The use of transesophageal echocardiography to predict surgical complexity scoring system for degenerative mitral valve repair
BACKGROUND:For severe mitral valve (MV) degenerative disease, repair is recommended. Prediction of repair complexity and referral to high volume centers can increase rates of successful repair. This study sought to demonstrate that TEE is a feasible imaging modality to predict the complexity of surgical MV repair. METHODS:Two hundred TEE examinations of patients who underwent MV repair (2009-2011) were retrospectively reviewed and scored by two cardiac anesthesiologists. TEE scores were compared to surgical complexity scores, which were previously assigned based on published methods. Kappa values were reported for the agreement of TEE and surgical scores. McNemar's tests were used to test the homogeneity of the marginal probabilities of different scoring categories. RESULTS:TEE scores were slightly lower (2[1,3]) than surgical scores (3[1,4]). The agreement was 66% between the scoring methods, with a moderate kappa (.46). Using surgical scores as the gold standard, 70%, 71%, and 46% of simple, intermediate and complex surgical scores, respectively, were correctly scored by TEE. P1, P2, P3, and A2 prolapse were easiest to identify with TEE and had the highest agreement with surgical scoring (P1 agreement 79% with kappa .55, P2 96% [kappa .8], P3 77% [kappa .51], A2 88% [kappa .6]). The lowest agreement between the two scores occurred with A1 prolapse (kappa .05) and posteromedial commissure prolapse (kappa .14). In the presence of significant disagreement, TEE scores were more likely to be of higher complexity than surgical. McNemar's test was significant for prolapse of P1 (p = .005), A1 (p = .025), A2 (p = .041), and the posteromedial commissure (p < .0001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:TEE-based scoring is feasible for prediction of the complexity of MV surgical repair, thus allowing for preoperative stratification.
Well-Being in Anesthesiology Graduate Medical Education: Reconciling the Ideal with Reality
Addressing burnout through well-being initiatives in anesthesiology residency training has been well described. Our intervention of in-person mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a means of addressing burnout among anesthesiology trainees proved unfeasible given attitudinal and logistic variables. We subsequently found success with a "confessions session" model structured as a modification of the Delphi method; this led to organizational changes associated with reduced resident burnout and well-being measured through internal (GME) and external (the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)) annual anonymous surveys.
Reducing Delirium and Improving Patient Satisfaction With a Perioperative Mindfulness Intervention: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study
Postoperative delirium (incidence estimated up to 82%) can be ameliorated with nonpharmacologic methods. Mindfulness has not yet been incorporated into these methods, although mindfulness has been demonstrated to help patients adapt to illness and hospitalization. To reduce postoperative delirium incidence and increase patient satisfaction, this study employs a program of thought exercises based on Langerian mindfulness. Preoperatively, cardiac surgical patients listened to a mindfulness or informational audio; mindfulness subjects were also guided by the principal investigator through mindfulness exercises. Postoperatively, mindfulness subjects were visited twice daily for mindfulness exercises. For all patients, delirium screening was performed twice daily. Before discharge, affective status and satisfaction with hospital stay were assessed. No patients who completed the study screened positive for delirium. Trends include (1) lower (improved) median anxiety and depression scores postoperatively when considering both study groups together; (2) both groups rated the hospital more favorably on global satisfaction measures; (3) both groups shared generally positive comments regarding the audio files (qualitative data). Audio files and mindfulness exercises are associated with patient satisfaction among cardiothoracic surgery patients. The absence of delirium precludes determination of the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing delirium incidence.
