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Is Postoperative Splinting Advantageous After Upper Extremity Fracture Surgery? Results From the Arm Splint Pain Improvement Research Experiment

Sgaglione, Matthew W; Solasz, Sara J; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The authors report no conflict of interest.To determine if short-term immobilization with a rigid long arm plaster elbow splint after surgery of the arm, elbow, or forearm results in superior outcomes compared with a soft dressing with early motion. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective Randomized Control Trial. SETTING/METHODS:Academic Medical Center. PATIENT SELECTION CRITERIA/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing operative treatment for a mid-diaphysis or distal humerus, elbow, or forearm fracture were consented and randomized according to the study protocol for postoperative application of a rigid elbow splint (10-14 days in a plaster Sugar Tong Splint for forearm fracture or a Long Arm plaster Splint for 10-14 for all others) or soft dressing and allowing immediate free range of elbow and wrist motion (range of motion [ROM]). OUTCOME MEASURES AND COMPARISONS/UNASSIGNED:Self-reported pain (visual analog score or VAS), Healthscale (0-100, 100 denoting excellent health), and physical function (EuroQol 5 Dimension or EQ-5D) surveyed on postoperative days 1-5 and 14 were compared between groups. Patient-reported pain score (0-10, 10 denoting highest satisfaction) at week 6, time to fracture union, ultimate disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score, and elbow ROM were also collected for analysis. Incidence of complications were assessed. RESULTS:Hundred patients (38 men to 62 women with a mean age of 55.7 years) were included. Over the first 5 days and again at postop day 14, the splint cohort reported a higher "Healthscale" from 0 to 100 than the nonsplint group on all study days ( P = 0.041). There was no difference in reported pain between the 2 study groups over the same interval ( P = 0.161 and 0.338 for least and worst pain, respectively), and both groups reported similar rates of treatment satisfaction ( P = 0.30). Physical function ( P = 0.67) and rates of wound problems ( P = 0.27) were similar. Additionally, the mean time to fracture healing was similar for the splint and control groups (4.6 ± 2.8 vs. 4.0 ± 2.2 months, P = 0.34). Ultimate elbow ROM was similar between the study groups ( P = 0.48, P = 0.49, P = 0.61, and P = 0.51 for elbow extension, flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Free range of elbow motion without splinting produced similar results compared with elbow immobilization after surgical intervention for a fracture to the humerus, elbow, and forearm. There was no difference in patient-reported pain outcomes, wound problems, or elbow ROM. Immobilized patients reported slightly higher "healthscale" ratings than nonsplinted patients and, however, reported similar rates of satisfaction. Both treatment strategies are acceptable after upper extremity fracture surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 38117579
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5633762

Early Weight-bearing Following Surgical Treatment of Ankle Fractures Without Trans-syndesmotic Fixation Is Safe and Improves Short-term Outcomes

Herbosa, Christopher G; Saleh, Hesham; Kadiyala, Manasa L; Solasz, Sara; McLaurin, Toni M; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to ascertain outcome differences after fixation of unstable rotational ankle fractures allowed to weight-bear 2 weeks postoperatively compared with 6 weeks. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective case-control study. SETTING/METHODS:Academic medical center; Level 1 trauma center. PATIENT SELECTION CRITERIA/UNASSIGNED:Patients with unstable ankle fractures (OTA/AO:44A-C) undergoing open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) were enrolled. Patients requiring trans-syndesmotic fixation were excluded. Two surgeons allowed weight-bearing at 2 weeks postoperatively (early weight-bearing [EWB] cohort). Two other surgeons instructed standard non-weight-bearing until 6 weeks postoperatively (non-weight-bearing cohort). OUTCOME MEASURES AND COMPARISONS/UNASSIGNED:The main outcome measures included the Olerud-Molander questionnaire, the SF-36 questionnaire, and visual analog scale at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively and complications, return to work, range of ankle motion, and reoperations at 12 months were compared between the 2 cohorts. RESULTS:One hundred seven patients were included. The 2 cohorts did not differ in demographics or preinjury scores ( P > 0.05). Six weeks postoperatively, EWB patients had improved functional outcomes as measured by the Olerud-Molander and SF-36 questionnaires. Early weight-bearing patients also had better visual analog scale scores (standardized mean difference -0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.27 to -0.70, P < 0.05) and a greater proportion returning to full capacity work at 6 weeks (odds ratio = 3.42, 95% CI, 1.08-13.07, P < 0.05). One year postoperatively, EWB patients had improved pain measured by SF-36 (standardized mean difference 6.25, 95% CI, 5.59-6.92, P < 0.01) and visual analog scale scores (standardized mean difference -0.05, 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.23, P < 0.01). There were no differences in complications or reoperation at 12 months ( P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:EWB patients had improved early function, final pain scores, and earlier return to work, without an increased complication rate compared with those kept non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 38117568
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5633752

