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Outcomes of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma compared to de novo adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands

Patel, Evan J; Oliver, Jamie R; Liu, Cheng; Tam, Moses; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare disease of the major salivary glands that remains poorly characterized. Our objective was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with CXPA of the major salivary glands to those with de novo adenocarcinomas. METHODS:Review of the NCDB between 2004 and 2016 to compare cases of CXPA and adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and survival were analyzed. RESULTS:We identified 1181 patients with CXPA and 3326 patients with adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands. Adenocarcinomas presented with higher rates of nodal metastasis (54.7% vs. 30.4%, p < .001). Five-year survival of adenocarcinoma (55.8%) was worse than that of CXPA (68.5%, p < .001). When stratified by nodal status, there was no significant difference in 5-year survival between CXPA and adenocarcinoma node-negative (75.3% vs. 71.6%, respectively) and node-positive (40.4% vs. 36.1%, respectively) patients. CONCLUSIONS:CXPAs of the major salivary glands present at an earlier stage with lower rates of regional metastasis compared to adenocarcinomas. After controlling for lymph node metastases, the outcomes are quite similar.
PMID: 33145786
ISSN: 1096-9098
CID: 4664132

Legumain Induces Oral Cancer Pain by Biased Agonism of Protease-Activated Receptor-2

Tu, Nguyen Huu; Jensen, Dane D; Anderson, Bethany M; Chen, Elyssa; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Scheff, Nicole N; Inoue, Kenji; Tran, Hung D; Dolan, John C; Meek, Tamaryn A; Hollenberg, Morley D; Liu, Cheng Z; Vanner, Stephen J; Janal, Malvin N; Bunnett, Nigel W; Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Schmidt, Brian L
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most painful cancers, which interferes with orofacial function including talking and eating. We report that legumain (Lgmn) cleaves protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in the acidic OSCC microenvironment to cause pain. Lgmn is a cysteine protease of late endosomes and lysosomes that can be secreted; it exhibits maximal activity in acidic environments. The role of Lgmn in PAR2-dependent cancer pain is unknown. We studied Lgmn activation in human oral cancers and oral cancer mouse models. Lgmn was activated in OSCC patient tumors, compared to matched normal oral tissue. After intraplantar, facial or lingual injection, Lgmn evoked nociception in wild-type (WT) female mice but not in female mice lacking PAR2 in NaV1.8-positive neurons (Par2Nav1.8), nor in female mice treated with a Lgmn inhibitor, LI-1. Inoculation of an OSCC cell line caused mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by LI-1. Par2Nav1.8 and Lgmn deletion attenuated mechanical allodynia in female mice with carcinogen-induced OSCC. Lgmn caused PAR2-dependent hyperexcitability of trigeminal neurons from WT female mice. Par2 deletion, LI-1 and inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase or protein kinase A prevented the effects of Lgmn. Under acidified conditions, Lgmn cleaved within the extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 at Asn30↓Arg31, proximal to the canonical trypsin activation site. Lgmn activated PAR2 by biased mechanisms in HEK293 cells to induce Ca2+ mobilization, cAMP formation and protein kinase A/D activation, but not β-arrestin recruitment or PAR2 endocytosis. Thus, in the acidified OSCC microenvironment Lgmn activates PAR2 by biased mechanisms that evoke cancer pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most painful cancers. We report that legumain (Lgmn), which exhibits maximal activity in acidic environments, cleaves protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on neurons to produce OSCC pain. Active Lgmn was elevated in OSCC patient tumors, compared to matched normal oral tissue. Lgmn evokes pain-like behavior through PAR2 Exposure of pain-sensing neurons to Lgmn decreased the current required to generate an action potential through PAR2 Inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the effects of Lgmn. Lgmn activated PAR2 to induce calcium mobilization, cAMP formation and activation of protein kinase D and A, but not β-arrestin recruitment or PAR2 endocytosis. Thus, Lgmn is a biased agonist of PAR2 that evokes cancer pain.
PMID: 33172978
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 4665122

NRG Oncology HN006: Randomized phase II/III trial of sentinel lymph node biopsy versus elective neck dissection for early-stage oral cavity cancer

Lai, Stephen Yenzen; Torres-Saavedra, Pedro A.; Dunlap, Neal E.; Beadle, Beth Michelle; Chang, Steven S.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.; Yu, Jian Qin; Lowe, Val J.; Khan, Saad A.; Truong, Minh Tam; Bell, Diana; Liu, Cheng Z.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Rong, Yi; Abazeed, Mohamed E.; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Harris, Jonathan; Le, Quynh-Thu
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 4962462

