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Assessment of Artificial Intelligence Chatbot Responses to Top Searched Queries About Cancer [Comment]

Pan, Alexander; Musheyev, David; Bockelman, Daniel; Loeb, Stacy; Kabarriti, Abdo E
IMPORTANCE/UNASSIGNED:Consumers are increasingly using artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots as a source of information. However, the quality of the cancer information generated by these chatbots has not yet been evaluated using validated instruments. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To characterize the quality of information and presence of misinformation about skin, lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers generated by 4 AI chatbots. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:This cross-sectional study assessed AI chatbots' text responses to the 5 most commonly searched queries related to the 5 most common cancers using validated instruments. Search data were extracted from the publicly available Google Trends platform and identical prompts were used to generate responses from 4 AI chatbots: ChatGPT version 3.5 (OpenAI), Perplexity (Perplexity.AI), Chatsonic (Writesonic), and Bing AI (Microsoft). EXPOSURES/UNASSIGNED:Google Trends' top 5 search queries related to skin, lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer from January 1, 2021, to January 1, 2023, were input into 4 AI chatbots. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:The primary outcomes were the quality of consumer health information based on the validated DISCERN instrument (scores from 1 [low] to 5 [high] for quality of information) and the understandability and actionability of this information based on the understandability and actionability domains of the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) (scores of 0%-100%, with higher scores indicating a higher level of understandability and actionability). Secondary outcomes included misinformation scored using a 5-item Likert scale (scores from 1 [no misinformation] to 5 [high misinformation]) and readability assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level readability score. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The analysis included 100 responses from 4 chatbots about the 5 most common search queries for skin, lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The quality of text responses generated by the 4 AI chatbots was good (median [range] DISCERN score, 5 [2-5]) and no misinformation was identified. Understandability was moderate (median [range] PEMAT Understandability score, 66.7% [33.3%-90.1%]), and actionability was poor (median [range] PEMAT Actionability score, 20.0% [0%-40.0%]). The responses were written at the college level based on the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that AI chatbots generally produce accurate information for the top cancer-related search queries, but the responses are not readily actionable and are written at a college reading level. These limitations suggest that AI chatbots should be used supplementarily and not as a primary source for medical information.
PMID: 37615960
ISSN: 2374-2445
CID: 5599362

The Plant-based Prescription: How Dietary Change Can Improve Both Urological and Planetary Health [Editorial]

Cole, Alexander P; Gupta, Natasha; Loeb, Stacy
In this editorial, we discuss the relationship between meat consumption and many major urological conditions (eg, prostate cancer, kidney stones, urinary tract infections) and how dietary choices could simultaneously benefit genitourinary health and the environment, which in turn will have downstream impacts on public health.
PMID: 37451898
ISSN: 1873-7560
CID: 5537942

Practice Patterns Regarding Female Reproductive Organ-Sparing and Nerve-Sparing Radical Cystectomy Among Urologic Oncologists in the United States

Gupta, Natasha; Kucirka, Lauren; Semerjian, Alice; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Loeb, Stacy; Bivalacqua, Trinity J
BACKGROUND:Female reproductive organ-sparing (ROS) and nerve-sparing radical cystectomy (RC) techniques have been shown to be oncologically safe and to improve sexual function outcomes among select patients with organ-confined disease. We sought to characterize practice patterns regarding female ROS and nerve-sparing RC among US urologists. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional survey of members of the Society of Urologic Oncology to assess provider-reported frequency of ROS and nerve-sparing RC in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer that failed intravesical therapy or clinically localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. RESULTS:Among 101 urologists, 80 (79.2%) reported that they routinely resect the uterus/cervix, 68 (67.3%) the neurovascular bundle, 49 (48.5%) the ovaries, and 19 (18.8%) a portion of the vagina when performing RC in premenopausal patients with organ-confined disease. When asked about changes to approach in postmenopausal patients, 71 participants (70.3%) reported that they were less likely to spare the uterus/cervix, 44 (43.6%) were less likely to spare the neurovascular bundle, 70 (69.3%) were less likely to spare the ovaries, and 23 (22.8%) were less likely to spare a portion of the vagina. CONCLUSION:We identified significant gaps in adoption of female ROS and nerve-sparing RC techniques for patients with organ-confined disease, despite evidence that ROS and nerve-sparing techniques are oncologically safe and can optimize functional outcomes in select patients. Future efforts should improve provider training in and education about ROS and nerve-sparing RC to improve postoperative outcomes among female patients.
PMID: 36801170
ISSN: 1938-0682
CID: 5594162