Iliac Crest and Distal Radius Autografts Exhibit Distinct Cell-Intrinsic Functional Differences

Mehta, Devan D; Dankert, John F; Buchalter, Daniel B; Kirby, David J; Patel, Karan S; Rocks, Madeline; Hacquebord, Jacques H; Leucht, Philipp
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Autologous bone grafts demonstrate osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic properties. Hand surgeons commonly augment surgical fixation with autografts to promote fracture healing. This study compared the intrinsic stem cell-like properties of 2 commonly used autograft sources in hand surgery: the iliac crest and distal radius. METHODS:A total of 9 subjects who received an iliac crest bone graft and distal radius bone graft harvest as a part of the standard care of distal radius malunion or nonunion correction or scaphoid nonunion open reduction and internal fixation were enrolled in the study. Cells were isolated by serial collagenase digestion and subjected to fibroblast colony-forming units, osteogenesis, and adipogenesis assays. The expression levels of genes involved in osteogenesis and adipogenesis were confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The cells isolated from the iliac crest bone graft compared with those isolated from the distal radius bone graft demonstrated significantly higher mean fibroblast colony-forming unit efficiency; increased osteogenesis, as measured using alizarin red quantification; increased adipogenesis, as measured using oil red O quantification; and higher expression levels of genes involved in osteogenesis and adipogenesis under the respective differentiation conditions. CONCLUSIONS:The cells isolated from the iliac crest bone graft demonstrated a higher fibroblast colony-forming unit capacity and an increased capability to undergo both osteogenesis and adipogenesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Limited evidence exists comparing the intrinsic stem cell-like properties of the iliac crest and distal radius despite the widespread use of each source in hand and wrist surgery. The information from this investigation may assist hand and wrist surgeons with the selection of a source of autograft.
PMID: 35933254
ISSN: 1531-6564
CID: 5288512

Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Technology Overview Summary: Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate for Knee Osteoarthritis

Dubin, Jonathan; Leucht, Philipp; Murray, Martha; Pezold, Ryan; ,
The Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Knee Osteoarthritis Technology Overview is based on a systematic review of current scientific and clinical research. Through analysis of the current best evidence, this technology overview seeks to evaluate the efficacy of PRP for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The systematic literature review resulted in 54 articles: 36 high-quality and 18 moderate-quality. The findings of these studies were summarized to present findings on PRP versus control/placebo, acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, exercise, prolotherapy, autologous conditioned serum, bone marrow aspirate concentrate, hyaluronic acid, and ozone therapy. In addition, the work group highlighted areas that needed additional research when evidence proved lacking on the topic and carefully noted the potential harms associated with an intervention, required resource utilization, acceptability, and feasibility.
PMID: 38295392
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 5627112

Surgical repair of large segmental bone loss with the induced membrane technique: patient reported outcomes are comparable to nonunions without bone loss

Konda, Sanjit R; Boadi, Blake I; Leucht, Philipp; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVE:To compare the outcomes of patients with segmental bone loss who underwent repair with the induced membrane technique (IMT) with a matched cohort of nonunion fractures without bone loss. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis on prospectively collected data. SETTING/METHODS:Academic medical center. PATIENTS/METHODS:Two cohorts of patients, those with upper and lower extremity diaphyseal large segmental bone loss and those with ununited fractures, were enrolled prospectively between 2013 and 2020. Sixteen patients who underwent repair of 17 extremities with segmental diaphyseal or meta-diaphyseal bone defects treated with the induced membrane technique were identified, and matched with 17 patients who were treated for 17 fracture nonunions treated without an induced membrane. Sixteen of the bone defects treated with the induced membrane technique were due to acute bone loss, and the other was a chronic aseptic nonunion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Healing rate, time to union, functional outcome scores using the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) and pain assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). RESULTS:The initial average defect size for patients treated with the induced membrane technique was 8.85 cm. Mean follow-up times were similar with 17.06 ± 10.13 months for patients treated with the IMT, and 20.35 ± 16.68. months for patients treated without the technique. Complete union was achieved in 15/17 (88.2%) of segmental bone loss cases treated with the IMT and 17/17 (100%) of cases repaired without the technique at the latest follow up visit. The average time to union for patients treated with the induced membrane technique was 13.0 ± 8.4 months and 9.64 ± 4.7 months for the matched cohort. There were no significant differences in reported outcomes measured by the SMFA or VAS. Patients treated with the induced membrane technique required more revision surgeries than those not treated with an induced membrane. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Outcomes following treatment of acute bone loss from the diaphysis of long bones with the induced membrane technique produces clinical and radiographic outcomes similar to those of long bone fracture nonunions without bone loss that go on to heal. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 37439888
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5537692

