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The impact of COVID-19 monoclonal antibodies on clinical outcomes: A retrospective cohort study

Nagler, Arielle R; Horwitz, Leora I; Jones, Simon; Petrilli, Christopher M; Iturrate, Eduardo; Lighter, Jennifer L; Phillips, Michael; Bosworth, Brian P; Polsky, Bruce; Volpicelli, Frank M; Dapkins, Isaac; Viswanathan, Anand; François, Fritz; Kalkut, Gary
DISCLAIMER/CONCLUSIONS:In an effort to expedite the publication of articles, AJHP is posting manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Despite progress in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), more clinical data to support the use of mAbs in outpatients with COVID-19 is needed. This study is designed to determine the impact of bamlanivimab, bamlanivimab/etesevimab, or casirivimab/imdevimab on clinical outcomes within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single academic medical center with 3 campuses in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Long Island, NY. Patients 12 years of age or older who tested positive for COVID-19 or were treated with a COVID-19-specific therapy, including COVID-19 mAb therapies, at the study site between November 24, 2020, and May 15, 2021, were included. The primary outcomes included rates of emergency department (ED) visit, inpatient admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death within 30 days from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 1,344 mAb-treated patients were propensity matched to 1,344 patients with COVID-19 patients who were not treated with mAb therapy. Within 30 days of diagnosis, among the patients who received mAb therapy, 101 (7.5%) presented to the ED and 79 (5.9%) were admitted. Among the patients who did not receive mAb therapy, 165 (12.3%) presented to the ED and 156 (11.6%) were admitted (relative risk [RR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.50-0.75] and 0.51 [95% CI, 0.40-0.64], respectively). Four mAb patients (0.3%) and 2.64 control patients (0.2%) were admitted to the ICU (RR, 01.51; 95% CI, 0.45-5.09). Six mAb-treated patients (0.4%) and 3.37 controls (0.3%) died and/or were admitted to hospice (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.54-4.83). mAb therapy in ambulatory patients with COVID-19 decreases the risk of ED presentation and hospital admission within 30 days of diagnosis.
PMCID:9619808
PMID: 36242772
ISSN: 1535-2900
CID: 5361302

Addressing the climate impacts of healthcare

Silva, Genevieve S; Schimek, Cassandra A; Lighter, Jennifer L; Thiel, Cassandra L
PMID: 35527513
ISSN: 1553-5606
CID: 5212882

Poor Uptake of MMR Vaccine 1-year Post-Measles Outbreak: New York City and Israel

Paret, Michal; Trillo, Rebecca; Lighter, Jennifer; Youngster, Ilan; Ratner, Adam J; Pellett Madan, Rebecca
BACKGROUND:In 2018-2019, large outbreaks of measles occurred in Israel and in New York City, driven in part by travel of unimmunized children between the 2 communities. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted for children tested for measles (March 2018-September 2019) at NYU Langone Health in New York, NY, and in Ramla subdistrict, Israel. Vaccination records were reviewed to determine vaccination status for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) at the time of measles testing and 1-year post-testing. RESULTS:A total of 264 children were tested for measles, and 102 (38.6%) had confirmed measles. Only 20 (19.6%) of measles-positive cases received a full 2-dose course of vitamin A. 82.4% of children with measles were ≥1 year at the time of diagnosis and fully eligible for MMR vaccine. Of the 100 measles-positive cases with available vaccine records, 63 were unvaccinated at testing, and 27 remained unimmunized against MMR 1 year later. At testing, measles-negative children were significantly more likely to have received MMR than measles-positive children (65.4% vs 37%, P < .01). One year later, 70.4% of measles-negative cases and only 57.1% of measles-positive cases had received MMR vaccine (P = .18). CONCLUSIONS:The majority of measles cases occurred in unimmunized children eligible for vaccination, and >25% of children in both measles-positive and -negative groups remained unimmunized for MMR 1-year post-outbreak. Our results suggest the need for novel, longitudinal vaccination strategies and increased awareness of the role of vitamin A.
PMID: 35477779
ISSN: 2048-7207
CID: 5217512

Clinical and genomic signatures of SARS-CoV-2 Delta breakthrough infections in New York

