Propeller Flap Perineal Urethrostomy Revision
OBJECTIVE:To describe a technique for perineal urethrostomy (PU) revision using a posterior thigh propeller flap for a complex repair at high risk for stenosis. METHODS:Our technique utilizes the consistent posterior thigh perforators for a local flap with ideal length and thickness for repair. The stenotic PU is incised. Potential flaps are marked around a perforator blood supply closest to the defect. The flap is then elevated and rotated on its pedicle with its apex placed directly in the defect. Absorbable sutures partially tubularize the flap apex at the level of the urethrotomy which is calibrated to 30 Fr. We subsequently monitored the patient's clinical progress. RESULTS:With 17 months of follow-up the patient is voiding well without complaint, reports improved quality of life with a patent PU. Post void residuals have been less than 100cc. The patient, who has had a long history of urinary tract infections requiring hospitalization, has only reported one infection during follow up which was treated as an out-patient. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:For challenging PU revisions a distant local propeller flap of healthy tissue outside the zone of injury is the ideal choice for length, thickness, and minimal morbidity resulting in excellent clinical results for our patient.
Massive, Extended Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction
Do We Need Support in Prepectoral Breast Reconstruction? Comparing Outcomes with and without ADM
Background: The majority of two-stage prepectoral breast reconstruction has been described utilizing acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Although reports of prepectoral breast reconstruction without ADM exist, there is a paucity of comparative studies. Methods: A single-institution retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients undergoing immediate prepectoral two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expanders from 2017 to 2019. Short-term reconstructive and aesthetic complications were compared between cases that utilized ADM for support and those that did not. Results: In total, 76 cases (51 patients) were identified, of which 35 cases utilized ADM and 41 did not. Risk factors and demographics were similar between the two cohorts with the exception of body mass index, which was higher in the ADM cohort (29.3 versus 25.4, P = 0.011). Average follow-up length was also longer in patients who received ADM (20.3 versus 12.3 months, P < 0.001). Intraoperative expander fill was higher in patients who did not receive ADM (296.8 cm3versus 151.4 cm3, P < 0.001) though final implant size was comparable in both cohorts (P = 0.584). There was no significant difference in the rate of any complication between the ADM and no ADM cohorts (25.7% versus 17.1%, respectively P = 0.357), including major mastectomy flap necrosis (P = 0.245), major infection (P = 1.000), seroma (P = 0.620), expander explantation (P = 1.000), capsular contracture (P = 1.000), implant dystopia (P = 1.000), and rippling (P = 0.362). Conclusions: Immediate two-stage prepectoral breast reconstruction with tissue expanders has comparable rates of short-term complications with or without ADM support. Safety of prepectoral expander placement without ADM may warrant more selective ADM use in these cases.
Hepatic Artery Microvascular Anastomosis in Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review of the Literature
BACKGROUND:The operating microscope is used in many centers for microvascular hepatic arterial reconstruction in living as well as deceased donor liver transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. To date, a systematic review of the literature examining this topic is lacking. METHODS:This systematic review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Three different electronic databases (PubMed, Embase OVID, and Cochrane CENTRAL) were queried. RESULTS:A total of 34 studies were included. The rate of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) in noncomparative studies (28) ranged from 0% to 10%, with 8 studies reporting patient deaths resulting from HAT. Within comparative studies, the rate of HAT in patients who underwent arterial reconstruction using the operating microscope ranged from 0% to 5.3%, whereas the rate of HAT in patients who underwent arterial reconstruction using loupe magnification ranged from 0% up to 28.6%, and 2 studies reported patient deaths resulting from HAT. Two comparative studies did not find statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Our comprehensive systematic review of the literature seems to suggest that overall, rates of HAT may be lower when the operating microscope is used for hepatic arterial reconstruction in liver transplantation. However, matched comparisons are lacking and surgical teams need to be mindful of the learning curve associated with the use of the operating microscope as compared with loupe magnification, as well as the logistical and time constraints associated with setup of the operating microscope.
Congestive Heart Failure Predicts Major Complications and Increased Length of Stay in Lower Extremity Pedicled Flap Reconstruction
BACKGROUND:Congestive heart failure affects 6.2 million people in the United States. Patients have a decreased cardiopulmonary reserve and often suffer from peripheral edema, important considerations in lower extremity reconstructive surgery. In this study, the authors sought to determine the impact of congestive heart failure on postoperative outcomes following lower extremity pedicled flap reconstruction using a national multi-institutional database. METHODS:The authors isolated all patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent lower extremity pedicled flap reconstruction from 2010 to 2016. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were compared between patients with and without congestive heart failure. Multivariable regressions were performed to determine the independent effect of congestive heart failure on postoperative outcomes. RESULTS:The authors identified 1895 patients who underwent lower extremity pedicled flap reconstruction, of whom 34 suffered from congestive heart failure. No significant difference was observed between patients with versus without congestive heart failure in postoperative wound complications (superficial wound infection, deep wound infection, and wound dehiscence), renal failure, or readmission. On multivariable analysis, congestive heart failure was independently associated with increased cardiopulmonary complications (i.e., myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, pneumonia, reintubation, and failed ventilator weaning) (OR, 3.92; 95 percent CI, 1.53 to 9.12), septic events (OR, 4.65; 95 percent CI, 2.05 to 10.02), and length of hospital stay (Î², 0.37; 95 percent CI, 0.01 to 0.72). CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing lower extremity pedicled flap reconstruction, congestive heart failure independently predicts a four-fold increase in postoperative sepsis and cardiopulmonary complications and a significantly increased length of hospital stay. The authors' findings highlight the need for heightened perioperative vigilance and medical optimization in this high-risk population. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Risk, II.
