Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) Isoforms Predict Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Adults with Obesity during Weight Loss
Background/UNASSIGNED:Accruing evidence indicates that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) play a significant role in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The concentrations of circulating RAGE isoforms, such as soluble RAGE (sRAGE), cleaved RAGE (cRAGE), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), collectively sRAGE isoforms, may be implicit in weight loss and energy compensation resulting from caloric restriction. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:We aimed to evaluate whether baseline concentrations of sRAGE isoforms predicted changes (âˆ†) in body composition [fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM)], resting energy expenditure (REE), and adaptive thermogenesis (AT) during weight loss. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Data were collected during a behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with obesity. At baseline and 3 mo, participants were assessed for body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and REE (indirect calorimetry), and plasma was assayed for concentrations of sRAGE isoforms (sRAGE, esRAGE, cRAGE). AT was calculated using various mathematical models that included measured and predicted REE. A linear regression model that adjusted for age, sex, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and randomization arm was used to test the associations between sRAGE isoforms and metabolic outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:) experienced modest and variable weight loss over 3 mo. Although baseline sRAGE isoforms did not predict changes in âˆ†FM or âˆ†FFM, all baseline sRAGE isoforms were positively associated with âˆ†REE at 3 mo. Baseline esRAGE was positively associated with AT in some, but not all, AT models. The association between sRAGE isoforms and energy expenditure was independent of HbA1c, suggesting that the relation was unrelated to glycemia. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This study demonstrates a novel link between RAGE and energy expenditure in human participants undergoing weight loss.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03336411.
Oral and gastric microbiome in relation to gastric intestinal metaplasia
Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric cancer (GC) initiation. However, epidemiologic studies on the specific role of other bacteria in the development of GC are lacking. We conducted a case-control study of 89 cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 89 matched controls who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at three sites affiliated with NYU Langone Health. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing using oral wash samples from 89 case-control pairs and antral mucosal brushing samples from 55 case-control pairs. We examined the associations of relative abundances of bacterial taxa and functional pathways with IM using conditional logistic regression with and without elastic-net penalty. Compared with controls, oral species Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Johnsonella ignava, Neisseria elongata and Neisseria flavescens were enriched in cases (odds ratios [ORs]Â =Â 1.29-1.50, PÂ =Â .004-.01) while Lactobacillus gasseri, Streptococcus mutans, Sâ€‰parasanguinis and Sâ€‰sanguinis were under-represented (ORsÂ =Â 0.66-0.76, PÂ =Â .006-.042) in cases. Species Jâ€‰ignava and Filifactor alocis in the gastric microbiota were enriched (ORsÂ =Â 3.27 and 1.43, PÂ =Â .005 and .035, respectively), while Sâ€‰mutans, Sâ€‰parasanguinis and Sâ€‰sanguinis were under-represented (ORsÂ =Â 0.61-0.75, PÂ =Â .024-.046), in cases compared with controls. The lipopolysaccharide and ubiquinol biosynthesis pathways were more abundant in IM, while the sugar degradation pathways were under-represented in IM. The findings suggest potential roles of certain oral and gastric microbiota, which are correlated with regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, in the development of gastric precancerous lesions.
ARZIMM: A Novel Analytic Platform for the Inference of Microbial Interactions and Community Stability from Longitudinal Microbiome Study
Dynamic changes of microbiome communities may play important roles in human health and diseases. The recent rise in longitudinal microbiome studies calls for statistical methods that can model the temporal dynamic patterns and simultaneously quantify the microbial interactions and community stability. Here, we propose a novel autoregressive zero-inflated mixed-effects model (ARZIMM) to capture the sparse microbial interactions and estimate the community stability. ARZIMM employs a zero-inflated Poisson autoregressive model to model the excessive zero abundances and the non-zero abundances separately, a random effect to investigate the underlining dynamic pattern shared within the group, and a Lasso-type penalty to capture and estimate the sparse microbial interactions. Based on the estimated microbial interaction matrix, we further derive the estimate of community stability, and identify the core dynamic patterns through network inference. Through extensive simulation studies and real data analyses we evaluate ARZIMM in comparison with the other methods.
Small-molecule antagonism of the interaction of the RAGE cytoplasmic domain with DIAPH1 reduces diabetic complications in mice
[Figure: see text].
Interaction between race and prostate cancer treatment benefit in the Veterans Health Administration
BACKGROUND:Studies have demonstrated that Black men may undergo definitive prostate cancer (CaP) treatment less often than men of other races, but it is unclear whether they are avoiding overtreatment of low-risk disease or experiencing a reduction in appropriate care. The authors' aim was to assess the role of race as it relates to treatment benefit in access to CaP treatment in a single-payer population. METHODS:The authors used the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Corporate Data Warehouse to perform a retrospective cohort study of veterans diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk CaP between 2011 and 2017. RESULTS:The authors identified 35,427 men with incident low- or intermediate-risk CaP. When they controlled for covariates, Black men had 1.05 times the odds of receiving treatment in comparison with non-Black men (P < .001), and high-treatment-benefit men had 1.4 times the odds of receiving treatment in comparison with those in the low-treatment-benefit group (P < .001). The interaction of race and treatment benefit was significant, with Black men in the high-treatment-benefit category less likely to receive treatment than non-Black men in the same treatment category (odds ratio, 0.89; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Although race does appear to influence the receipt of definitive treatment in the VHA, this relationship varies in the context of the patient's treatment benefit, with Black men receiving less definitive treatment in high-benefit situations. The influence of patient race at high treatment benefit levels invites further investigation into the driving forces behind this persistent disparity in this consequential group.