The Effect of Racial Concordance on Patient Trust in Online Videos About Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Loeb, Stacy; Ravenell, Joseph E; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Borno, Hala T; Siu, Katherine; Sanchez Nolasco, Tatiana; Byrne, Nataliya; Wilson, Godfrey; Griffith, Derek M; Crocker, Rob; Sherman, Robert; Washington, Samuel L; Langford, Aisha T
IMPORTANCE:Black men have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared with White men, but Black adults are underrepresented in online content about prostate cancer. Across racial groups, the internet is a popular source of health information; Black adults are more likely to trust online health information, yet have more medical mistrust than White adults. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between racial representation in online content about prostate cancer and trust in the content and identify factors that influence trust. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A randomized clinical trial was conducted from August 18, 2021, to January 7, 2022, consisting of a 1-time online survey. Participants included US men and women aged 40 years and older. Data were analyzed from January 2022 to June 2023. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomized to watch the same video script about either prostate cancer screening or clinical trials presented by 1 of 4 speakers: a Black physician, a Black patient, a White physician, or a White patient, followed by a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The primary outcome was a published scale for trust in the information. χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to compare trust according to the video's speaker and topic. RESULTS:Among 2904 participants, 1801 (62%) were men, and the median (IQR) age was 59 (47-69) years. Among 1703 Black adults, a greater proportion had high trust in videos with Black speakers vs White speakers (72.7% vs 64.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.28-2.05; P < .001); less trust with patient vs physician presenter (64.6% vs 72.5%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.49-0.80; P < .001) and about clinical trials vs screening (66.3% vs 70.7%; aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.99; P = .04). Among White adults, a lower proportion had high trust in videos featuring a patient vs physician (72.0% vs 78.6%; aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95; P = .02) and clinical trials vs screening (71.4% vs 79.1%; aOR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42-0.76; P < .001), but no difference for Black vs White presenters (76.8% vs 73.7%; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.83-1.48; P = .49). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this randomized clinical trial, prostate cancer information was considered more trustworthy when delivered by a physician, but racial concordance was significantly associated with trust only among Black adults. These results highlight the importance of physician participation and increasing racial diversity in public dissemination of health information and an ongoing need for public education about clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05886751.
PMID: 37466938
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5535792

Single-cell analysis of localized prostate cancer patients links high Gleason score with an immunosuppressive profile

Adorno Febles, Victor R; Hao, Yuan; Ahsan, Aarif; Wu, Jiansheng; Qian, Yingzhi; Zhong, Hua; Loeb, Stacy; Makarov, Danil V; Lepor, Herbert; Wysock, James; Taneja, Samir S; Huang, William C; Becker, Daniel J; Balar, Arjun V; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Ren, Qinghu; Kufe, Donald; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Adeegbe, Dennis O; Deng, Jiehui; Wise, David R
BACKGROUND:Evading immune surveillance is a hallmark for the development of multiple cancer types. Whether immune evasion contributes to the pathogenesis of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) remains an area of active inquiry. METHODS:Through single-cell RNA sequencing and multicolor flow cytometry of freshly isolated prostatectomy specimens and matched peripheral blood, we aimed to characterize the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) of localized prostate cancer (PCa), including HGPCa and low-grade prostate cancer (LGPCa). RESULTS: TILs. The PCa TME was infiltrated by macrophages but these did not clearly cluster by M1 and M2 markers. CONCLUSIONS:T cell exhaustion in localized PCa, a finding enriched in HGPCa relative to LGPCa. These studies suggest a possible link between the clinical-pathologic risk of PCa and the associated TME. Our results have implications for our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of PCa pathogenesis and the implementation of immunotherapy for localized PCa.
PMID: 36988342
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5463282

Examining understandability, information quality, and presence of misinformation in popular YouTube videos on sleep compared to expert-led videos

