Common peripheral nerve injuries in sport: diagnosis and management
Peripheral nerve injuries are unusual in sport but impact an athlete's safe return to play. Nerve injuries result from either acute trauma (most commonly in contact/collision sports) or from repetitive microtrauma and overuse. Diagnosis of overuse nerve injuries includes nerve localization and surrounding soft-tissue anatomy, and must account for possible causes of repetitive microtrauma, including biomechanics, equipment, training schedule, and recovery. Prognosis is related to the type of nerve injury. Management should not simply be rest and gradual return to sport but should address biomechanical and training predispositions to injury. Understanding the type of injury and the tissues involved will guide appropriate rehabilitation decisions. Recognizing acute care considerations and implementing appropriate strategies can help minimize secondary trauma to an area following acute injury.
[New York] : Springer Publishing Company, 2017
SEP Montage Variability Comparison during Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring
Intraoperative monitoring is performed to provide real-time assessment of the neural structures that can be at risk during spinal surgery. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most commonly used modality for intraoperative monitoring. SEP stability can be affected by many factors during the surgery. This study is a prospective review of SEP recordings obtained during intraoperative monitoring of instrumented spinal surgeries that were performed for chronic underlying neurologic and neuromuscular conditions, such as scoliosis, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. We analyzed multiple montages at the baseline, and then followed their development throughout the procedure. Our intention was to examine the stability of the SEP recordings throughout the surgical procedure on multiple montages of cortical SEP recordings, with the goal of identifying the appropriate combination of the least number of montages that gives the highest yield of monitorable surgeries. Our study shows that it is necessary to have multiple montages for SEP recordings, as it reduces the number of non-monitorable cases, improves IOM reliability, and therefore could reduce false positives warnings to the surgeons. Out of all the typical montages available for use, our study has shown that the recording montage Cz-C4/Cz-C3 (Cz-Cc) is the most reliable and stable throughout the procedure and should be the preferred montage followed throughout the surgery.
Intraoperative monitoring in spine surgery
New Delhi : Jaypee Brothers, 2015
Train-of-Four Test in Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring: Differences Between Hand and Foot Train-of-Four
PURPOSE: Comparison of T1-T4 decrement between upper and lower extremity muscles can indicate differences between recovery time from neuromuscular blockade, which may have repercussions for neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring. We investigated decrement between T1 and T4 hand and foot muscle responses on quantitative train-of-four (TOF) test. METHODS: Study analyzed differences between recovery of foot, abductor hallucis muscle, and hand, first dorsal interosseous muscle, by application of quantitative TOF test on 147 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. T1 to T4 decrements on hand and foot TOF were obtained and classified into different groups, depending on elapsed time after administration of neuromuscular blocking agents and its dose. RESULTS: There are significant differences between T1-T4 decrements obtained on hand and foot (P < 0.05). T1-T4 decrement determined on abductor hallucis muscle was lower indicating more rapid recovery than the first dorsal interosseous muscle (P < 0.05). Interestingly, quite opposite, more pronounced decrement in foot TOF than hand was showed in 4% (5 out of all 147 cases). CONCLUSIONS: The observed difference between recovery of hand and foot muscles suggests that quantitative TOF test should be performed on extremities for which accurate data about the level of neuromuscular blockade is sought. During lumbar spine surgery monitoring, in addition to hand TOF, foot TOF should be included.