CD-g-CS nanoparticles for enhanced antibiotic treatment of StaphylococcusÂ xylosus infection
Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus)-induced cow mastitis is an extremely serious clinical problem. However, antibiotic therapy does not successfully treat S. xylosus infection because these bacteria possess a strong biofilm formation ability, which significantly reduces the efficacy of antibiotic treatments. In this study, we developed ceftiofur-loaded chitosan grafted with Î²-cyclodextrins (CD-g-CS) nanoparticles (CT-NPs) using host-guest interaction. These positively charged nanoparticles improved bacterial internalization, thereby significantly improving the effectiveness of antibacterial treatments for planktonic S. xylosus. Moreover, CT-NPs effectively inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated mature biofilms. After mammary injection in a murine model of S. xylosus-induced mastitis, CT-NPs significantly reduced bacterial burden and alleviated inflammation, thereby achieving optimized therapeutic efficiency for S. xylosus infection. In conclusion, this treatment strategy could improve the efficiency of antibiotic therapeutics and shows great potential in the treatment of S. xylosus infections.
Apheresis physician well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results of a survey
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional stressors on physician lives. In this study, we report findings from a survey conducted among attending physician (AP) members of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) to elucidate the status of their well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as resources provided or actions taken by their institutions and themselves personally to maintain or improve their well-being. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:A 17-question, voluntary, IRB-approved survey regarding well-being was distributed to the ASFA AP members between August 26, 2020 and September 16, 2020. The descriptive analyses were reported as number and frequency of respondents for each question. Non-parametric chi-square tests, ANOVA, and paired t-tests were performed to determine differences in categorical variables, changes in well-being scores, and compare time points, respectively. RESULTS:Based on the responses of 70 attending level physicians representing the United States (U.S., 53, 75.7%) and outside the U.S. (17, 24.3%), the following were observed: (1) COVID-19 negatively affects the well-being of a sub-population of APs, (2) neither institutional nor individual measures to improve well-being completely resolved the problem of decreased AP well-being during the pandemic, and (3) personal actions may be superior to institutional resources. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is a widespread decline in AP well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic that was not adequately improved by institutional or personal resources/actions taken. Institutions and physicians must work together to implement strategies including resources and actions that could further improve AP physician well-being during a public health crisis.
Entrustable professional activities for apheresis medicine education
BACKGROUND:Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are well-defined, executable, observable, and measurable activities that are performed by a trainee and can be performed independently as training progresses. The purpose of this study is to develop EPAs specific for the practice of apheresis medicine (AM). METHODS:Members of the American Society for Apheresis Graduate Medical Education subcommittee developed a list of 28 apheresis medical activities linked to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestones and competencies in five areas: (a) consultation, (b) clinical care for therapeutic apheresis, (c) clinical care for donor collections, (d) test optimization, and (e) vascular access. Ten AM experts using a validated tool to measure the quality of the EPAs (QUEPA) evaluated these activities with use of a Likert scale. Per group consensus, an activity was considered acceptable for each domain if it had received an average score greater than 3.7, and it was rated 4 or 5 (agree or strongly agree) by at least 70% of experts. RESULTS:Of the 28 activities, 11 did not have acceptable QUEPA scores: 7 activities were rated as unobservable, 4 were rated unfocused, 2 were rated unrealistic and not generalizable, and 2 were rated as not addressing multiple competencies. Four activities had unacceptable scores in more than one domain. Subcommittee members edited these 11 activities over two review cycles to produce a final list of 26 activities. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A set of practical, focused, and observable EPAs in AM were systematically developed. These EPAs can be used to assess and support trainee performance in AM.