Duerr, Ralf; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Zappile, Paul; Levine, Samuel; Francois, Fritz; Iturrate, Eduardo; Wang, Guiqing; Dittmann, Meike; Lighter, Jennifer; Elbel, Brian; Troxel, Andrea B; Goldfeld, Keith S; Heguy, Adriana
BACKGROUND:In 2021, Delta became the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant worldwide. While vaccines have effectively prevented COVID-19 hospitalization and death, vaccine breakthrough infections increasingly occurred. The precise role of clinical and genomic determinants in Delta infections is not known, and whether they contributed to increased rates of breakthrough infections compared to unvaccinated controls. METHODS:We studied SARS-CoV-2 variant distribution, dynamics, and adaptive selection over time in relation to vaccine status, phylogenetic relatedness of viruses, full genome mutation profiles, and associated clinical and demographic parameters. FINDINGS/RESULTS:We show a steep and near-complete replacement of circulating variants with Delta between May and August 2021 in metropolitan New York. We observed an increase of the Delta sublineage AY.25 (14% in vaccinated, 7% in unvaccinated), its spike mutation S112L, and AY.44 (8% in vaccinated, 2% in unvaccinated) with its nsp12 mutation F192V in breakthroughs. Delta infections were associated with younger age and lower hospitalization rates than Alpha. Delta breakthrough infections increased significantly with time since vaccination, and, after adjusting for confounders, they rose at similar rates as in unvaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed a modest adaptation of Delta genomes in breakthrough infections in New York, suggesting an improved genomic framework to support Delta's epidemic growth in times of waning vaccine protection despite limited impact on vaccine escape. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:The study was supported by NYU institutional funds. The NYULH Genome Technology Center is partially supported by the Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA016087 at the Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center.
PMCID:9323230
PMID: 35906172
ISSN: 2352-3964
CID: 5277042

Clinical and genomic signatures of rising SARS-CoV-2 Delta breakthrough infections in New York

Duerr, Ralf; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Zappile, Paul; Levine, Samuel; François, Fritz; Iturrate, Eduardo; Wang, Guiqing; Dittmann, Meike; Lighter, Jennifer; Elbel, Brian; Troxel, Andrea B; Goldfeld, Keith S; Heguy, Adriana
In 2021, Delta has become the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant worldwide. While vaccines effectively prevent COVID-19 hospitalization and death, vaccine breakthrough infections increasingly occur. The precise role of clinical and genomic determinants in Delta infections is not known, and whether they contribute to increased rates of breakthrough infections compared to unvaccinated controls. Here, we show a steep and near complete replacement of circulating variants with Delta between May and August 2021 in metropolitan New York. We observed an increase of the Delta sublineage AY.25, its spike mutation S112L, and nsp12 mutation F192V in breakthroughs. Delta infections were associated with younger age and lower hospitalization rates than Alpha. Delta breakthroughs increased significantly with time since vaccination, and, after adjusting for confounders, they rose at similar rates as in unvaccinated individuals. Our data indicate a limited impact of vaccine escape in favor of Delta's increased epidemic growth in times of waning vaccine protection.
PMCID:8669846
PMID: 34909779
ISSN: n/a
CID: 5085062

Impact of Prenatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Infant Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalization

Ungar, Stephanie P; Solomon, Sadie; Stachel, Anna; Demarco, Kathleen; Roman, Ashley S; Lighter, Jennifer
To better understand the impact of prenatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on infants, this study sought to compare the risk of hospital visits and of postnatal SARS-CoV-2 infection between infants born to mothers with and without prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this retrospective observational cohort study of 6871 mothers and their infants, overall rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions in the first 90 days of life were similar for infants born to mothers with and without prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Infants born to negative mothers were more likely than infants of positive mothers to be hospitalized after ED visit (relative risk: 3.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.27-11.13, P = .003). Five infants tested positive; all were born to negative mothers, suggesting that maternal prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection may protect infants from postnatal infection. The lower acuity ED visits for infants born to mothers with prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection may reflect a heightened level of concern among these mothers.
PMID: 34903074
ISSN: 1938-2707
CID: 5080812

High antibody levels in cord blood from pregnant women vaccinated against COVID-19 [Letter]

Trostle, Megan E; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Roman, Ashley S; Lighter, Jennifer L
PMCID:8455300
PMID: 34562636
ISSN: 2589-9333
CID: 5061542

SARS-CoV-2 Among Infants <90 Days of Age Admitted for Serious Bacterial Infection Evaluation

Paret, Michal; Lalani, Karim; Hedari, Carine; Jaffer, Annum; Narayanan, Nisha; Noor, Asif; Lighter, Jennifer; Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Shust, Gail F; Ratner, Adam J; Raabe, Vanessa N
PMID: 34193619
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 4926782

Dominance of Alpha and Iota variants in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine breakthrough infections in New York City

