A prospective study of long-term outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without neurological complications
BACKGROUND:Little is known regarding long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a prospective study of 6-month outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with new neurological complications during hospitalization who survived were propensity score-matched to COVID-19 survivors without neurological complications hospitalized during the same period. The primary 6-month outcome was multivariable ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale(mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (ADLs;Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. RESULTS:Of 606 COVID-19 patients with neurological complications, 395 survived hospitalization and were matched to 395 controls; NÂ =Â 196 neurological patients and NÂ =Â 186 controls completed follow-up. Overall, 346/382 (91%) patients had at least one abnormal outcome: 56% had limited ADLs, 50% impaired cognition, 47% could not return to work and 62% scored worse than average on â‰¥1 Neuro-QoL scale (worse anxiety 46%, sleep 38%, fatigue 36%, and depression 25%). In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications had worse 6-month mRS (median 4 vs. 3 among controls, adjusted OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.23-3.48, PÂ =Â 0.02), worse ADLs (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.29-0.74, PÂ =Â 0.01) and were less likely to return to work than controls (41% versus 64%, PÂ =Â 0.04). Cognitive and Neuro-QOL metrics were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Abnormalities in functional outcomes, ADLs, anxiety, depression and sleep occurred in over 90% of patients 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications during index hospitalization had significantly worse 6-month functional outcomes than those without.
Decompressive Hemicraniectomy for Large Hemispheric Strokes
Large hemispheric infarcts occur in up to 10% of all ischemic strokes and can cause devastating disability. Significant research and clinical efforts have been made in hopes of mitigating the morbidity and mortality of this disease. Areas of interest include identifying predictors of malignant edema, optimizing medical and surgical techniques, selecting the patient population that would benefit most from decompressive hemicraniectomy, and studying the impact on quality of life of those who survive. Decompressive surgery can be a life-saving measure, and here we discuss the most up-to-date literature and provide a review on the surgical management of large hemispheric ischemic strokes.
Toxic Metabolic Encephalopathy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
BACKGROUND:Toxic metabolic encephalopathy (TME) has been reported in 7-31% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, some reports include sedation-related delirium and few data exist on the etiology of TME. We aimed to identify the prevalence, etiologies, and mortality rates associated with TME in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study among patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at four New York City hospitals in the same health network between March 1, 2020, and May 20, 2020. TME was diagnosed in patients with altered mental status off sedation or after an adequate sedation washout. Patients with structural brain disease, seizures, or primary neurological diagnoses were excluded. The coprimary outcomes were the prevalence of TME stratified by etiology and in-hospital mortality (excluding comfort care only patients) assessed by using a multivariable time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, race, sex, intubation, intensive care unit requirement, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, hospital location, and date of admission. RESULTS:Among 4491 patients with COVID-19, 559 (12%) were diagnosed with TME, of whom 435 of 559 (78%) developed encephalopathy immediately prior to hospital admission. The most common etiologies were septic encephalopathy (nâ€‰=â€‰247 of 559 [62%]), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (nâ€‰=â€‰331 of 559 [59%]), and uremia (nâ€‰=â€‰156 of 559 [28%]). Multiple etiologies were present in 435 (78%) patients. Compared with those without TME (nâ€‰=â€‰3932), patients with TME were older (76 vs. 62Â years), had dementia (27% vs. 3%) or psychiatric history (20% vs. 10%), were more often intubated (37% vs. 20%), had a longer hospital length of stay (7.9 vs. 6.0Â days), and were less often discharged home (25% vs. 66% [all Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001]). Excluding comfort care patients (nâ€‰=â€‰267 of 4491 [6%]) and after adjustment for confounders, TME remained associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (nâ€‰=â€‰128 of 425 [30%] patients with TME died, compared with nâ€‰=â€‰600 of 3799 [16%] patients without TME; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.52, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.031), and TME due to hypoxemia conferred the highest risk (nâ€‰=â€‰97 of 233 [42%] patients with HIE died, compared with nâ€‰=â€‰631 of 3991 [16%] patients without HIE; aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.00, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.001). CONCLUSIONS:TME occurred in one in eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was typically multifactorial, and was most often due to hypoxemia, sepsis, and uremia. After we adjustment for confounding factors, TME was associated with a 24% increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
Differences in Admission Blood Pressure Among Causes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose- It is unknown whether admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) differs among causes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to elucidate an association between admission BP and ICH cause. Methods- We compared admission SBP across ICH causes among patients in the Cornell Acute Stroke Academic Registry, which includes all adults with ICH at our center from 2011 through 2017. Trained analysts prospectively collected demographics, comorbidities, and admission SBP, defined as the first recorded value in the emergency department or on transfer from another hospital. ICH cause was adjudicated by a panel of neurologists using the SMASH-U criteria. We used ANOVA to compare mean admission SBP among ICH causes. We used multiple linear regression to adjust for age, sex, race, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and hematoma size. In secondary analyses, we compared hourly SBP measurements during the first 72 hours after admission, using mixed-effects linear models adjusted for the covariates above plus antihypertensive agents. Results- Among 484 patients with ICH, admission SBP varied significantly across ICH causes, ranging from 138 (Â±24) mmâ€‰Hg in those with structural vascular lesions to 167 (Â±35) mmâ€‰Hg in those with hypertensive ICH (P<0.001). The mean admission SBP in hypertensive ICH was 17 (95% CI, 11-24) mmâ€‰Hg higher than in ICH of all other causes combined. These differences remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, race, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and hematoma size (P<0.001), and this persisted throughout the first 72 hours of hospitalization (P<0.001). Conclusions- In a single-center ICH registry, SBP varied significantly among ICH causes, both on admission and during hospitalization. Our results suggest that BP in the acute post-ICH setting is at least partly associated with ICH cause rather than simply representing a physiological reaction to the ICH itself.