Apheresis medicine in the era of advanced telehealth technologies: An American Society for Apheresis position paper Part I: Understanding the basic technologies and apheresis medicine practice models
The wide spread availability and use of sophisticated high-speed telecommunication networks coupled with inexpensive and easily accessible computing capacity have catalyzed the creation of new tools and strategies for healthcare delivery. Such tools and strategies are of value to apheresis medicine (AM) practitioners if they improve delivery of patient care, enhance safety during a therapeutic apheresis (TA) intervention, facilitate care access, advance technical capabilities of apheresis devices, and/or elevate quality performance within TA programs. In the past several years, healthcare delivery systems' adoption of telecommunication technologies has been fostered by organizational financial and quality improvement objectives. More recently, adoption of telehealth technologies has been catalyzed by the COVID-19 pandemic as these technologies enhance both patient and provider safety in an era of social distancing. These changes will also influence the delivery of TA services which now can be generally viewed in a tripartite model format comprised of traditional hospital-based fixed site locales, mobile TA operations and lately an evolving telemedicine remote management model now reffered to as telapheresis (TLA). This communication developed by the Public Affairs and Advocacy Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and endorsed by its Board of Directors, reviews and describes various aspects of established and evolving electronic technologies related to TLA and the practice of AM. In subsequent companion publications, additional aspects to TLA will be explored and ASFA's vision of reasonable, regulatory compliant and high-quality TLA practices will be expounded.
The Active Ingredients Identification and Antidiarrheal Mechanism Analysis of Plantago asiatica L. Superfine Powder
Plantago asiatica L. is a natural medicinal plant that has been widely used for its various pharmacological effects such as antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing. This study aims to explore the antidiarrheal active ingredients of Plantago asiatica L. that can be used as quality markers to evaluate P. asiatica L. superfine powder (PSP). Molecular docking experiment was performed to identify the effective components of P. asiatica L., which were further evaluated by an established mouse diarrhea model. Na+/K+-ATPase and creatine kinase (CK) activities and the Na+/K+ concentrations were determined. The gene expression of ckb and Atp1b3 was detected. PSP was prepared and evaluated in terms of the tap density and the angle of repose. The structures of PSPs of different sizes were measured by infrared spectra. The active ingredient contents of PSPs were determined by HPLC. The results indicated that the main antidiarrheal components of P. asiatica L. were luteolin and scutellarein that could increase the concentration of Na+ and K+ by upregulating the activity and gene level of CK and Na+/K+-ATPase. In addition, luteolin and scutellarein could also decrease the volume and weight of small intestinal contents to exert antidiarrheal activity. Moreover, as the PSP size decreased from 6.66 to 3.55Â Î¼m, the powder tended to be amorphous and homogenized and of good fluidity, the content of active compounds gradually increased, and the main structure of the molecule remained steady. The optimum particle size of PSP with the highest content of active components was 3.55Â Î¼m, and the lowest effective dose for antidiarrhea was 2,000Â mg/kg. Therefore, the antidiarrheal active ingredients of PSP were identified as luteolin and scutellarein that exert antidiarrheal activity by binding with Na+/K+-ATPase. PSP was successfully prepared and could be used as a new dosage form for the diarrhea treatment.
Vascular access practices for therapeutic apheresis: Results of a survey
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Obtaining vascular access (VA) is a critical part of the therapeutic apheresis (TA) treatment plan. Currently, there are no guidelines for VA decision-making and maintenance related to TA procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A 28-question survey to gather qualitative information regarding VA practices was distributed to the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) 2018 Annual Meeting attendees and all ASFA members for voluntary participation. The descriptive analyses were reported as the number and frequency of responses for each question. RESULTS:Total participation was 206 with 147 (71.4%) answering some or all 16 VA focused questions. The majority of respondents were nurses or physicians (89.0%) at sites providing â‰¥100 procedures. The most common TA procedures were plasma exchange, red cell exchange, and leukocytapheresis. The VA evaluation was predominantly performed by the TA service (80.3%, 118/147). The majority of TA physicians and/or providers do not insert (91.7%, 132/144) or remove (81.2%, 117/143) VA catheters. When an emergent TA procedure is needed, the majority of respondents felt <2 hours was an acceptable turnaround time for VA placement (64.3%, 92/143). The most common anticoagulant for locking catheters and/or ports was heparin. The majority of TA services (54.3%, 76/140) collect data on aborted procedures due to catheter/line/port problems unrelated to infection, but only 41.4% (58/140) collect data on infections. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:VA contributes significantly to the overall risks associated with and the safety of TA. Our survey shows that there is substantial variation but common themes in TA VA practices. Several areas for future research may be identified.