Reply: Timing of Microsurgical Reconstruction in Lower Extremity Trauma: An Update of the Godina Paradigm [Letter]
The Latest Evolution in Virtual Surgical Planning: Customized Reconstruction Plates in Free Fibula Flap Mandibular Reconstruction
BACKGROUND:Virtual surgical planning has contributed to technical advancements in free fibula flap mandible reconstruction. The authors present the largest comparative study on the latest modification of this technology: the use of patient-specific, preoperatively customized reconstruction plates for fixation. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with virtually planned free fibula flaps at a single institution between 2008 and 2018. Patient demographics, perioperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. Reconstructions using traditional fixation methods were compared to those using prefabricated, patient-specific reconstruction plates. RESULTS:A total of 126 patients (mean age, 48.5 Â± 20.3 years; 61.1 percent male) underwent mandibular reconstruction with a free fibula flap. Mean follow-up time was 23.5 months. A customized plate was used in 43.7 percent of cases. Reconstructions with patient-specific plates had significantly shorter total operative times compared with noncustomized fixation methods (643.0 minutes versus 741.7 minutes; p = 0.001). Hardware complications occurred in 11.1 percent of patients, with a trend toward a lower rate in the customized plate group (5.5 percent versus 15.5 percent; p = 0.091). Multivariate regression showed that the use of customized plates was a significant independent predictor of fewer overall complications (p = 0.03), shorter operative time (p = 0.014), and shorter length of stay (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to traditional fixation methods, patient-specific plates are associated with fewer complications, shorter operative times, and reduced length of stay. The use of customized reconstruction plates increases efficiency and represents the latest technological innovation in mandibular reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III.
Mandibular Reconstruction with Free Fibula Flap for Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients with Multiple Myeloma [Case Report]
While bisphosphonates are the cornerstone for management of multiple myeloma, they are associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). There are many controversies in the management of MRONJ in this patient population. In this article, we describe a representative case and, along with a literature review, we report the outcomes of our 3 cases with multiple myeloma who underwent mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula bone grafts after segmental mandible resection for Stage 3 MRONJ over a 3-year period. All patients were male with a mean age of 59 years. All patients had undergone therapy with bisphosphonates and had no other identifiable cause of mandible osteonecrosis. All patients had pathologic mandible fractures associated with intraoral fistulae and exposed bone. Nonsurgical management was attempted in all patients. One patient also underwent debridement of the mandible without resolution of the disease. Mandible reconstruction with an osteocutaneous free fibula flap after segmental mandible resection was performed in all 3 cases without major complications or donor site morbidity. Different bacteria were isolated from the intraoperative tissue cultures in all cases. Computed tomographic imaging revealed bony union without hardware complications in all cases. Mean follow-up was 28 months. In conclusion, we demonstrated that patients with multiple myeloma and advanced MRONJ lesions of the mandible can be managed successfully and safely by segmental resection and reconstruction with vascularized fibula bone graft.
Feasibility and Perception of Cross-sex Face Transplantation to Expand the Donor Pool
Background/UNASSIGNED:A major challenge in face transplantation (FT) is the limited donor allograft pool. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of cross-sex FT (CSFT) for donor pool expansion by: (1) comparing craniomaxillofacial metrics following CSFT versus same-sex FT (SSFT); and (2) evaluating the public and medical professionals' perception of CSFT. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Seven cadaveric FTs were performed, resulting in both CSFT and SSFT. Precision of bony and soft tissue inset was evaluated by comparing pre- versus post-operative cephalometric and anthropometric measurements. Fidelity of the FT compared to the virtual plan was assessed by imaging overlay techniques. Surveys were administered to medical professionals, medical students, and general population to evaluate opinions regarding CSFT. Results/UNASSIGNED:< 0.001). On non-blinded and blinded assessments, 62.9% and 79% of responses rated the CSFT superior or equal to SSFT, respectively. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our study demonstrates similar anthropometric and cephalometric outcomes for CSFT and SSFT. Participants were more reticent to undergo CSFT, with increased willingness if supported by research. CSFT may represent a viable option for expansion of the donor pool in future patients prepared to undergo transplantation.
In Response to "Regarding the MSAP Flap: A Better Option in Complex Head and Neck Reconstruction?" [Letter]