Duerr, Ralf; Dimartino, Dacia; Marier, Christian; Zappile, Paul; Wang, Guiqing; Lighter, Jennifer; Elbel, Brian; Troxel, Andrea B; Heguy, Adriana
The efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is high, but breakthrough infections still occur. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 76 breakthrough cases after full vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), or JNJ-78436735 (Janssen) to unvaccinated controls (February-April 2021) in metropolitan New York, including their phylogenetic relationship, distribution of variants, and full spike mutation profiles. The median age of patients in the study was 48 years; 7 required hospitalization and 1 died. Most breakthrough infections (57/76) occurred with B.1.1.7 (Alpha) or B.1.526 (Iota). Among the 7 hospitalized cases, 4 were infected with B.1.1.7, including 1 death. Both unmatched and matched statistical analyses considering age, sex, vaccine type, and study month as covariates supported the null hypothesis of equal variant distributions between vaccinated and unvaccinated in χ2 and McNemar tests (P > 0.1), highlighting a high vaccine efficacy against B.1.1.7 and B.1.526. There was no clear association among breakthroughs between type of vaccine received and variant. In the vaccinated group, spike mutations in the N-terminal domain and receptor-binding domain that have been associated with immune evasion were overrepresented. The evolving dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 variants requires broad genomic analyses of breakthrough infections to provide real-life information on immune escape mediated by circulating variants and their spike mutations.
PMCID:8439605
PMID: 34375308
ISSN: 1558-8238
CID: 5010772

COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy: early experience from a single institution [Letter]

Trostle, Megan E; Limaye, Meghana A; Avtushka, Valeryia; Lighter, Jennifer L; Penfield, Christina A; Roman, Ashley S
OBJECTIVE:Vaccination presents an important strategy to mitigate illness in this population. However, there is a paucity of data on vaccination safety and pregnancy outcomes because pregnant women were excluded from the initial phase III clinical trials. Our objective was to describe the maternal, neonatal, and obstetrical outcomes of women who received a messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination while pregnant during the first 4 months of vaccine availability. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was an institutional review board-approved descriptive study of pregnant women at New York University Langone Health who received at least 1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccination approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) from the time of the FDA Emergency Use Authorization to April 22, 2021. Eligible women were identified via search of the electronic medical record (EMR) system. Vaccine administration was ascertained via immunization records from the New York State Department of Health. Women were excluded if they were vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Charts were reviewed for maternal demographics and pregnancy outcomes. Descriptive analyses were performed using the R software version 4.0.2 (The R Foundation, Boston, MA). RESULTS:We identified 424 pregnant women who received an mRNA vaccination. Of those, 348 (82.1%) received both doses and 76 (17.9%) received only 1 dose. The maternal characteristics and vaccination information are shown in Table 1. Of the included women, 4.9% had a history of a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis before vaccination. After vaccination, no patient in our cohort was diagnosed with COVID-19. In terms of the pregnancy outcomes, 9 women had spontaneous abortions, 3 terminated their pregnancies, and 327 have ongoing pregnancies. Of the women included, 85 delivered liveborn infants. There were no stillbirths in our population. Of the 9 spontaneous abortions, 8 occurred during the first trimester at a range of 6 to 13 weeks' gestation. There was 1 second trimester loss. The rate of spontaneous abortion among women vaccinated in the first trimester was 6.5%. The 327 women with ongoing pregnancies have been followed for a median of 4.6 weeks (range, 0-17 weeks) following their most recent dose. A total of 113 (34.6%) women, initiated vaccination during the first trimester, 178 (54.4%) initiated vaccination during the second trimester, and 36 (11.0%) during the third trimester. Following the vaccination, 2 fetuses (0.6%) developed intrauterine growth restriction, whereas 5 (1.5%) were diagnosed with anomalies. Outcomes for the 85 women who delivered are shown in Table 2. Of the women who delivered, 18.8% were diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The rate of preterm birth was 5.9%. One preterm delivery was medically indicated, whereas the remaining 3 were spontaneous. A total of 15.3% of neonates required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Of the NICU admissions, 61.5% were because of hypoglycemia or an evaluation for sepsis. Other reasons for admission included prematurity, hypothermia, and transient tachypnea of the newborn. Of all the neonates, 12.2% were small for gestational age (SGA) per the World Health Organization standards. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our rate of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders is higher than our baseline institutional rate of 9.5%, however, this may be because of the underlying characteristics of our study population or skewing of our small sample size. Our 12.2% rate of SGA neonates is near the expected value based on the definition that 10% of neonates will be SGA at birth. The NICU admission rate is at par with our institutional rate of 12%. To date, most women in this series have had uncomplicated pregnancies and have delivered at-term. Strengths of this study include using the EMR system to identify subjects and gather data. We did not rely on self-enrollment and self-report, thereby reducing selection and recall bias. By performing manual chart reviews, we obtained detailed and reliable information about individual patients. One limitation of this study is the lack of a matched control group consisting of unvaccinated pregnant women and therefore direct conclusions could not be drawn about the relative risks of complications. In addition, our cohort is small and may not be generalizable. Finally, many women included are healthcare workers who had early access to vaccinations. As more pregnant women become eligible for the COVID-19 vaccinations, there is an urgent need to report on the maternal, neonatal, and obstetrical outcomes of COVID-19 vaccinations during pregnancy. The results of this study can be used to counsel and reassure pregnant patients facing this decision.
PMCID:8366042
PMID: 34411758
ISSN: 2589-9333
CID: 5012972