Hemostasis testing and therapeutic plasma exchange: Results of a practice survey
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Performing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with albumin replacement decreases coagulation factor and platelet levels. No defined guidelines exist regarding laboratory testing to assess hemostasis in patients undergoing TPE. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A survey to evaluate hemostasis testing with TPE was distributed using online survey software. One response per institution was analyzed based on a hierarchical algorithm, excluding membrane filtration users, resulting in a maximum of 120 respondents per question. Descriptive analysis was performed with results reported as the number and/or frequency (%) of respondents to each question. RESULTS:/L (24.1%), fibrinogen <100â€‰mg/dL (65.3%), aPTTâ€‰>reference range and >1.5 times reference range (tied, 28.1%), and INR >1.5 (20.7%). CONCLUSIONS:Practice variation exists in hemostasis laboratory testing and threshold values for action with TPE. Further studies are needed to determine optimal hemostasis testing strategies with TPE.
Hemostasis management and therapeutic plasma exchange: Results of a practice survey
BACKGROUND:Patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may present with risks for hemorrhage or thrombosis. Use of replacement fluids devoid of coagulation factors will decrease factor levels and platelet levels. There are no established guidelines for hemostasis management in these situations. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A survey to evaluate current hemostasis management practice during TPE was conducted using online survey software. One response per institution was analyzed based on a hierarchical algorithm, excluding membrane filtration users, resulting in a maximum of 107 respondents. Descriptive analysis was performed with results reported as the number and frequency (%) of respondents to each question. RESULTS:Apheresis Medicine physicians, alone (59.4%) or jointly with the requesting provider (29.2%), choose the replacement fluid. Based on a theoretical patient case receiving five TPEs approximately every other day, the percent of respondents who would use albumin with or without normal saline was 94.7% with no history of a bleeding or clotting disorder, 1.1% with active bleeding, and 8.8% with hypofibrinogenemia (<100â€‰mg/dL) due to recent TPE. More respondents would use albumin with or without normal saline for replacement fluid when a minor invasive procedure (49.5%) vs a major surgery (8.9%) was performed 1 day before TPE. Replacement fluid selection varied among respondents for several other clinical conditions. The most frequent use for cryoprecipitate by respondents (14.3%) was hypofibrinogenemia. CONCLUSIONS:These survey results demonstrate wide interinstitutional variation in replacement fluid selection to manage hemostasis in patients undergoing TPE. Further studies are needed to guide optimal hemostasis management with TPE.
A Successful Selective Concurrent Audit of Platelet Utilization in a Large Academic Hospital [Meeting Abstract]
Strategies to identify candidates for D variant genotyping
BACKGROUND:RhD variants have altered D epitopes and/or decreased antigen copies per red cell. Individuals carrying these variants may test antigen negative, weakly positive, or positive by serology, and may or may not be at risk of alloimmunisation after exposure. There have been recommendations to perform RHD genotyping of patients, pregnant women and females of childbearing potential with serological weak D phenotype, to guide prophylactic use of Rh immune globulin (RhIG), and better conserve D-negative blood products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a set of empirical criteria to identify such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A two-method strategy of gel testing (GT) and tube testing (TT) was used for Rh typing of patients with no historical blood type in the present institution. A monoclonal-polyclonal blend anti-D was used for Rh typing by TT at immediate spin. Three empirical criteria were used to identify candidates for genotyping: C1: discrepancy between the two test methods and a GT reaction strength >2+ stronger than TT; C2: weak serological reaction, defined as reaction strength â‰¤2+ regardless of testing method if both GT and TT were performed or reaction strength â‰¤2+ if only GT was performed, or reaction strength â‰¤1+ if only TT was performed; C3: presence of anti-D in D-positive patients with no history of RhIG use in the preceding 3 months and in whom alloanti-D is suspected. RESULTS:Overall, 50 patients, ranging from newly born to 93 years old, were identified. Genomic testing confirmed D variants in 49/50 cases with a positive predictive value of 98%. DISCUSSION:This two-method strategy is a powerful screening tool for identifying candidates for RHD genotyping. This strategy meets the current requirements of two blood type determinations/two specimens in pre-transfusion testing while simultaneously identifying candidates for RHD genotyping with a minimal increase in work load and cost.