Unusual Movements in a Case of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning [Meeting Abstract]
Correlations between basophil activation, allergen-specific IgE with outcome and severity of oral food challenges
BACKGROUND:Double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) remain the gold standard for diagnosing food allergies. Skin prick tests (SPTs) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) are routinely used in medical practice but are not sufficient to predict severity of clinical reactivity. OBJECTIVE:To compare the utility of SPT wheal diameter, sIgE, allergen-specific IgG4 (sIgG4), total IgE (tIgE), sIgE/sIgG4 and sIgE/tIgE ratios, peanut component-specific IgE, and basophil activation in predicting outcome and severity of reactions at DBPCFCs. METHODS:Sixty-seven subjects (12-45 years old) underwent DBPCFCs for peanut, tree nut, fish, shrimp, and/or sesame as part of screening for enrollment in a clinical trial. The SPT, sIgE, tIgE, sIgG4, and peanut component-specific IgE (if applicable) levels were measured. CD63 upregulation on basophils in response to in vitro allergen challenge was analyzed by flow cytometry. Correlations between these measurements and DBPCFC severity scores were analyzed. RESULTS:The SPT and sIgE showed a weak correlation with DBPCFC severity scores, but tIgE and sIgG4 did not. The sIgE/sIgG4 ratio differentiated between positive and negative reactions but did not correlate with DBPCFC severity scores. A low positive correlation was seen between DBPCFC severity score and Ara h 2 IgE, whereas a low negative correlation with Ara h 8 IgE was observed. Basophil activation was positively correlated with DBPCFC severity scores. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed basophil reactivity had the largest area under the curve at 0.904 and sIgE at 0.870. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that basophil activation testing can enhance discrimination between allergic and nonallergic individuals and could serve as an additional tool to predict clinical severity.
Successful prevention of extremely frequent and severe food anaphylaxis in three children by combined traditional Chinese medicine therapy
BACKGROUND: Despite strict avoidance, severely food-allergic children experience frequent and potentially severe food-induced anaphylaxis (FSFA). There are no accepted preventive interventions for FSFA. A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula prevents anaphylaxis in murine food allergy models, and has immunomodulatory effects in humans. We analyzed the effects of TCM treatment on three pediatric patients with FSFA. CASE DESCRIPTION: Three FSFA patients (P) ages 9-16 years (P1 allergic to milk; P2 and P3 to tree nuts) qualified for case analysis. All experienced numerous reactions requiring administration of rescue medications and emergency room (ER) visits during the 2 years prior to starting TCM. P1 experienced approximately 100 reactions, 50 epinephrine administrations, 40 ER visits, and 3 admissions to intensive care units. P2 experienced 30 reactions, all requiring epinephrine administration, as well as 10 emergency hospitalizations. P3 experienced 400 reactions, five of which required epinephrine administration and ER visits. TCM treatment markedly reduced or eliminated reactions in all. P1 experienced no reactions after 2.5 years of TCM. P2 experienced no reactions after 1 year of TCM treatment, at which time she passed an oral almond food challenge. She continues to be reaction-free 6 months off TCM while consuming nuts. P3 has achieved a 94% reduction in reaction frequency following 7 months of TCM, has discontinued daily antihistamine use, and has required no epinephrine administrations or ER visits. CONCLUSIONS: Three children treated with TCM experienced dramatic reductions or elimination of FSFA. This regimen appears to present a potential option for FSFA, and warrants further investigation in controlled clinical studies.
Postnatal analysis of the effect of embryonic knockdown and overexpression of candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene homolog Dcdc2 in the rat
Embryonic knockdown of candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene (CDSG) homologs in cerebral cortical progenitor cells in the rat results in acute disturbances of neocortical migration. In the current report we investigated the effects of embryonic knockdown and overexpression of the homolog of DCDC2, one of the CDSGs, on the postnatal organization of the cerebral cortex. Using a within-litter design, we transfected cells in rat embryo neocortical ventricular zone around embryonic day (E) 15 with either 1) small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors targeting Dcdc2, 2) a DCDC2 overexpression construct, 3) Dcdc2 shRNA along with DCDC2 overexpression construct, 4) an overexpression construct composed of the C terminal domain of DCDC2, or 5) an overexpression construct composed of the DCX terminal domain of DCDC2. RNAi of Dcdc2 resulted in pockets of heterotopic neurons in the periventricular region. Approximately 25% of the transfected brains had hippocampal pyramidal cell migration anomalies. Dcdc2 shRNA-transfected neurons migrated in a bimodal pattern, with approximately 7% of the neurons migrating a short distance from the ventricular zone, and another 30% migrating past their expected lamina. Rats transfected with Dcdc2 shRNA along with the DCDC2 overexpression construct rescued the periventricular heterotopia phenotype, but did not affect the percentage of transfected neurons that migrate past their expected laminar location. There were no malformations associated with any of the overexpression constructs, nor was there a significant laminar disruption of migration. These results support the claim that knockdown of Dcdc2 expression results in neuronal migration disorders similar to those seen in the brains of dyslexics.