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The Lateral Femoral Cutaneous and Over the Hip (LOH) Block for the Surgical Management of Hip Fractures: A Safe and Effective Anesthetic Strategy

Deemer, Alexa R; Furgiuele, David L; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Konda, Sanjit; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine the efficacy of regional anesthesia with sedation only for a variety of hip fractures using the newly described lateral femoral cutaneous with over the hip Block (LOH Block). DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective. SETTING/METHODS:Level-I Trauma CenterPatients/Participants: 40 patients who presented between 11/2021 and 02/2022 for fixation of OTA/AO 31.A1-3 and 31.B1-3 fractures. Matched cohorts of 40 patients who received general anesthesia and 40 patients who received spinal anesthesia for hip fracture fixation were also used. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Operative fixation under LOH block and sedation only. The LOH block is a regional hip analgesic that targets the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, articular branches of femoral nerve (FN) and accessory obturator nerve (AON). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Demographics, intraoperative characteristics, anesthesia-related complications, hospital quality metrics, and short-term mortality and reoperation rates. RESULTS:A total of 120 patients (40 each: general, spinal, LOH block) were compared. The cohorts were similar in age, race, BMI, gender, CCI, trauma risk score, ambulatory status at baseline, fracture type, and surgical fixation technique performed. Physiologic parameters during surgery were more stable in the LOH block group (p<0.05). Total OR time and anesthesia time were shortest for the LOH block cohort (p<0.05). Patients in the LOH block cohort also had lower post-operative pain scores (p<0.05). Length of hospital stay was shortest for patients in the LOH block cohort (p<0.05), and at time of discharge, patients in the LOH block cohort ambulated the furthest (p<0.05). No differences were found in regards to anesthesia-related complications, palliative care consults, major and minor hospital complications, discharge disposition, reoperation and readmission rates, and mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS:The LOH block is safe and effective anesthesia for the treatment of all types of hip fractures in the elderly requiring surgery. In addition, this block may decrease post-operative pain and length of hospital stay, and also allow for greater ambulation in the early post-operative period for hip fracture patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 36253914
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5360312

Rosiglitazone induces adipogenesis of both marrow and periosteum derived mesenchymal stem cells during endochondral fracture healing

Mehta, Devan; Dankert, John; Yim, Nury; Leclerc, Kevin; Leucht, Philipp
BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) afflicts about six percent of the global population, and these patients suffer from a two-fold increased fracture risk. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), including rosiglitazone, are commonly used medications in T2DM because they have a low incidence of monotherapy failure. It is known that rosiglitazone is associated with secondary osteoporosis, further increasing the fracture risk in an already susceptible population. However, it is not yet understood how rosiglitazone impacts endochondral bone healing after fracture. The aim of this study is to elucidate how rosiglitazone treatment impacts endochondral fracture healing, and how rosiglitazone influences the differentiation of skeletal stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow and the periosteum. METHODS:An in-vivo mouse femur fracture model was employed to evaluate differences in fracture healing between mice treated with and without rosiglitazone chow. Fracture healing was assessed with histology and micro computed tomography (μCT). In-vitro assays utilized isolated mouse bone marrow stromal cells and periosteal cells to investigate how rosiglitazone impacts the osteogenic capability and adipogenicity of these cells. RESULTS:The in-vivo mouse femur fracture model showed that fracture callus in mice treated with rosiglitazone had significantly more adipose content than those of control mice that did not receive rosiglitazone. In addition, μCT analysis showed that rosiglitazone treated mice had significantly greater bone volume, but overall greater porosity when compared to control mice. In-vitro experimentation showed significantly less osteogenesis and more adipogenesis in bone marrow derived progenitor cells that were cultured in osteogenic media. In addition, rosiglitazone treatment alone caused significant increases in adipogenesis in both bone marrow and periosteum derived cells. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rosiglitazone impairs endochondral fracture healing in mice by increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis of both bone marrow and periosteum derived skeletal progenitor cells.
PMID: 34879982
ISSN: 1436-2023
CID: 5110322