Robbins, Rebecca; Epstein, Lawrence J; Iyer, Jay; Weaver, Matthew D; Javaheri, Sogol; Fashanu, Olabimpe; Loeb, Stacy; Monten, Kristen; Le, Colin; Bertisch, Suzanne M; Van Den Bulck, Jan; Quan, Stuart F
The Internet is a common source of sleep information, but may be subject to commercial bias and misinformation. We compared the understandability, information quality, and presence of misinformation of popular YouTube videos on sleep to videos with credible experts. We identified the most popular YouTube videos on sleep/insomnia and 5 videos from experts. Videos were assessed for understanding and clarity using validated instruments. Misinformation and commercial bias were identified by consensus of sleep medicine experts. The most popular videos received on average 8.2 (±2.2) million views; the expert-led videos received on average 0.3 (±0.2) million views. Commercial bias was identified in 66.7% of popular videos and 0% of expert videos (p<0.012). The popular videos featured more misinformation than expert videos (p<0.001). The popular videos about sleep/insomnia on YouTube featured misinformation and commercial bias. Future research may explore methods for disseminating evidence-based sleep information.
PMID: 36794333
ISSN: 1550-9397
CID: 5432162

Environmental Impact of Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

Leapman, Michael S; Thiel, Cassandra L; Gordon, Ilyssa O; Nolte, Adam C; Perecman, Aaron; Loeb, Stacy; Overcash, Michael; Sherman, Jodi D
BACKGROUND:Reducing low-value clinical care is an important strategy to mitigate environmental pollution caused by health care. OBJECTIVE:To estimate the environmental impacts associated with prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prostate biopsy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:We performed a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of prostate biopsy. Data included materials and energy inventory, patient and staff travel contributed by prostate MRI, transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy, and pathology analysis. We compared environmental emissions across five clinical scenarios: multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate with targeted and systematic biopsies (baseline), mpMRI with targeted biopsy cores only, systematic biopsy without MRI, mpMRI with systematic biopsy, and biparametric MRI (bpMRI) with targeted and systematic biopsies. We estimated the environmental impacts associated with reducing the overall number and varying the approach of a prostate biopsy by using MRI as a triage strategy or by omitting MRI. The study involved academic medical centers in the USA, outpatient urology clinics, health care facilities, medical staff, and patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS/METHODS:e), and equivalents of coal and gasoline burned were measured. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:emissions, the equivalent of 700 000 l of gasoline consumed. This analysis was limited to prostate MRI and biopsy, and does not account for downstream clinical management. CONCLUSIONS:A prostate biopsy contributes a calculable environmental footprint. Modifying or reducing the number of biopsies performed through existing evidence-based approaches would decrease health care pollution from the procedure. PATIENT SUMMARY/RESULTS:We estimated that prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a prostate biopsy procedure emits the equivalent of 80.7 kg of carbon dioxide. Performing fewer unnecessary prostate biopsies or using prostate MRI as a tool to decide which patients should have a prostate biopsy would reduce procedural greenhouse gas emissions and health care pollution.
PMID: 36635108
ISSN: 1873-7560
CID: 5434432

Understanding the sexual health perceptions, concerns, and needs of female partners of prostate cancer survivors

Gupta, Natasha; Zebib, Laura; Wittmann, Daniela; Nelson, Christian J; Salter, Carolyn A; Mulhall, John P; Byrne, Nataliya; Nolasco, Tatiana Sanchez; Loeb, Stacy
BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) and its treatments can have a significant negative impact on the sexual health of survivors and couples, but few studies have specifically examined the impact of PCa-related sexual dysfunction on female partners of survivors. AIM:Our objective was to perform a qualitative study to comprehensively characterize female partners' perceptions of the implications of PCa on their sex lives, as well as partners' sexual health concerns and unmet needs. METHODS:We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews about sexual health and unmet needs with female partners of PCa survivors recruited from multiple clinical locations and support groups for PCa caregivers from September 2021 to March 2022. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and independently coded. Participants were recruited until thematic saturation was achieved. OUTCOMES:Outcomes of this study were female partner sexual health concerns and unmet needs. RESULTS:Among 12 participants, the median age was 65 (range 53 to 81) years, 9 were White, the median time since their partner's PCa diagnosis was 2.25 years (range 11 months to 20 years), and a majority reported that their partner had undergone radical prostatectomy, radiation, and/or hormonal therapy. Major emergent themes pertained to the significant impact of age- and PCa-related sexual dysfunction on female sexual quality of life, the dyadic nature of sexual dysfunction and recovery, the role of the partner in coping with and adjusting to sexual dysfunction, difficulties communicating about sexual dysfunction in an intimate relationship, a lack of physician-led sexual health counseling and support, and the benefit of peer interactions and proactive information seeking in addressing unmet sexual health needs. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS:Future efforts should continue to explore the impact of PCa on partner sexual health and address unmet needs through sexual health education and support. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS:In this study, we identified female partners' sexual health concerns both related to and independent of PCa survivor sexual health. Limitations include exclusion of male partners of survivors and potential responder bias, as partners who agreed to participate may have experienced more sexual health concerns. CONCLUSION:We found that female partners experience PCa-related sexual dysfunction as a couple's disease, grief due to age- and PCa-related sexual losses, and a lack of physician-led sexual health counseling and information. Our results highlight the importance of including partners of PCa survivors in the sexual recovery process and of developing sexual care programs to address partners' unmet sexual health needs.
PMCID:10149377
PMID: 36941211
ISSN: 1743-6109
CID: 5517322