Assessment of metastatic lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET and MRI

Chen, Jenny; Hagiwara, Mari; Givi, Babak; Schmidt, Brian; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Qi; Logan, Jean; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Kim, Sungheon Gene
In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) for detection of metastatic lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cases. Twenty HNSCC patients scheduled for lymph node dissection underwent DCE-MRI, dynamic PET, and DWI using a PET-MR scanner within one week prior to their planned surgery. During surgery, resected nodes were labeled to identify their nodal levels and sent for routine clinical pathology evaluation. Quantitative parameters of metastatic and normal nodes were calculated from DCE-MRI (ve, vp, PS, Fp, Ktrans), DWI (ADC) and PET (Ki, K1, k2, k3) to assess if an individual or a combination of parameters can classify normal and metastatic lymph nodes accurately. There were 38 normal and 11 metastatic nodes covered by all three imaging methods and confirmed by pathology. 34% of all normal nodes had volumes greater than or equal to the smallest metastatic node while 4 normal nodes had SUV > 4.5. Among the MRI parameters, the median vp, Fp, PS, and Ktrans values of the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly lower (p = <0.05) than those of normal nodes. ve and ADC did not show any statistical significance. For the dynamic PET parameters, the metastatic nodes had significantly higher k3 (p value = 8.8 × 10-8) and Ki (p value = 5.3 × 10-8) than normal nodes. K1 and k2 did not show any statistically significant difference. Ki had the best separation with accuracy = 0.96 (sensitivity = 1, specificity = 0.95) using a cutoff of Ki = 5.3 × 10-3 mL/cm3/min, while k3 and volume had accuracy of 0.94 (sensitivity = 0.82, specificity = 0.97) and 0.90 (sensitivity = 0.64, specificity = 0.97) respectively. 100% accuracy can be achieved using a multivariate logistic regression model of MRI parameters after thresholding the data with Ki < 5.3 × 10-3 mL/cm3/min. The results of this preliminary study suggest that quantitative MRI may provide additional value in distinguishing metastatic nodes, particularly among small nodes, when used together with FDG-PET.
PMID: 33247166
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4693632

Risk of Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules of Thyroid Bethesda Categories III and IV with Negative ThyroSeq Findings [Meeting Abstract]

Xia, R; Sun, W; Liu, C; Shi, Y; Levine, P; Simsir, A; Cangiarella, J; Brandler, T
Introduction: Due to the diagnostic dilemma with indeterminate thyroid Bethesda categories III and IV (atypia of undetermined significance, AUS and Suspicious for follicular neoplasm, SFN), many laboratories utilize molecular testing to aid in risk stratification of these nodules. In this study, we evaluated the risk of malignancy (ROM) in AUS and SFN thyroid nodules with subsequent negative molecular (ThyroSeq) test results.
Material(s) and Method(s): This study was designed to evaluate the negative molecular thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cases at a tertiary medical center in the metropolitan area. 109 cases of AUS and SFN thyroid FNAs over 3 years with surgical pathology follow up were included in the study.
Result(s): Of 109 AUS and SFN cases, 4 cases showed insufficient material for ThyroSeq testing (3.7%), 76 cases showed a molecular alteration (69.7%), and 29 cases were negative for an alteration on ThyroSeq (26.6%). Among the cases with negative ThyroSeq results, 26 cases were benign on surgical pathology (89.7%) (7/26 were follicular adenomas), and 3/29 cases were malignant on histopathology (papillary thyroid carcinoma) (ROM=10.3%, Table 1). AUS and SFN cases with molecular alterations showed a significantly higher ROM (ROM= 60.5%) compared to cases testing negative for molecular alterations (p<0.01, z = -4.61).
Conclusion(s): Our study found that indeterminate thyroid nodules that tested negative for a molecular alteration displayed an ROM of 10.3%. This ROM is comparable to the lower limit of ROM of FNA alone (without additional molecular testing data) in the AUS and SFN categories (10-30%), but is significantly lower than the ROM of indeterminate thyroid cases with known molecular mutations. Therefore, clinical follow-up is recommended for thyroid FNA indeterminate nodules, even those testing negative for a molecular alteration, due to the maintained, albeit lower, ROM. [Formula presented]
ISSN: 2213-2945
CID: 4659292

