panretinal photocoagulation to the inferior half of the peripheral retina, followed 2 to 4 weeks later by panretinal photocoagulation to the superior half. RESULTS: At one year, visual acuity was improved in 8%, stable in 79%, and worse in 13%. At two years, visual acuity was improved in 4%, stable in 72%, and worse in 24%. Macular edema resolved in 43 of 46 eyes (93%), and proliferative retinopathy was reduced in 25 of 29 eyes (86%) at last examination. CONCLUSION: Combined macular modified grid and peripheral panretinal photocoagulation is an effective treatment approach in diabetic eyes with both macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. Laser photocoagulation in those diabetic eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy can be completed in less number of treatment sessions with this method, compared to conventional treatment techniques
Subretinal fibrosis and diabetic macular edema [Meeting Abstract]