Best Current Practice and Research Priorities in Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer-A Report of a Movember International Consensus Meeting

Moore, Caroline M; King, Lauren E; Withington, John; Amin, Mahul B; Andrews, Mark; Briers, Erik; Chen, Ronald C; Chinegwundoh, Francis I; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Crowe, Jane; Finelli, Antonio; Fitch, Margaret I; Frydenberg, Mark; Giganti, Francesco; Haider, Masoom A; Freeman, John; Gallo, Joseph; Gibbs, Stephen; Henry, Anthony; James, Nicholas; Kinsella, Netty; Lam, Thomas B L; Lichty, Mark; Loeb, Stacy; Mahal, Brandon A; Mastris, Ken; Mitra, Anita V; Merriel, Samuel W D; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Palmer, Nynikka R; Paterson, Catherine C; Roobol, Monique J; Segal, Phillip; Schraidt, James A; Short, Camille E; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Tempany, Clare M C; Villers, Arnaud; Wolinsky, Howard; MacLennan, Steven
BACKGROUND:Active surveillance (AS) is recommended for low-risk and some intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Uptake and practice of AS vary significantly across different settings, as does the experience of surveillance-from which tests are offered, and to the levels of psychological support. OBJECTIVE:To explore the current best practice and determine the most important research priorities in AS for prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:A formal consensus process was followed, with an international expert panel of purposively sampled participants across a range of health care professionals and researchers, and those with lived experience of prostate cancer. Statements regarding the practice of AS and potential research priorities spanning the patient journey from surveillance to initiating treatment were developed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS/METHODS:Panel members scored each statement on a Likert scale. The group median score and measure of consensus were presented to participants prior to discussion and rescoring at panel meetings. Current best practice and future research priorities were identified, agreed upon, and finally ranked by panel members. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:There was consensus agreement that best practice includes the use of high-quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which allows digital rectal examination (DRE) to be omitted, that repeat standard biopsy can be omitted when MRI and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics are stable, and that changes in PSA or DRE should prompt MRI ± biopsy rather than immediate active treatment. The highest ranked research priority was a dynamic, risk-adjusted AS approach, reducing testing for those at the least risk of progression. Improving the tests used in surveillance, ensuring equity of access and experience across different patients and settings, and improving information and communication between and within clinicians and patients were also high priorities. Limitations include the use of a limited number of panel members for practical reasons. CONCLUSIONS:The current best practice in AS includes the use of high-quality MRI to avoid DRE and as the first assessment for changes in PSA, with omission of repeat standard biopsy when PSA and MRI are stable. Development of a robust, dynamic, risk-adapted approach to surveillance is the highest research priority in AS for prostate cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY/RESULTS:A diverse group of experts in active surveillance, including a broad range of health care professionals and researchers and those with lived experience of prostate cancer, agreed that best practice includes the use of high-quality magnetic resonance imaging, which can allow digital rectal examination and some biopsies to be omitted. The highest research priority in active surveillance research was identified as the development of a dynamic, risk-adjusted approach.
PMID: 36710133
ISSN: 2588-9311
CID: 5435292

A vision for closing the evidence-practice gap in the management of low-grade prostate cancer [Comment]

Leapman, Michael S; Loeb, Stacy; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Catalona, William J; Gaylis, Franklin D
PMID: 37101361
ISSN: 2515-5091
CID: 5465232