Peripheral nerve injury and sensitization underlie pain associated with oral cancer perineural invasion

Salvo, Elizabeth; Campana, Wendy M; Scheff, Nicole N; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Jeong, Se-Hee; Wall, Ian; Wu, Angie K; Zhang, Susanna; Kim, Hyesung; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Janal, Malvin N; Liu, Cheng; Albertson, Donna G; Schmidt, Brian L; Dolan, John C; Schmidt, Robert E; Boada, M Danilo; Ye, Yi
Cancer invading into nerves, termed perineural invasion (PNI), is associated with pain. Here we show that oral cancer patients with PNI report greater spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia compared with patients without PNI, suggesting unique mechanisms drive PNI-induced pain. We studied the impact of PNI on peripheral nerve physiology and anatomy using a murine sciatic nerve PNI model. Mice with PNI exhibited spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia. PNI induced afterdischarge in A high threshold mechanoreceptors (AHTMRs), mechanical sensitization (i.e., decreased mechanical thresholds) in both A and C HTMRs, and mechanical desensitization in low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). PNI resulted in nerve damage, including axon loss, myelin damage, and axon degeneration. Electrophysiological evidence of nerve injury included decreased conduction velocity, and increased percentage of both mechanically-insensitive and electrically-unexcitable neurons. We conclude that PNI-induced pain is driven by nerve injury and peripheral sensitization in HTMRs.
PMID: 32658150
ISSN: 1872-6623
CID: 4527892

Concurrent Identification of Novel EGFR-SEPT14 Fusion and ETV6-RET Fusion in Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland

Black, Margaret; Liu, Cheng Z; Onozato, Maristela; Iafrate, Anthony John; Darvishian, Farbod; Jour, George; Cotzia, Paolo
Salivary gland secretory carcinoma, also termed mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm with characteristic histomorphologic findings similar to those of secretory carcinoma of the breast and harboring recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 fusions. Recent findings have expanded the molecular profile of salivary gland secretory carcinoma to include multiple novel ETV6 fusion partners, including RET, MET, and MAML3. Here, we report a case of cystic MASC with cribriform and papillary histology harboring two gene fusions, ETV6-RET and EGFR-SEPT14, identified by targeted RNA sequencing. The presence of the rearrangements was confirmed by FISH, RT-PCR, and Sanger sequencing. This is the first EGFR-SEPT14 fusion reported in secretory carcinoma as a single event or in association with an ETV6 rearrangement. This finding adds to the expanding molecular profile of this tumor entity, and may translate into novel treatment strategies.
PMID: 31502214
ISSN: 1936-0568
CID: 4087752

Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma

Oliver, Jamie R; Lieberman, Seth M; Tam, Moses M; Liu, Cheng Z; Li, Zujun; Hu, Kenneth S; Morris, Luc G T; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND:To the authors' knowledge, the question of whether human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with outcomes in patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) is not well studied at this time. In the current study, the authors investigated patterns of HPV testing and its association with survival in patients with SNSCC using the National Cancer Data Base. METHODS:The authors selected all SNSCC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2016. HPV testing practices, clinicodemographic factors, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression and propensity score-matched survival analyses were performed. RESULTS:A total of 6458 SNSCC cases were identified. Of these, only 1523 cases (23.6%) were tested for HPV and included in the current study. The median patient age was 64 years and the majority had advanced stage tumors (overall AJCC stage III-IV, 721 patients; 62.1%). HPV-positive SNSCC comprised 31.5% (447 of 1418 cases) of the final study cohort. Among 15 hospitals that routinely tested nonoropharyngeal SCCs for HPV, the percentage of HPV-positive SNSCCs was smaller (24.6%; P = .04). Patients with HPV-positive SNSCC were younger (aged 60 years vs 65 years; P < .001), with tumors that were more likely to be high grade (55.3% vs 41.7%; P < .001), and attributed to the nasal cavity (62.2% vs 44.0%; P < .001). HPV-positive SNSCC was associated with significantly improved overall survival in multivariable regression analysis (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.72 [P = .001]) and propensity score-matched (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.96 [P = .03]) analyses controlling for clinicodemographic and treatment factors. CONCLUSIONS:Currently, only a minority of patients with SNSCC are tested for HPV. However, a sizable percentage of SNSCC cases may be HPV related; furthermore, HPV-positive SNSCC is associated with improved overall survival. Routine HPV testing may be warranted in patients with SNSCC.
PMID: 31886908
ISSN: 1097-0142
CID: 4251152

