Tokyo-1 Mutation: Hereditary Spherocytosis in a Hispanic Newborn Presenting as Early Onset Severe Hyperbilirubinemia
BACKGROUND:Hereditary spherocytosis in the Hispanic population does not often present with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Spectrin and band 3 mutations are most frequent in this population. CASE REPORT/METHODS:We present a Hispanic full-term female newborn with early onset significant hyperbilirubinemia without a history of familial hemolytic disorders. She was diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis based on laboratory findings, including presence of spherocytes on a peripheral smear, and was later found by next-generation sequencing to have Tokyo-1 mutation, an ANK1 gene mutation, that was previously only reported in Japanese population. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our report adds to the currently limited literature of the genetic spectrum and characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis in the Hispanic population. The absence of a positive family history does not preclude hereditary spherocytosis as a differential for pathologic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
Cardiac-deleterious role of galectin-3 in chronic angiotensin II-induced hypertension
Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a member of the Î²-galactoside lectin family, has an important role in immune regulation. In hypertensive rats and heart failure patients, Gal-3 is considered a marker for an unfavorable prognosis. Nevertheless, the role and mechanism of Gal-3 action in hypertension-induced target organ damage are unknown. We hypothesized that, in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension, genetic deletion of Gal-3 prevents left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling and LV dysfunction by reducing the innate immune responses and myocardial fibrosis. To induce hypertension, male C57BL/6J and Gal-3 knockout (KO) mice were infused with ANG II (3 Î¼gÂ·min-1Â·kg-1 sc) for 8 wk. We assessed: 1) systolic blood pressure by plethysmography, 2) LV function and remodeling by echocardiography, 3) myocardial fibrosis by histology, 4) cardiac CD68+ macrophage infiltration by histology, 5) ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression by Western blotting, 6) plasma cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 7) regulatory T (Treg) cells by flow cytometry as detected by their combined expression of CD4, CD25, and FOXP3. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy increased similarly in both mouse strains when infused with ANG II. However, hypertensive C57BL/6J mice suffered impaired ejection and shortening fractions. In these mice, the extent of myocardial fibrosis and macrophage infiltration was greater in histological sections, and cardiac ICAM-1, as well as plasma IL-6, expression was higher as assessed by Western blotting. However, all these parameters were blunted in Gal-3 KO mice. Hypertensive Gal-3 KO mice also had a higher number of splenic Treg lymphocytes. In conclusion, in ANG II-induced hypertension, genetic deletion of Gal-3 prevented LV dysfunction without affecting blood pressure or LV hypertrophy. This study indicates that the ANG II effects are, in part, mediated or triggered by Gal-3 together with the related intercellular signaling (ICAM-1 and IL-6), leading to cardiac inflammation and fibrosis.
Tubuloglomerular and connecting tubuloglomerular feedback during inhibition of various Na transporters in the nephron
Afferent (Af-Art) and efferent arterioles resistance regulate glomerular capillary pressure. The nephron regulates Af-Art resistance via: 1) vasoconstrictor tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), initiated in the macula densa via Na-K-2Cl cotransporters (NKCC2) and 2) vasodilator connecting tubuloglomerular feedback (CTGF), initiated in connecting tubules via epithelial Na channels (ENaC). Furosemide inhibits NKCC2 and TGF. Benzamil inhibits ENaC and CTGF. In vitro, CTGF dilates preconstricted Af-Arts. In vivo, benzamil decreases stop-flow pressure (PSF), suggesting that CTGF antagonizes TGF; however, even when TGF is blocked, CTGF does not increase PSF, suggesting there is another mechanism antagonizing CTGF. We hypothesize that in addition to NKCC2, activation of Na/H exchanger (NHE) antagonizes CTGF, and when both are blocked CTGF dilates Af-Arts and this effect is blocked by a CTGF inhibitor benzamil. Using micropuncture, we studied the effects of transport inhibitors on TGF responses by measuring PSF while increasing nephron perfusion from 0 to 40 nl/min. Control TGF response (-7.9 Â± 0.2 mmHg) was blocked by furosemide (-0.4 Â± 0.2 mmHg; P < 0.001). Benzamil restored TGF in the presence of furosemide (furosemide: -0.2 Â± 0.1 vs. furosemide+benzamil: -4.3 Â± 0.3 mmHg; P < 0.001). With furosemide and NHE inhibitor, dimethylamiloride (DMA), increase in tubular flow increased PSF (furosemide+DMA: 2.7 Â± 0.5 mmHg, n = 6), and benzamil blocked this (furosemide+DMA+benzamil: -1.1 Â± 0.2 mmHg; P < 0.01, n = 6). We conclude that NHE in the nephron decreases PSF (Af-Art constriction) when NKCC2 and ENaC are inhibited, suggesting that in the absence of NKCC2, NHE causes a TGF response and that CTGF dilates the Af-Art when TGF is blocked with NKCC2 and NHE inhibitors.
Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension
OBJECTIVE:Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). METHODS:Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90â€Šng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS:Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension.
Na/H Exchanger Participates in Tubuloglomerular Feedback [Meeting Abstract]
Aldosterone sensitizes connecting tubule glomerular feedback via the aldosterone receptor GPR30
Increasing Na delivery to epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the connecting tubule (CNT) dilates the afferent arteriole (Af-Art), a process we call connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF). We hypothesize that aldosterone sensitizes CTGF via a nongenomic mechanism that stimulates CNT ENaC via the aldosterone receptor GPR30. Rabbit Af-Arts and their adherent CNTs were microdissected and simultaneously perfused. Two consecutive CTGF curves were elicited by increasing luminal NaCl in the CNT. During the control period, the concentration of NaCl that elicited a half-maximal response (EC50) was 37.0 Â± 2.0 mmol/l; addition of aldosterone 10(-8) mol/l to the CNT lumen caused a left-shift (decrease) in EC50 to 19.3 Â± 1.3 mmol/l (P = 0.001 vs. control; n = 6). Neither the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D nor the translation inhibitor cycloheximide prevented the effect of aldosterone (control EC50 = 34.7 Â± 1.9 mmol/l; aldosterone+actinomycin D EC50 = 22.6 Â± 1.6 mmol/l; P < 0.001 and control EC50 = 32.4 Â± 4.3 mmol/l; aldosterone+cycloheximide EC50 = 17.4 Â± 3.3 mmol/l; P < 0.001). The aldosterone antagonist eplerenone prevented the sensitization of CTGF by aldosterone (control EC50 = 33.2 Â± 1.7 mmol/l; aldosterone+eplerenone EC50 = 33.5 Â± 1.3 mmol/l; n = 7). The GPR30 receptor blocker G-36 blocked the sensitization of CTGF by aldosterone (aldosterone EC50 = 16.5 Â± 1.9 mmol/l; aldosterone+G-36 EC50 = 29.0 Â± 2.1 mmol/l; n = 7; P < 0.001). Finally, we found that the sensitization of CTGF by aldosterone was mediated, at least in part, by the sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE). We conclude that aldosterone in the CNT lumen sensitizes CTGF via a nongenomic effect involving GPR30 receptors and NHE. Sensitized CTGF induced by aldosterone may contribute to renal damage by increasing Af-Art dilation and glomerular capillary pressure (glomerular barotrauma).