Subacute Progressive Ptosis, Ophthalmoplegia, Gait Instability, and Cognitive Changes
Discontinuation of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics After Noninstrumented Spinal Surgery: Results of a Quality Improvement Project
Background/UNASSIGNED:Numerous medical society guidelines recommend discontinuation of antibiotics at a maximum of 24 hours after noninstrumented spinal surgery, even when a drain is left in place. As a result of these recommendations, our institution's Neurosurgery Quality Improvement Committee decided to stop administering prolonged prophylactic systemic antibiotics (PPSAs) to patients with drains after noninstrumented spinal surgery. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We retrospectively reviewed data for patients who had noninstrumented spinal surgery performed by a neurosurgeon at our institution between December 2012 and July 2014 (PPSA period) and December 2014 and July 2016 (non-PPSA period) and had a drain left in place postoperatively. In the PPSA period, patients received antibiotics until drain removal. In the non-PPSA period, patients received antibiotics for a maximum of 24 hours. Results/UNASSIGNED:= .24). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:After discontinuing PPSAs for patients with noninstrumented spinal procedures, as is recommended for quality improvement, we saw a nonsignificant increase in our rate of SSIs. Further monitoring of this population is warranted.
A Single-Center Intervention to Discontinue Postoperative Antibiotics after Spinal Fusion [Meeting Abstract]
The Search for the Missing Antibody [Meeting Abstract]
A single-center intervention to discontinue postoperative antibiotics after spinal fusion
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative antibiotics (PA) are often administered to patients after instrumented spinal surgery until all drains are removed to prevent surgical site infections (SSI). This practice is discouraged by numerous medical society guidelines, so our institutional Neurosurgery Quality Improvement Committee decided to discontinue use of PA for this population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data for patients who had instrumented spinal surgery at our institution for seven months before and after this policy change and compared the frequency of SSI and development of antibiotic related complications in patients who received PA to those who did not (non-PA). RESULTS: We identified 188 PA patients and 158 non-PA patients. Discontinuation of PA did not result in an increase in frequency of SSI (2% of PA patients vs. 0.6% of non-PA patients, p = .4). Growth of resistant bacteria was not significantly reduced in the non-PA period in comparison to the PA period (2% in the PA period and 1% in the non-PA period). The cost of antibiotics for PA patients was $5,499.62, whereas the cost of antibiotics for the non-PA patients was $0. On a per patient basis, the cost associated with antibiotics and resistant infections was significantly greater for patients who received PA than for those who did not (median of $26.32 with IQR $9.87-$46.06 vs. median of $0 with IQR $0-$0; p < .0001). CONCLUSION: After discontinuing PA for patients who had instrumented spinal procedures, we did not observe an increase in the frequency of SSI. We did, however, note that there was a non-significant decrease in the frequency of growth of resistant organisms. These findings suggest that patients in this population do not need PA, and complications can be reduced if PA are withheld.
Antibiotic prophylaxis for subdural and subgaleal drains
OBJECTIVE The authors sought to determine the effects of eliminating the use of prolonged prophylactic systemic antibiotics (PPSAs) in patients with subdural and subgaleal drains. METHODS Using a retrospective database, the authors collected data for patients over the age of 17 years who had undergone cranial surgery at their institution between December 2013 and July 2014 (PPSAs period) or between December 2014 and July 2015 (non-PPSAs period) and had subdural or subgaleal drains left in place postoperatively. RESULTS One hundred five patients in the PPSAs period and 80 in the non-PPSAs period were identified. The discontinuation of PPSAs did not result in an increase in the frequency of surgical site infection (SSI). The frequency of Clostridium difficile (CDI) and the growth of resistant bacteria were reduced in the non-PPSAs period in comparison with the PPSAs period. In the 8 months after the drain prophylaxis protocol was changed, $93,194.63 were saved in the costs of antibiotics and complications related to antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS After discontinuing PPSAs for patients with subdural or subgaleal drains at their institution, the authors did not observe an increase in the frequency of SSI. They did, however, note a decrease in the frequency of CDI and the growth of resistant organisms. It appears that not only can patients in this population do without PPSAs, but also that complications are avoided when antibiotic use is limited to 24 hours after surgery.