Whole slide imaging and colorectal carcinoma: A validation study for tumor budding and stromal differentiation
Whole slide imaging (WSI) has recently received FDA approval for sign out in surgical pathology and some anticipate this to mature into the gold standard. During this transition, it will be important to validate WSI for its intended use. And many studies have validated whole slide imaging by comparing diagnostic accuracy with that of conventual light microscopy (CLM); however, the assessment of histopathologic markers is prone to much more discrepancy. One of the best examples being tumor-bud scoring in colorectal carcinoma. Other signatures, including stromal differentiation or desmoplastic reaction; could better represent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The findings in our study suggest stromal differentiation on both digital and glass slides to be much more reproducible (0.3585-0.9368) when compared to tumor budding (0.0968-0.7871). When comparing interobserver variation between glass and digital slides for three observers; stromal differentiation was more reliable on glass slides (0.4492), when compared to its digital counterpart (0.3016). On the other hand, interobserver variation for tumor bud scoring was more reliable on digital (0.1661), than glass slides (0.1026). Overall, there is significant variation between different observers and reproducibility issues present on conventual light microscopy transfer to digital slides. Although it is possible that too much emphasis is being placed on the concordance of WSI with CLM. In future, applications in artificial intelligence may be key to diagnostic precision and improved patient outcomes.
Immature Stroma and Prognostic Profiling in Colorectal Carcinoma: Development and Validation of Novel Classification Systems
Many pathological characteristics have utility for predicting prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Some of the most important include tumor stage (TS), lymph node status (LNS) and tumor budding (TB). Tumor budding is a phenomenon originally described in 1949 as sprouting. TB assessment is not always reliable however, as it is subject to high inter-observer variation. This finding persists despite the current trends for sub-specialty training in surgical pathology. In light of this, new and reproducible histological prognostic markers could change the way we diagnose and manage patients with colorectal carcinoma. Studies have shown that desmoplastic reaction (DR) categorization can actually outperform other conventional prognostic factors, including tumor budding and tumor stage in predicting disease-free survival (DFS). Our study aimed to evaluate and assess the prognostic value of desmoplastic reaction in an American cohort with colorectal cancer using 3 different stromal classification scoring systems. In all three stromal grading systems, immature stroma was the most signiï¬cant independent prognostic factor in CRC. Currently, none of the reporting protocols for the College of American Pathologists, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, and the Japanese Society for Cancer report on the presence of immature stroma. Importantly, regarding the ability to predict survival outcomes, our novel classification system has the potential to outperform other scoring methodologies.
Potential Pitfalls in Diagnostic Digital Image Analysis: Experience with Ki-67 and PHH3 in Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors
Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, or GI-NETs are a highly diverse group of tumors derived from neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract. In GI-NET, a spectrum of histological and molecular parameters exists to predict prognosis and survival. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, a nuclear antigen that is present in all but the G0 phase of the cell cycle with specificity for proliferating cells, can be used to determine a tumors proliferation index. With this in mind, grading of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is critical for prognosis and can impact clinical decision making. Recently, digital image analysis (DIA) has been shown in studies to be a superior and less time-consuming alternative to the manual scoring of Ki-67 in breast cancer, secondary to its theoretical diagnostic reproducibility. In DIA, the correct identification of tumor cells and non-tumor is paramount to avoid over or under calculation of biomarker expression. Additionally, DIA requires a pathologist to manually outline a tumor in large tissue areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections, which is impractical. The findings in our study showed that ventana virtuoso software computer analyzed Ki-67 only correlated well with Neuroendocrine carcinomas while manual analysis of mitotic index and Ki67 were found to be gold standard. The performance of DIA in our study was plagued by software issues. In future, the advent of new digital imaging technologies such as virtual dual staining will hopefully improve diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility across different DIA platforms. Ultimately, determination of therapeutic strategies should be guided by an amalgamation of clinicopathologic characteristics not limited to mitotic index and Ki-67. As well, A visual check of the results should always be performed and correlated with other findings.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Risk Stratification Utilizing Phospho-Histone H3 Evaluated by Manual Counting and Computer-Assisted Image Analysis