The presence of 3D printing in orthopedics: A clinical and material review

Rodriguez Colon, Ricardo; Nayak, Vasudev Vivekanand; Parente, Paulo E L; Leucht, Philipp; Tovar, Nick; Lin, Charles C; Rezzadeh, Kevin; Hacquebord, Jacques H; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
The field of additive manufacturing, 3D printing (3DP), has experienced an exponential growth over the past four decades, in part due to increased accessibility. Developments including computer-aided design and manufacturing, incorporation of more versatile materials, and improved printing techniques/equipment have stimulated growth of 3DP technologies within various industries, but most specifically the medical field. Alternatives to metals including ceramics and polymers have been garnering popularity due to their resorbable properties and physiologic similarity to extracellular matrix. 3DP has the capacity to utilize an assortment of materials and printing techniques for a multitude of indications, each with their own associated benefits. Within the field of medicine, advances in medical imaging have facilitated the integration of 3DP. In particular, the field of orthopedics has been one of the earliest medical specialties to implement 3DP. Current indications include education for patients, providers, and trainees, in addition to surgical planning. Moreover, further possibilities within orthopedic surgery continue to be explored, including the development of patient-specific implants. This review aims to highlight the use of current 3DP technology and materials by the orthopedic community, and includes comments on current trends and future direction(s) within the field.
PMID: 35634867
ISSN: 1554-527x
CID: 5235812

Observational prospective unblinded case-control study to evaluate the effect of the Gamma3® distal targeting system for long nails on radiation exposure and time for distal screw placement

Konda, Sanjit R; Maseda, Meghan; Leucht, Philipp; Tejwani, Nirmal; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine if the DTS decreases radiation exposure (primary outcome measure), fluoroscopy time (secondary outcome measure), and time to distal screw placement (secondary outcome measure) compared to the freehand "perfect circles" method when used for locking of cephalomedullary nails in the treatment of femur fractures METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with hip or femoral shaft fractures that were treated with a long cephalomedullary nail were enrolled in this study. Cohorts were determined based on the method of distal interlocking screw placement into either the "Perfect Circles" or "Distal Targeting" cohort. Time from cephalad screw placement to placement of final distal interlocking screw (seconds), radiation exposure (mGy), and fluoroscopy time (seconds) were compared between groups. Hospital quality measures were compared between cohorts. RESULTS:Use of the DTS resulted in 77% (4.3x) lower radiation exposure (p < 0.001), 64% (2.7x) lower fluoroscopy time (p < 0.001), and 60% (1.7x) lower intraoperative time from end of cephalad screw placement to end of distal interlocking screw placement (p < 0.001) compared to the freehand "perfect circles" method. There was no difference in 30-day or 90-day complication rates between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Stryker Gamma3® Distal Targeting System is a safe, effective and efficient alternative to the freehand "perfect circles" method.
PMID: 36517283
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 5382252

The standardized exploration of the radial nerve during humeral shaft fixation reduces the incidence of iatrogenic palsy

Belayneh, Rebekah; Littlefield, Connor P; Konda, Sanjit R; Broder, Kari; Kugelman, David N; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to determine if a standardized protocol for radial nerve handling during humeral shaft repair reduces the incidence of iatrogenic nerve palsy post operatively. METHODS:Seventy-three patients were identified who underwent acute or reconstructive humeral shaft repair with radial nerve exploration as part of the primary procedure for either humeral shaft fracture or nonunion. All patients exhibited intact radial nerve function pre-operatively. A retrospective chart review and analysis identified patients who developed a secondary radial nerve palsy post-operatively. In each case, the radial nerve was identified and mobilized for protection, regardless of whether the implant necessitated the extensile exposure. RESULTS:Fractures were classified according to AO/OTA guidelines and included 23 Type 12A, 11 Type 12B, and 3 Type 12C. Eight patients had periprosthetic fractures and 28 fractures could not be classified. All patients in the cohort were fixed with locking plates. Surgery was indicated for 36 patients with humeral nonunions and 37 patients with acute humeral shaft fractures. Of the 73 patients, 2 (2.7%) developed radial nerve palsy following surgery, one from the posterior approach and one from the anterolateral approach. Both patients exhibited complete recovery of radial nerve function by 6-month follow-up. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in any demographic or surgical details between those with and without radial nerve injury. CONCLUSIONS:Nerve exploration identification and protection leads to a low incidence of transient radial nerve palsy compared to the rate reported in the current literature (2.7% compared to 6-24%). Thus, radial nerve exploration and mobilization should be considered when approaching the humeral shaft for acute fracture and nonunion repairs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 34191088
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4947592

Novel alendronate-CGS21680 conjugate reduces bone resorption and induces new bone formation in post-menopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory osteolysis mouse models