Clinicopathologic features of warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (wl-ptc): A retrospective analysis of a rare entity from a large academic institution [Meeting Abstract]

Hong, Tran T; Liu, C; Zhou, F; Brandler, T
Background: Little is known about Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (WL-PTC). Its clinicopathologic features are thought to be similar to the classic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Our aim was to evaluate clinical histories, laboratory findings, cytologic (FNA) and histopathologic features to better understand and characterize WL-PTC.
Design(s): We performed a retrospective review of PTC resection cases from 2013-2019 in our pathology database. Cases with a predominant WL-PTC pattern were chosen for further review. Corresponding clinical histories, laboratory results, and FNA cases were assessed.
Result(s): Of 3,731 thyroid surgical resection cases, 1,671 were diagnosed with PTC. 25/1,671 were reported to have Warthin-like features, but only 15/25 cases displayed Warthin-like features in >50% of tumor cells and were included in our study (Table 1). 80% were white, 6.7% Asian/Pacific Islander and 13.3% did not report race. 3/15 FNA cases were Bethesda III due to few follicular cells with nuclear atypia in a background of lymphocytes, making it difficult to distinguish atypia from PTC (Figs 1a-d). On resection, all cases had concomitant Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). All cases tested for BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry were positive (4/4). All 5/15 cases with lymph node metastases had coexisting classic or tall cell features, though not all cases with classic or tall cell features metastasized. 46.7% required post-operative radioactive iodine therapy. To date, the median survival is 100% (range 1 to 6 years). (Table presented)
Conclusion(s): Of all PTC resections at our institution 0.9% were WL-PTC. WL-PTC cases had a prominent lymphocytic infiltrate within papillary fronds and oncocytic cytoplasm (Fig 2a). The unique histologic features of WL-PTC add unique challenges to its diagnosis. Due to its strong association with HT, WL-PTC, particularly microcarcinomas, may be overlooked as endocrine atypia (Fig 2c). As WL-PTC possesses oncocytic features, it can resemble tall cell variant PTC which has a poorer prognosis (Fig 2b). Moreover, minor co-existing tall cell components can actually occur in some WL-PTCs. Foci with tall cell features should be distinguished from WL-PTC by lack of lymphocytic infiltrate within long papillae, and taller than wide cells with distinct cell borders. Like the classic variant, WL-PTC has a favorable prognosis. Metastasis seems to be associated with the presence of classic or tall cell features. More studies are needed to further elucidate this association
ISSN: 1530-0285
CID: 4471052

Application of GATA 3 and TTF-1 in differentiating parathyroid and thyroid nodules on cytology specimens

Shi, Yan; Brandler, Tamar C; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Cangiarella, Joan; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Leung, Allen; Szeto, Oliver; Deng, Fang-Ming; Liu, Cheng Z; Simsir, Aylin; Sun, Wei
BACKGROUND:Differentiating parathyroid from thyroid lesions can be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) due to overlapping cytomorphologic features. While the traditional parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays can help in the distinction, these tests may be cumbersome, particularly when the lesion is unexpected clinically and a needle wash is not collected at the time of FNA. Therefore, we chose to investigate the application of immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with GATA 3 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) on air-dried cytology smears to distinguish parathyroid and thyroid lesions. METHODS:Air-dried touch preparation (TP) slides were prepared from consecutively selected parathyroid and thyroid specimens. Thirteen FNA cases with the clinical concern for parathyroid lesions were also included in the study. IHC was performed on unstained and ultrafast Papanicolaou (UFP) stained air-dried slides. RESULTS:On TP slides, GATA 3 expression was observed in all cases of parathyroid origin but no immunoreactivity was present in thyroid lesions. TTF-1 expression was observed in all cases of thyroid origin but not in parathyroid lesions. GATA 3 and TTF-1 expression of 13 FNA cases were consistent with the clinical impression or concurrent PTH tests. CONCLUSIONS:IHC with GATA 3 and TTF-1 on air-dried cytology smears is a simple and effective way to differentiate parathyroid vs thyroid lesions on FNA. Air-dried unstained and UFP-stained slides perform equally well with IHC, but UFP-stained slides provide the added benefit of morphologic evaluation and assessment of smear cellularity prior to IHC.
PMID: 31713988
ISSN: 1097-0339
CID: 4185152