Oral Vancomycin as Secondary Prophylaxis for Clostridioides difficile Infection
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:infection (CDI) while receiving systemic antibiotics to prevent CDI recurrence. However, this practice has not been studied in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of secondary OVP in pediatric patients with previous CDI who received subsequent antibiotic exposure. METHODS:A multicampus, retrospective cohort evaluation was conducted among patients aged â‰¤18 years with any history of clinical CDI and receiving systemic antibiotics in a subsequent encounter from 2013-2019. Patients who received concomitant OVP with antibiotics were compared with unexposed patients. The primary outcome was CDI recurrence within 8 weeks after antibiotic exposure. Infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci and risk factors for CDI recurrence were assessed. RESULTS:= .04). CONCLUSIONS:Secondary OVP while receiving systemic antibiotics reduces the risk of recurrent CDI in pediatric patients with a history of CDI.
Retapamulin Activity Against Pediatric Strains of Mupirocin-resistant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Retapamulin activity against 53 isolates obtained from a mupirocin-resistant community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pediatric disease cluster was evaluated using broth microdilution. All strains were susceptible to retapamulin with minimum inhibitory concentrations â‰¤ 0.5 Î¼g/mL. DNA sequence analysis of rplC and cfr identified one rplC strain variant that did not demonstrate reduced phenotypic susceptibility to retapamulin. These results demonstrate that retapamulin may be a useful alternative therapy for mupirocin-resistant community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus, especially in disease clusters.
SARS-CoV-2 Among Infants <90 Days of Age Admitted for Serious Bacterial Infection Evaluation
Development and validation of a machine learning model to predict mortality risk in patients with COVID-19
New York City quickly became an epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic. An ability to triage patients was needed due to a sudden and massive increase in patients during the COVID-19 pandemic as healthcare providers incurred an exponential increase in workload,which created a strain on the staff and limited resources. Further, methods to better understand and characterise the predictors of morbidity and mortality was needed. METHODS: We developed a prediction model to predict patients at risk for mortality using only laboratory, vital and demographic information readily available in the electronic health record on more than 3395 hospital admissions with COVID-19. Multiple methods were applied, and final model was selected based on performance. A variable importance algorithm was used for interpretability, and understanding of performance and predictors was applied to the best model. We built a model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 83-97 to identify predictors and patients with high risk of mortality due to COVID-19. Oximetry, respirations, blood urea nitrogen, lymphocyte per cent, calcium, troponin and neutrophil percentage were important features, and key ranges were identified that contributed to a 50% increase in patients' mortality prediction score. With an increasing negative predictive value starting 0.90 after the second day of admission suggests we might be able to more confidently identify likely survivors DISCUSSION: This study serves as a use case of a machine learning methods with visualisations to aide clinicians with a better understanding of the model and predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: As we continue to understand COVID-19, computer assisted algorithms might be able to improve the care of patients.
Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19: A systematic review of the literature
OBJECTIVE:We sought to review the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase between December 1, 2019 and November 18, 2020 to identify case reports or series of patients who had COVID-19 diagnosed based on positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serologic testing and had CSF testing due to a neurologic symptom. RESULTS:We identified 242 relevant documents which included 430 patients with COVID-19 who had acute neurological symptoms prompting CSF testing. Of those, 321 (75%) patients had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). Of 304 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 PCR, there were 17 (6%) whose test was positive, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). The majority (13/17, 76%) of these patients were admitted to the hospital because of neurological symptoms. Of 58 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, 7 (12%) had positive antibodies with evidence of intrathecal synthesis, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the CNS. Of 132 patients who had oligoclonal bands evaluated, 3 (2%) had evidence of intrathecal antibody synthesis. Of 77 patients tested for autoimmune antibodies in the CSF, 4 (5%) had positive findings. CONCLUSION:Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare. Most neurological complications associated with SARS- CoV-2 are unlikely to be related to direct viral neuroinvasion.
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: Survey of Protocols for Early Hospital Evaluation and Management
OBJECTIVE:To describe the similarities and differences in the evaluation and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at hospitals in the United States. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 16 to July 16, 2020 of U.S. children's hospitals regarding protocols for management of patients with MIS-C. Elements included characteristics of the hospital, clinical definition of MIS-C, evaluation, treatment, and follow up. We summarized key findings and compared results from centers in which >5 patients had been treated vs those in which <5 patients had been treated. RESULTS:In all, 40 centers of varying size and experience with MIS-C participated in this protocol survey. Overall 21 of 40 centers required only one day of fever for MIS-C to be considered. In the evaluation of patients, there was often a tiered approach. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the most widely recommended medication to treat MIS-C (98% of centers). Corticosteroids were listed in 93% of protocols primarily for moderate or severe cases. Aspirin was commonly recommended for mild cases, whereas heparin or low molecular weight heparin were to be used primarily in severe cases. In severe cases, anakinra and vasopressors were frequently recommended; 39 of 40 centers recommended follow up with cardiology. There were similar findings between centers in which >5 patients vs. <5 patients had been managed. Supplemental materials containing hospital protocols are provided. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There are many similarities yet key differences between hospital protocols for MIS-C. These findings can help healthcare providers learn from others regarding options for managing MIS-C.