Larrañaga-Vera, Ane; Toti, Kiran S; Flatow, James S; Haraczy, Alexandra J; Warnick, Eugene; Rao, Harsha; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Sussman, Sarah M; Mediero, Aranzazu; Leucht, Philipp; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Cronstein, Bruce N
Loss of bone is a common medical problem and, while it can be treated with available therapies, some of these therapies have critical side effects. We have previously demonstrated that CGS21680, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, prevents bone loss, but its on-target toxicities (hypotension, tachycardia) and frequent dosing requirements make it unusable in the clinic. We therefore generated a novel alendronate-CGS21680 conjugate (MRS7216), to target the agonist to bone where it remains for long periods thereby diminishing the frequency of administration and curtailing side effects. MRS7216 was synthesized from CGS21680 by sequential activation of the carboxylic acid moiety and reacting with an appropriate amino acid (PEG, alendronic acid) under basic conditions. MRS7216 was tested on C57BL/6J (WT) mice with established osteoporosis (OP) and WT or A2A KO mice with wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis (OL). Mice were treated weekly with MRS7216 (10mg/kg). Bone formation was studied after in vivo labeling with calcein/Alizarin Red, and μCT and histology analyses were performed. In addition, human primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured using bone marrow discarded after hip replacement. Receptor binding studies demonstrate that MRS7216 efficiently binds the A2A adenosine receptor. MRS7216-treated OP and OL mice had significant new bone formation and reduced bone loss compared to vehicle or alendronate-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that MRS7216 treatment significantly reduced osteoclast number and increased osteoblast number in murine models. Interestingly, cultured human osteoclast differentiation was inhibited, and osteoblast differentiation was stimulated by the compound indicating that MRS7216 conjugates represent a novel therapeutic approach to treat osteoporosis and osteolysis.
PMID: 36494860
ISSN: 1478-6362
CID: 5378892

Assessment of Healthcare Delivery Systems in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Large Retrospective Cohort Evaluation

Egol, Kenneth A; Parola, Rown; Wingo, Taylor; Maseda, Meghan; Ong, Christian; Deshmukh, Ajit J; Leucht, Philipp
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to assess how quality and volume of common orthopaedic care varies across private, municipal, and federal healthcare delivery systems (HDSs). METHODS:Hip and knee arthroplasty, knee and shoulder arthroscopy, and hip fracture repair were audited over a two-year period. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, diagnosis, lengths of stay (LoSs), surgical wait times, inpatient complication, readmission, and revision surgery rates. Multivariate regression controlled for differences in age, sex, diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index to determine how HDS correlated with surgical wait time, length of stay, complication rates, readmission, and revision surgery. RESULTS:The 5,696 included patients comprise 87.4% private, 8.6% municipal, and 4.0% federal HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroplasty, federal surgical wait times were 18 days shorter (95% CI = 9 to 26 days, P < 0.001); federal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 4.3 days, P < 0.001); municipal LoS was 1 day longer (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.4, P < 0.001); municipal 1-year revision surgery odds were increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3 to 5.4, P = 0.045); and complication odds increased for municipal (OR = 12.2, 95% CI = 5.2 to 27.4, P < 0.001) and federal (OR = 12.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 30.8, P < 0.001) HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroscopy, municipal wait times were 57 days longer (95% CI = 48 to 66 days, P < 0.001) and federal wait times were 34 days longer (95% CI = 21 to 47 days, P < 0.001). Compared with private HDS for fracture repair, municipal wait times were 0.6 days longer (95% CI = 0.2 to 1.0, P = 0.02); federal LoS was 7 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 9.4 days, P < 0.001); and municipal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 2.4 to 4.8, P < 0.001). Only private HDS fracture repair patients received bone health consultations. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The private HDS provided care for a markedly larger volume of patients seeking orthopaedic care. In addition, private HDS patients experienced reduced surgical wait times, LoSs, and complication odds for inpatient elective cases, with better referral patterns for nonsurgical orthopaedic care after hip fractures within the private HDS. These results may guide improvements for federal and municipal HDSs.
PMID: 36037275
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 5337582

The fragility and reverse fragility indices of proximal humerus fracture randomized controlled trials: a systematic review