Autoimmune anti-DNA and anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies predict development of severe COVID-19
High levels of autoimmune antibodies are observed in COVID-19 patients but their specific contribution to disease severity and clinical manifestations remains poorly understood. We performed a retrospective study of 115 COVID-19 hospitalized patients with different degrees of severity to analyze the generation of autoimmune antibodies to common antigens: a lysate of erythrocytes, the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) and DNA. High levels of IgG autoantibodies against erythrocyte lysates were observed in a large percentage (up to 36%) of patients. Anti-DNA and anti-PS antibodies determined upon hospital admission correlated strongly with later development of severe disease, showing a positive predictive value of 85.7% and 92.8%, respectively. Patients with positive values for at least one of the two autoantibodies accounted for 24% of total severe cases. Statistical analysis identified strong correlations between anti-DNA antibodies and markers of cell injury, coagulation, neutrophil levels and erythrocyte size. Anti-DNA and anti-PS autoantibodies may play an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and could be developed as predictive biomarkers for disease severity and specific clinical manifestations.
Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome
Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.
Microbial trend analysis for common dynamic trend, group comparison, and classification in longitudinal microbiome study
BACKGROUND:The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related phenotypes. However, due to the challenging structure of longitudinal microbiome data, few analytic methods are available to characterize the microbial dynamics over time. RESULTS:We propose a microbial trend analysis (MTA) framework for the high-dimensional and phylogenetically-based longitudinal microbiome data. In particular, MTA can perform three tasks: 1) capture the common microbial dynamic trends for a group of subjects at the community level and identify the dominant taxa; 2) examine whether or not the microbial overall dynamic trends are significantly different between groups; 3) classify an individual subject based on its longitudinal microbial profiling. Our extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed MTA framework is robust and powerful in hypothesis testing, taxon identification, and subject classification. Our real data analyses further illustrate the utility of MTA through a longitudinal study in mice. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed MTA framework is an attractive and effective tool in investigating dynamic microbial pattern from longitudinal microbiome studies.
AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis is associated with immunometabolic markers and risk of insulin resistance in subcutaneous but not omental adipose tissue in human obesity
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The incidence of obesity continues to increase worldwide and while the underlying pathogenesis remains largely unknown, nutrient excess, manifested by "Westernization" of the diet and reduced physical activity have been proposed as key contributing factors. Western-style diets, in addition to higher caloric load, are characterized by excess of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which have been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. AGEs can be "trapped" in adipose tissue, even in the absence of diabetes, in part due to higher expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and/or decreased detoxification by the endogenous glyoxalase (GLO) system, where they may promote insulin resistance. It is unknown whether the expression levels of genes linked to the RAGE axis, including AGER (the gene encoding RAGE), Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1), the cytoplasmic domain binding partner of RAGE that contributes to RAGE signaling, and GLO1 are differentially regulated by the degree of obesity and/or how these relate to inflammatory and adipocyte markers and their metabolic consequences. SUBJECTS/METHODS/METHODS:We sought to answer this question by analyzing gene expression patterns of markers of the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 signaling axis in abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and omental (OAT) adipose tissue from obese and morbidly obese subjects. RESULTS:In SAT, but not OAT, expression of AGER was significantly correlated with that of DIAPH1 (nâ€‰=â€‰16; [Formula: see text], [0.260, 1.177]; qâ€‰=â€‰0.008) and GLO1 (nâ€‰=â€‰16; [Formula: see text], [0.364, 1.182]; qâ€‰=â€‰0.004). Furthermore, in SAT, but not OAT, regression analyses revealed that the expression pattern of genes in the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis is strongly and positively associated with that of inflammatory and adipogenic markers. Remarkably, particularly in SAT, not OAT, the expression of AGER positively and significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (nâ€‰=â€‰14; [Formula: see text], [0.338, 1.249]; qâ€‰=â€‰0.018). CONCLUSIONS:These observations suggest associations of the AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis in the immunometabolic pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance, driven, at least in part, through expression and activity of this axis in SAT.
Clinical Trial Protocol for a Randomized Trial of Community Health Worker-led Decision Coaching to Promote Shared Decision-making on Prostate Cancer Screening Among Black Male Patients and Their Providers
We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community health worker-led decision-coaching program to facilitate shared decision-making for prostate cancer screening decisions by Black men at a primary care federally qualified health center.