Nav1.7 as a chondrocyte regulator and therapeutic target for osteoarthritis

Fu, Wenyu; Vasylyev, Dmytro; Bi, Yufei; Zhang, Mingshuang; Sun, Guodong; Khleborodova, Asya; Huang, Guiwu; Zhao, Libo; Zhou, Renpeng; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Shujun; Cai, Xianyi; He, Wenjun; Cui, Min; Zhao, Xiangli; Hettinghouse, Aubryanna; Good, Julia; Kim, Ellen; Strauss, Eric; Leucht, Philipp; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Guo, Edward X; Samuels, Jonathan; Hu, Wenhuo; Attur, Mukundan; Waxman, Stephen G; Liu, Chuan-Ju
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease. Currently there are no effective methods that simultaneously prevent joint degeneration and reduce pain1. Although limited evidence suggests the existence of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in chondrocytes2, their expression and function in chondrocytes and in OA remain essentially unknown. Here we identify Nav1.7 as an OA-associated VGSC and demonstrate that human OA chondrocytes express functional Nav1.7 channels, with a density of 0.1 to 0.15 channels per µm2 and 350 to 525 channels per cell. Serial genetic ablation of Nav1.7 in multiple mouse models demonstrates that Nav1.7 expressed in dorsal root ganglia neurons is involved in pain, whereas Nav1.7 in chondrocytes regulates OA progression. Pharmacological blockade of Nav1.7 with selective or clinically used pan-Nav channel blockers significantly ameliorates the progression of structural joint damage, and reduces OA pain behaviour. Mechanistically, Nav1.7 blockers regulate intracellular Ca2+ signalling and the chondrocyte secretome, which in turn affects chondrocyte biology and OA progression. Identification of Nav1.7 as a novel chondrocyte-expressed, OA-associated channel uncovers a dual target for the development of disease-modifying and non-opioid pain relief treatment for OA.
PMID: 38172636
ISSN: 1476-4687
CID: 5626502

Does Flipping from Prone to Supine for Medial Malleolar Fixation of Trimalleolar Ankle Fractures Improve Results?

Kadiyala, Manasa L; Merrell, Lauren A; Ganta, Abhishek; Konda, Sanjit R; Rivero, Steven M; Leucht, Philipp; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Egol, Kenneth A
There has been a paradigm shift towards fixing the posterior malleolus in trimalleolar ankle fractures. This study evaluated whether a surgeon's preference to intraoperatively flip or not flip patients from prone to supine for medial malleolar fixation following repair of fibular and posterior malleoli impacted surgical outcomes. A retrospective patient cohort treated at a large urban academic center and level 1 trauma center was reviewed to identify all operative trimalleolar ankle fractures initially positioned prone. One hundred and forty-seven patients with mean 12-month follow up were included and divided based on positioning for medial malleolar fixation, prone or supine (following closure, flip and re-prep and drape). Data was collected on patient demographics, injury mechanism, perioperative variables, and complication rates. Postoperative reduction films were reviewed by orthopedic traumatologists to grade the accuracy of anatomic fracture reduction. Overall, 74 (50.3%) had the medial malleolus fixed prone, while 73 (49.7%) were flipped and fixed supine. No differences in demographics, injury details, and fracture type existed between the groups. The supine group had a higher rate of initial external fixation (p=0.047), longer operative time in minutes (p<0.001), and a higher use of plate and screw constructs for medial malleolar fixation (p=0.019). There were no differences in clinical and radiographic outcomes and complication rates. This study demonstrated that intraoperative change in positioning for improved medial malleolar visualization in trimalleolar ankle fractures results in longer operative times but similar radiographic and clinical results. The decision of operative position should be based on surgeon comfort.
PMID: 38103721
ISSN: 1542-2224
CID: 5612532