N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline reduces cardiac collagen cross-linking and inflammation in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats
We have reported previously that Ac-SDKP (N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline) reduces fibrosis and inflammation (in macrophages and mast cells). However, it is not known whether Ac-SDKP decreases collagen cross-linking and lymphocyte infiltration; lymphocytes modulate both collagen cross-linking and ECM (extracellular matrix) formation in hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that (i) in AngII (angiotensin II)-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP prevents increases in cross-linked and total collagen by down-regulating LOX (lysyl oxidase), the enzyme responsible for cross-linking, and (ii) these effects are associated with decreased pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFÎ² (transforming growth factor Î²) and the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-ÎºB (nuclear factor ÎºB) and CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration. We induced hypertension in rats by infusing AngII either alone or combined with Ac-SDKP for 3Â weeks. Whereas Ac-SDKP failed to lower BP (blood pressure) or LV (left ventricular) hypertrophy, it did prevent AngII-induced increases in (i) cross-linked and total collagen, (ii) LOX mRNA expression and LOXL1 (LOX-like 1) protein, (iii) TGFÎ² expression, (iv) nuclear translocation of NF-ÎºB, (v) CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration, and (vi) CD68+ macrophages infiltration. In addition, we found a positive correlation between CD4+ infiltration and LOXL1 expression. In conclusion, the effect of Ac-SDKP on collagen cross-linking and total collagen may be due to reduced TGFÎ²1, LOXL1, and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, and its effect on inflammation could be due to lower NF-ÎºB.
Angiotensin II-induced dilated cardiomyopathy in Balb/c but not C57BL/6J mice
Balb/c mice, which are T-helper lymphocyte 2 (Th2) responders, are highly susceptible to infectious and non-infectious heart diseases, whereas C57BL/6 mice (Th1 responders) are not. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is not only a vasopressor but also a pro-inflammatory factor that leads to cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction. We hypothesized that Ang II exacerbates cardiac damage in Balb/c but not in C57BL/6 mice even though both strains have a similar level of hypertension. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6J and Balb/c mice received either vehicle or Ang II (1.4 mg kg(-1) day(-1), s.c. via osmotic minipump) for 8 weeks. At baseline, Balb/c mice exhibited the following: (1) a lower heart rate; (2) an enlarged left ventricular chamber; (3) a lower ejection fraction and shortening fraction; and (4) twice the left ventricular collagen deposition of age-matched C57BL/6J mice. Angiotensin II raised systolic blood pressure (to âˆ¼150 mmHg) and induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in a similar manner in both strains. While C57BL/6J mice developed compensatory concentric hypertrophy and fibrosis in response to Ang II, Balb/c mice demonstrated severe left ventricular chamber dilatation, wall thinning and fibrosis, leading to congestive heart failure as evidenced by dramatically decreased ejection fraction and lung congestion (significant increase in lung weight), which are both characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study suggests that the Th phenotype plays an active role in cardiac remodelling and function both in basal conditions and in hypertension. Angiotensin II-induced dilated cardiomyopathy in Balb/c mice is an ideal animal model for studying the impact of the adaptive immune system on cardiac remodelling and function and for testing strategies to prevent or treat hypertension-associated heart failure.
Heme oxygenase metabolites inhibit tubuloglomerular feedback in vivo
Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a renal autoregulatory mechanism that constricts the afferent arteriole in response to increases in distal NaCl. Heme oxygenases (HO-1 and HO-2) release carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, which may help control renal function. We showed in vitro that HO products inhibit TGF; however, we do not know whether this also occurs in vivo or the mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that in vivo HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. We first performed laser capture microdissection followed by real-time PCR and found that both HO-1 and HO-2 are expressed in the macula densa. We next performed micropuncture experiments in vivo on individual rat nephrons, adding different compounds to the perfusate, and found that an HO inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP), potentiated TGF (P < 0.05, SnMP vs. control). The CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 partially inhibited TGF at 50 Î¼mol/l (P < 0.01, CORM-3 vs. control) and blocked it completely at higher doses. A soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, LY83583, blocked the inhibitory effect of CORM-3 on TGF. Biliverdin also partially inhibited TGF (P < 0.01, biliverdin vs. control), most likely attributable to decreased superoxide (O(2)(-)) because biliverdin was rendered ineffective by tempol, a O(2)(-) dismutase mimetic. We concluded that HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF by releasing CO and biliverdin. The inhibitory effect of CO on TGF is mediated by the sGC/cGMP signaling pathway, whereas biliverdin probably acts by reducing O(2)(-).
Carbon Monoxide, a heme oxygenase metabolite, decreases ATP release by macula densa cells in vitro [Meeting Abstract]