Kyriakides, Peter William; Schultz, Blake Joseph; Egol, Kenneth; Leucht, Philipp
BACKGROUND:The quality of evidence of the orthopedic literature has been often called into question. The fragility index (FI) has emerged as a means to evaluate the robustness of a significant result. Similarly, reverse fragility index (RFI) can be used for nonsignificant results to evaluate whether one can confidently conclude that there is no difference between groups. The analysis of FI and RFI in proximal humerus fracture (PHF) management is of particular interest, given ongoing controversy regarding optimal management and patient selection. The aim of this study was to report the FI, RFI and quality of the evidence in the proximal humerus fracture literature. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines, which utilized EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled clinical trials related to the management of proximal humerus fractures, published from 2000 to 2020 with dichotomous outcome measures and 1:1 allocation. The FI and RFI were calculated by successively changing one nonevent to an event for each outcome measure until the result was made nonsignificant or significant, respectively. The fragility quotient, (FQ), calculated by dividing the FI by the total sample size, was calculated as well. RESULTS:There were 25 studies that met our criteria with 48 outcome measures recorded. A total of 21 studies had at least one fragile result, with ten studies including a fragile result in the conclusion of the abstract. A total of 31 outcome measures had nonsignificant results and the median RFI was found to be 4, with 71% greater than number of patients lost to follow up. Seventeen outcomes had significant results, with a median FI of 1, with 65% greater than or equal to the number patients lost to follow up. A total of 18 of 25 studies (72%) included a power analysis. In particular, ten studies reported a statistical analysis of complication rates, 90% of which were fragile. The median FQ was found to be 0.037. CONCLUSIONS:The literature on PHF management is frequently fragile. Outcome measures are often fragile, particularly with regards to comparing complication rates and reoperation rates in treatment arms. Comparing to the studies in other subspecialties PHF RCTs are relatively more fragile and underpowered. Standardized reporting of FI, FQ and RFI can help the reader to reliably draw conclusions based on the fragility of outcome measures.
PMID: 34056677
ISSN: 1863-9941
CID: 4890952

Decreasing Post-Operative Opioid Prescriptions Following Orthopedic Trauma Surgery: The "Lopioid" Protocol

Landes, Emma K; Leucht, Philipp; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Ganta, Abhishek; McLaurin, Toni M; Lyon, Thomas R; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVE:To assess the effectiveness of a multimodal analgesic regimen containing "safer" opioid and non-narcotic pain medications in decreasing opioid prescriptions following surgical fixation in orthopedic trauma. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:One urban, academic medical center. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Traumatic fracture patients from 2018 (848) and 2019 (931). METHODS:In 2019 our orthopedic trauma division began a standardized protocol of post-operative pain medications that included: 50 mg of tramadol four times daily, 15 mg of meloxicam once daily, 200 mg gabapentin twice daily, and 1 g of acetaminophen every 6 hours as needed. This multimodal regimen was dubbed the "Lopioid" protocol. We compared this protocol to all patients from the prior year who followed a standard protocol that included Schedule II narcotics. RESULTS:Greater mean MME were prescribed at discharge from fracture surgery under the standard protocol compared to the Lopioid protocol (252.3 vs 150.0; p < 0.001) and there was a difference in the type of opioid medication prescribed (p < 0.001). There was a difference in the number of refills filled for patients discharged with opioids after surgical treatment between standard and Lopioid cohorts (0.31 vs 0.21; p = 0.002). There was no difference in the types of medication-related complications (p = 0.710) or the need for formal pain management consults (p = 0.199), but patients in the Lopioid cohort had lower pain scores at discharge (2.2 vs 2.7; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The Lopioid protocol was effective in decreasing the amount of Schedule II narcotics prescribed at discharge and the number of opioid refills following orthopedic surgery for fractures.
PMID: 34999901
ISSN: 1526-4637
CID: 5112942

Tibial plateau fractures in the elderly have clinical outcomes similar to those in younger patients

Maseda, Meghan; Konda, Sanjit; Leucht, Philipp; Ganta, Abishek; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes following surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures in an elderly (≥ 65y) and non-elderly (< 65) population. METHODS:Patients with tibial plateau fractures were prospectively followed. Patients were included if they were operatively treated, had an Injury Severity Score of < 16, and had follow-up through 12 months. Clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes were evaluated at the 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up points. RESULTS:Mean time to radiographic fracture union was by 4.68 and 5.26 months in young and elderly patients, respectively (p = 0.25). There was no difference in self-reported baseline SMFA (p = 0.617). SMFA scores were better in younger patients at 3 months (p = 0.031), however this did not hold when multivariate modeling controlled for other factors. There was no difference at 6 and 12 months (p = 0.475, 0.392). There was no difference in range of knee motion at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months, young patients had statistically but not clinically better range of knee motion (p = 0.045, 0.007). There were no differences in overall reoperation rates, conversion arthroplasty, post-traumatic osteoarthritis or wound complications. CONCLUSIONS:Age greater than 65 does not appear to portend poorer outcomes after surgical repair of a tibial plateau fracture. The complication profiles are similar. Elderly and younger patients had similar function at 12 months compared to their baseline. These data suggest that age should not be a disqualifying factor when considering whether a patient with a tibial plateau fracture should be treated operatively.
PMID: 36114875
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5332952