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Perioperative pain management in the neurosurgical patient

Lai, Lawrence T; Ortiz-Cardona, Jose R; Bendo, Audree A
Perioperative pain management in neurosurgical patients has been inadequately recognized and treated. An increased awareness of pain management and advances in understanding of pain modulation and pathophysiology have led to improved perioperative care of patients. There is a need to assess neurologic function while providing superior analgesia with minimal side effects. Several classes of drugs are currently available or under investigation for use as adjuvants or alternative therapies. There remains a need to determine the best treatment of perioperative pain in this patient population. Improved awareness, assessment, and treatment of pain result in better care and overall patient outcome.
PMID: 22901614
ISSN: 1932-2275
CID: 1889672

Deficiency of complement factor MBL in a patient required cardiac surgery after an acute myocardial infarction with underlining chronic lymphocytic leukemia [Case Report]

Lai, Lawrence T; Lee, Daniel C; Ko, Wilson; Shevde, Ketan; Zhang, Ming
Increasing evidence suggests that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the initial factor of the lectin pathway of complement, plays a role in cardiovascular diseases, i.e. inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI). In the present case, a patient with MBL deficiency underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after an acute MI with underlining chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Post-operatively, the patient had a cerebral vascular accident and eventually expired. Analysis of his blood samples from pre-, intra-, and post-operative periods showed that MBL levels abruptly increased post-operatively. We hypothesize that the post-operative increase of MBL in the patient with pre-existing MBL deficiency may contribute to systemic inflammation, causing a detrimental effect after cardiac surgery
PMID: 19038464
ISSN: 1874-1754
CID: 104074

Radioimmunotherapy for model B cell malignancies using 90Y-labeled anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies

Ma, D; McDevitt, M R; Barendswaard, E; Lai, L; Curcio, M J; Pellegrini, V; Brechbiel, M W; Scheinberg, D A
In recent years, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta(-) particle emitting radionuclides targeting the CD20 antigen on B cells in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has provided the most compelling human clinical data for the success of RIT. CD19, like CD20, is an antigen expressed on the surface of cells of the B lineage, and CD19 may provide an alternative target for radioimmunotherapy of B cell neoplasms. CD19 has been largely overlooked as a target for conventional 131I RIT, because the antigen rapidly internalizes upon binding of antibody, resulting in catabolism and significant release of 131I. Such modulation may be an advantage to RIT with radiometals such as 90Y, 177Lu, 213Bi and 225Ac. Herein, we have compared beta(-) particle RIT with antibodies targeting either CD19 or CD20. The anti-CD19 and anti-CD20 antibodies, B4 or C2B8, respectively, were appended with the SCN-CHX-A''-DTPA bifunctional chelating agent and labeled with 90Y. In the tumor model used, there were three times as many CD20 target sites on lymphoma cells as compared to CD19 sites (62000 vs 20000 binding sites, respectively). We compared the efficacy of the 90Y-labeled antibodies to reduce lymphoma in a nude mouse xenograft solid tumor model, after measurable lymphoma appeared. Reduction in tumor size began at day 3 in all three 90Y-treated groups, but tumor began to recur in many animals 9 days after the treatments. There was one cure in each specific treatment group. In contrast, the tumor in the two control groups showed no regression. There was a significant prolongation of median survival time from xenograft (P < 0.0001) in all the 90Y-labeled antibody construct-treated groups (32 days for 0.15 mCi 90Y-B4; 26 days for 0.20 mCi 90Y-C2B8, and 23 days for 0.15 mCi 90Y-C2B8) in comparison to the two control groups (11 days for 0.02 mg of C2B8 and 9 days for untreated growth controls). Specificity of the radioimmunotherapy was also shown. In conclusion, 90Y-labeled anti-CD19 antibody has efficacy comparable to 90Y-labeled anti-CD20 antibody in the treatment of mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts. These data suggest that CD19-targeted RIT merits further study.
PMID: 11840264
ISSN: 0887-6924
CID: 2462712

An alpha-particle emitting antibody ([213Bi]J591) for radioimmunotherapy of prostate cancer

McDevitt, M R; Barendswaard, E; Ma, D; Lai, L; Curcio, M J; Sgouros, G; Ballangrud, A M; Yang, W H; Finn, R D; Pellegrini, V; Geerlings, M W Jr; Lee, M; Brechbiel, M W; Bander, N H; Cordon-Cardo, C; Scheinberg, D A
A novel alpha-particle emitting monoclonal antibody construct targeting the external domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The chelating agent, N-[2-amino-3-(p-isothiocyanatophen-yl)propyl]-trans-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine-N,N',N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid, was appended to J591 monoclonal antibody to stably bind the 213Bi radiometal ion. Bismuth-213 is a short-lived (t 1/2 = 46 min) radionuclide that emits high energy alpha-particles with an effective range of 0.07-0.10 mm that are ideally suited to treating single-celled neoplasms and micrometastatic carcinomas. The LNCaP prostate cancer cell line had an estimated 180,000 molecules of PSMA per cell; J591 bound to PSMA with a 3-nM affinity. After binding, the radiolabeled construct-antigen complex was rapidly internalized into the cell, carrying the radiometal inside. [213Bi]J591 was specifically cytotoxic to LNCaP. The LD50 value of [213Bi]J591 was 220 nCi/ml at a specific activity of 6.4 Ci/g. The potency and specificity of [213Bi]J591 directed against LNCaP spheroids, an in vitro model for micrometastatic cancer, also was investigated. [213Bi]J591 effectively stopped growth of LNCaP spheroids relative to an equivalent dose of the irrelevant control [213Bi]HuM195 or unlabeled J591. Cytotoxicity experiments in vivo were carried out in an athymic nude mouse model with an i.m. xenograft of LNCaP cells. [213Bi]J591 was able to significantly improve (P < 0.0031) median tumor-free survival (54 days) in these experiments relative to treatment with irrelevant control [213Bi]HuM195 (33 days), or no treatment (31 days). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was also specifically reduced in treated animals. At day 51, mean PSA values were 104 ng/ml +/- 54 ng/ml (n = 4, untreated animals), 66 ng/ml +/- 16 ng/ml (n = 6, animals treated with [213Bi]HuM195), and 28 ng/ml +/- 22 ng/ml (n = 6, animals treated with [213Bi]J591). The reduction of PSA levels in mice treated with [213Bi]J591 relative to mice treated with [213Bi]HuM195 and untreated control animals was significant with P < 0.007 and P < 0.0136, respectively. In conclusion, a novel [213Bi]-radiolabeled J591 has been constructed that selectively delivers alpha-particles to prostate cancer cells for potent and specific killing in vitro and in vivo.
PMID: 11085533
ISSN: 0008-5472
CID: 2462732

Two novel alpha particle emitting constructs for radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma. [Meeting Abstract]

Ma, D; McDevitt, MR; Barendswaard, E; Lai, L; Curcio, MJ; Pellegrini, V; Brechbiel, MW; Finn, RD; Scheinberg, DA
ISSN: 0161-5505
CID: 2462802

Bi-213 labeled anti-CD19 antibody construct for lymphoma therapy. [Meeting Abstract]

Ma, D; McDevitt, MR; Barendswaard, E; Curcio, MJ; Lai, L; Brechbiel, MW; Finn, RD; Scheinberg, DA
ISSN: 0161-5505
CID: 2462792