The Significance of Sessile Serrated Polyps in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
BACKGROUND:The significance of serrated lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. We aim to characterize synchronous and metachronous lesions in IBD patients with an index serrated polyp and compare them to sporadic subjects with SSP. METHODS:Serrated lesions in patients with IBD were identified from a pathology database and, after review, were reclassified as hyperplastic (HP), sessile serrated (SSPs), or serrated polyps unclassifiable (SPU). RESULTS:One hundred thirty-four IBD patients were found to have 147 serrated polyps at index colonoscopy. SSPs were more likely to be located in the right colon: SSP (76.0%), SPU (41.7%) and HP (27.8%); P = 0.002. Synchronous multifocal visible dysplasia occurred more frequently in the SSP or SPU groups (44.5% and 66%) compared to the HP group (12%); P = 0.031. Among 13 IBD patients with index SSP followed over a median of 6 years, 61.5% developed metachronous visible dysplasia or additional SSPs. Larger index SSP size was associated with higher risk of developing subsequent visible dysplasia with a 10% increase for every 1 mm increase in size (HR = 1.1; P = 0.028), but was not associated with developing subsequent SSP (P = 0.50). The risk of subsequent SSP or visible dysplasia was no different between the IBD and non-IBD groups, but there was a trend suggesting SSP may be a marker of increased early risk of metachronous visible dysplasia in IBD patients. CONCLUSIONS:IBD patients with an index SSP and SPU have a heightened risk of synchronous multifocal visible dysplasia. Additionally, IBD patients with SSP may be at risk of early metachronous visible dysplasia.
Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Taiwan in 2010-2011: the common genotype changed from H1 to D9 and the first appearance of D4
Measles has been controlled effectively in some countries because of high coverage rates with an effective vaccine. However, measles outbreaks still occasionally occur in areas with high vaccine coverage as a result of imported transmission. To identify the sources of measles infection and to determine whether measles cases are part of a single outbreak or due to multiple importations, measles virus (MV) genotyping is required and plays an important role in MV elimination. In Taiwan, genotype H1 of MV was detected most frequently before 2009. From 2006 to 2011, 47 of 48 genotype H1 cases were associated with the imported cases, indicating that genotype H1 was not an endemic genotype in Taiwan after 2006. The distribution of the other genotypes (D3, D4, D5, D8, D9, and G3) detected during 2006-2011 varied by year. Taiwan has a pattern of measles genotypes that is consistent with the elimination of MV and with the absence of endemic genotypes. In this study, the genotypes of 40 cases of MV detected during 2010-2011 were investigated and analyzed. In 2010, the most common genotype changed from H1 (3/40) to D9 (35/40). In 2011, genotype H1 was not detected, and genotype D4 first appeared and was imported from Europe. The dynamic change of detected genotypes of MV in Taiwan is influenced by the activity of a measles control program in WHO regions. This study emphasizes that global synchronous elimination is important for an individual country or area to maintain free from MV.
Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008
Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.
Serologic and molecular biologic methods for SARS-associated coronavirus infection, Taiwan
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has raised a global alert since March 2003. After its causative agent, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was confirmed, laboratory methods, including virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serologic methods, have been quickly developed. In this study, we evaluated four serologic tests ( neutralization test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], immunofluorescent assay [IFA], and immunochromatographic test [ICT]) for detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV in sera of 537 probable SARS case-patients with correlation to the RT-PCR. With the neutralization test as a reference method, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 98.2%, 98.7%, 98.7%, and 98.4% for ELISA; 99.1%, 87.8%, 88.1% and 99.1% for IFA; 33.6%, 98.2%, 95.7%, and 56.1% for ICT, respectively. We also compared the recombinant-based western blot with the whole virus-based IFA and ELISA; the data showed a high correlation between these methods, with an overall agreement of >90%. Our results provide a systematic analysis of serologic and molecular methods for evaluating SARS-CoV infection.