A Modern Measles Outbreak: Understanding maternal immunity and impact on postpartum vaccination uptake
OBJECTIVE:In October 2018, a measles (rubeola) outbreak was identified in New York City (NYC) & Rockland County (RC) and a public health campaign and hospital policy changes were made to increase awareness of the importance of vaccination and increase vaccination rates. We describe the prevalence of rubeola immunity in pregnant women and the change in uptake of postpartum MMR vaccination before and during the measles outbreak. METHODS:A multi-pronged intervention was developed by the health system with the intent of raising awareness of the outbreak, identifying patients at risk of contracting measles during pregnancy, and limiting exposure of inpatients to the disease. This was a quality improvement study to assess the impact of the intervention and public health policy on the rates of documentation of rubeola immunity and rubeola vaccination rates in non-immune women. Women who delivered at NYU Langone Health prior to the outbreak (7/1/2016 to 7/1/2017) were compared to women who delivered during the outbreak (7/1/18 to 7/1/19). The primary outcome was acceptance of MMR vaccination in non-immune women during the postpartum period. Analysis was conducted using logistic regression and chi-square tests, and alpha was set at 0.05. RESULTS:19585 patients were analyzed. 9,162 women delivered prior to outbreak and 10,423 delivered during the outbreak. Of these, 2589 (13.2%) were documented as living in a high-risk ZIP code, which were areas at the epicenter of the measles outbreak. 14,731 women (75.2%) were tested for rubeola immunity and 3270 (22.2%) of those tested were not immune. In the year of the outbreak, a higher proportion of women had rubeola immunity documented with serum titers than in the year prior to the outbreak (81% vs. 69%, p<0.001). Inpatient compliance with postpartum MMR administration was greater during the outbreak than prior to it (76% vs 59%, p <.001) for patients from both low risk and high-risk ZIP codes. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The NYC & RC measles outbreak, together with implementation of a health system wide education program and a change in public health policy led to an increase in the proportion of pregnant women being screened for rubeola immunity. It also led to an increase in uptake of the immediate postpartum MMR vaccine.
A Case of Pott's Puffy Tumor Associated With Barosinusitis From Scuba Diving
Barosinusitis, or sinus barotrauma, is a well-described condition associated with changes in barometric pressure during flight and diving that can result in sinonasal mucosal injury. In this case report, we present an adolescent who experienced barosinusitis during scuba diving and subsequently developed Pott's puffy tumor (PPT), characterized by frontal sinusitis, frontal bone osteomyelitis, and overlying subperiosteal abscess. This unique case of PPT following scuba diving provides the opportunity to review the pathophysiology of both barotrauma-induced sinus disease and PPT, a rare and unreported serious complication of barosinusitis. Furthermore, we discuss how scuba diving and associated barosinusitis can be considered a risk factor in the development of PPT.
Measles Outbreak Risk Assessment for Transplant Candidates and Recipients
Solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates and recipients are at risk of significant morbidity and mortality from infection, including those circulating in the community from unexpected outbreaks. In late 2018-summer of 2019, a measles outbreak occurred in the New York City area, with a total of 649 cases reported. We developed a systematic three-part approach to address measles risk in our adult SOT program through: 1) identification of non-immune adults living in outbreak ZIP codes, 2) education focused on risk reduction for patients from outbreak ZIP codes and 3) risk reduction for non-immune patients. All waitlisted or previously transplanted patients residing in outbreak areas received a measles patient education handout. The electronic medical record of patients born in or after 1957 was reviewed for serologic evidence of measles immunity. Measles immunity testing was performed in patients without documentation of immunity. Patients who tested non-immune were offered MMR vaccination or intravenous immunoglobulin depending on their transplant phase and risk profile. Thus, we demonstrate successful implementation of a systematic risk assessment during a large measles outbreak to identify and protect at-risk SOT patients. As vaccine hesitancy persists, our strategies may be increasingly relevant to transplant centers and those caring for immunocompromised patients.
Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area