Home discharge location is safest following fracture of the hip

Deemer, Alexa R; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Konda, Sanjit; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine the factors associated with discharge location in patients with hip fractures and whether home discharge was associated with a lower readmission and complication rate. METHODS:Hip fracture patients who presented to our academic medical center for operative management of a hip fracture were enrolled into an IRB-approved hip fracture database. Radiographs, demographics, and injury details were recorded at the time of presentation. Patients were grouped based upon discharge disposition: home (with or without home services), acute rehabilitation facility (ARF), or sub-acute rehabilitation facility (SAR). RESULTS:The cohorts differed in marital status, with a greater proportion of patients discharged to home being married (51.7% vs. 43.8% vs. 34.1%) (P < 0.05). Patients discharged to home were less likely to require an assistive device (P < 0.05). Patients discharged to home experienced fewer post-operative complications (P < 0.05) and had lower readmission rates (P < 0.05). Being married was associated with an increased likelihood of discharge to home (OR = 1.679, CI = 1.391-2.028, P < 0.001). Being enrolled in Medicare/Medicaid was associated with decreased odds of discharge to home (OR = 0.563, CI = 0.457-0.693, P < 0.001). Use of an assistive device was associated with decreased odds of discharge to home (OR = 0.398, CI = 0.326-0.468, P < 0.001). Increases in CCI (OR = 0.903, CI = 0.846-0.964, P = 0.002) and number of inpatient complications (OR = 0.708, CI = 0.532-0.943, P = 0.018) were associated with decreased odds of home discharge. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hip fracture patients discharged to home were healthier and more functional at baseline, and also less likely to have had a complicated hospital course. Those discharged to home also had lower rates of readmission and post-operative complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 37219687
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5508332

One year later: How outcomes of hip fractures treated during the "first wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic were affected

Konda, Sanjit R; Esper, Garrett W; Meltzer-Bruhn, Ariana T; Solasz, Sara J; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Egol, Kenneth A
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on long-term outcomes in the geriatric hip fracture population. We hypothesize that COVID + geriatric hip fracture patients had worse outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Between February and June 2020, 224 patients > 55 years old treated for a hip fracture were analyzed for demographics, COVID status on admission, hospital quality measures, 30- and 90-day readmission rates, 1-year functional outcomes (as measured by the EuroQol- 5 Dimension [EQ5D-3L] questionnaire), and inpatient, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates with time to death. Comparative analyses were conducted between COVID + and COVID- patients. Twenty-four patients (11%) were COVID + on admission. No demographic differences were seen between cohorts. COVID + patients experienced a longer length of stay (8.58 ± 6.51 vs. 5.33 ± 3.09, p < 0.01) and higher rates of inpatient (20.83% vs. 1.00%, p < 0.01), 30-day (25.00% vs. 5.00%, p < 0.01), and 1-year mortality (58.33% vs. 18.50%, p < 0.01). There were no differences seen in 30- or 90-day readmission rates, or 1-year functional outcomes. While not significant, COVID + patients had a shorter average time to death post-hospital discharge (56.14 ± 54.31 vs 100.68 ± 62.12, p = 0.171). Pre-vaccine, COVID + geriatric hip fracture patients experienced significantly higher rates of mortality within 1 year post-hospital discharge. However, COVID + patients who did not die experienced a similar return of function by 1-year as the COVID- cohort.
PMID: 37020155
ISSN: 2035-5114
CID: 5613302

Effect of concomitant deformity correction on patient outcomes following femoral (OTA type 32) nonunion repair

Adams, Jack C; Konda, Sanjit R; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to determine what effect, if any, concomitant deformity correction has on outcomes following femoral nonunion repair. METHODS:605 consecutive patients who presented to our center with a long bone nonunion treated by one of 3 surgeons was queried. Sixty-two patients (10 %) with complete follow up were treated for a fracture nonunion following a Type 32 femur fracture (subtrochanteric, femoral shaft or distal third metaphysis) over an 11-year period. Twenty of these patients underwent a deformity correction (DC)-angular, rotational, or a combination of both-as part of their femoral reconstruction. Patient demographics and initial injury information was reviewed and compared. Outcomes including radiographic healing, time to union, postoperative complications, patient reported pain scores, and functional outcome scores using the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) were recorded. Patients with and without deformity correction were analyzed and compared using independent T-tests and Chi-Square tests. RESULTS:Compared to the non-deformity correction (NDC) cohort, the DC cohort demonstrated a worse complication profile. Notably, the DC cohort had longer time to union (11.6 ± 7.3 months vs 7.6 ± 8.5 months, P = 0.042), reported significantly higher VAS pain scores at 1-year post-op (4.2 ± 2.8 vs 2.3 ± 2.6, P = 0.007), experienced more complications (25 % vs 4.8 %, P = 0.019), and had a higher rate of secondary procedures (30 % vs 4.8 %, P = 0.006). The DC patients reported less improvement in functional capability as displayed by a smaller average improvement in initial and final SMFA scores (P = 0.042) There was no difference in ultimate bone healing (P = 0.585), baseline SMFA (P = 0.294), and latest SMFA (P = 0.066). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Deformity correction, if needed as part of femoral nonunion repair, is associated with an increased time to heal, greater rate of complications and diminished improvement of functionality. Eventual healing and patient reported outcomes were similar whether a deformity correction is necessary or not. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 37992462
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 5608682