Volumetric brain changes in MOGAD: A cross-sectional and longitudinal comparative analysis
BACKGROUND:Relatively little is known about how global and regional brain volumes changes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) compare with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and healthy controls (HC). OBJECTIVE:To compare global and regional brain volumes in MOGAD, MS, NMOSD, and HC cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally in a subset of patients. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all adult MOGAD and NMOSD patients with brain MRI performed in stable remission and compared them with MS patients and HC. Volumetric parameters were assessed using the FDA-approved icobrain software. adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS:Twenty-four MOGAD, 47 NMOSD, 40 MS patients, and 37 HC were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Relative to HC, the age-adjusted whole brain (WB) volume was significantly lower in patients with MOGAD (p=0.0002), NMOSD (p=0.042), and MS (p=0.01). Longitudinal analysis of a subset of 8 MOGAD, 22 NMOSD, and 34 MS patients showed a reduction in the WB and cortical gray matter (CGM) volumes over time in all three disease groups, without statistically significant differences between groups. The MOGAD group had a greater loss of thalamic volume compared to MS (p=0.028) and NMOSD (p=0.023) and a greater loss of hippocampal volumes compared to MS (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS:Age-adjusted WB volume loss was evident in all neuroinflammatory conditions relative to HC in cross-sectional comparisons. In longitudinal analyses, MOGAD patients had a higher thalamic atrophy rate relative to MS and NMOSD, and a higher hippocampal atrophy rate relative to MS. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings and to investigate their clinical implications.
Tumor Embolization through Meningohypophyseal and Inferolateral Trunks is Safe and Effective
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Skull base tumors are commonly supplied by dural branches of the meningohypophyseal and inferolateral trunks. Embolization through these arteries is often avoided due to technical challenges and inherent risks; however, successful embolization can be a valuable surgical adjunct. We aimed to review the success and complications in our series of tumor embolizations through the meningohypophyseal and inferolateral trunks. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of patients with tumor treated with preoperative embolization at our institution between 2010 and 2020. We reviewed the following data: patients' demographics, tumor characteristics, endovascular embolization variables, and surgical results including estimated blood loss, the need for transfusion, and operative time. RESULTS:= 4) trunk. In this group of patients, on average, 79% of tumors were embolized. No mortality or morbidity from the embolization procedure was observed in this subgroup of patients. The average estimated blood loss in the operation was 395â€‰mL (range, 200-750â€‰mL). None of the patients required a transfusion, and the average operative time was 7.3â€‰hours. CONCLUSIONS:Some skull base tumors necessitate embolization through ICA branches such as the meningohypophyseal and inferolateral trunks. Our series demonstrates that an effective and safe embolization may be performed through these routes.
Quantitative imaging features predict spinal tap response in normal pressure hydrocephalus
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Gait improvement following high-volume lumbar puncture (HVLP) and continuous lumbar drain (cLD) is widely used to predict shunt response in patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Here, we investigate differences in MRI volumetric and traditional measures between HVLP/cLD responders and non-responders to identify imaging features that may help predict HVLP/cLD response. METHODS:Eighty-two patients with suspected NPH were studied retrospectively. Gait testing was performed before and immediately/24Â h/72Â h after HVLP/cLD. A positive response was defined as improvement in gait post-procedure. Thirty-six responders (26 men; mean age 79.3â€‰Â±â€‰6.3) and 46 non-responders (25 men; mean age 77.2â€‰Â±â€‰6.1) underwent pre-procedure brain MRI including a 3D T1-weighted sequence. Subcortical regional volumes were segmented using FreeSurfer. After normalizing for total intracranial volume, two-way type III ANCOVA test and chi-square test were used to characterize statistical group differences. Evans' index, callosal angle (CA), and disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models were tested using Akaike information criterion to determine which combination of metrics most accurately predicts HVLP/cLD response. RESULTS:Responders and non-responders demonstrated no differences in total ventricular and white/gray matter volumes. CA (men only) and third and fourth ventricular volumes were smaller; and hippocampal volume was larger in responders (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Temporal horns volume correlated with degree of improvement in gait velocity in responders (pâ€‰=â€‰0.0006). The regression model was 76.8% accurate for HVLP/cLD response. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:CA and third and fourth ventricular volumes and hippocampal volume may serve as potentially useful imaging features that may help predict spinal tap response and hence potentially shunt response.
Development and Practical Implementation of a Deep Learning-Based Pipeline for Automated Pre- and Postoperative Glioma Segmentation
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Quantitative volumetric segmentation of gliomas has important implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We present a deep-learning model that accommodates automated preoperative and postoperative glioma segmentation with a pipeline for clinical implementation. Developed and engineered in concert, the work seeks to accelerate clinical realization of such tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A deep learning model, autoencoder regularization-cascaded anisotropic, was developed, trained, and tested fusing key elements of autoencoder regularization with a cascaded anisotropic convolutional neural network. We constructed a dataset consisting of 437 cases with 40 cases reserved as a held-out test and the remainder split 80:20 for training and validation. We performed data augmentation and hyperparameter optimization and used a mean Dice score to evaluate against baseline models. To facilitate clinical adoption, we developed the model with an end-to-end pipeline including routing, preprocessing, and end-user interaction. RESULTS:The autoencoder regularization-cascaded anisotropic model achieved median and mean Dice scores of 0.88/0.83 (SD, 0.09), 0.89/0.84 (SD, 0.08), and 0.81/0.72 (SD, 0.1) for whole-tumor, tumor core/resection cavity, and enhancing tumor subregions, respectively, including both preoperative and postoperative follow-up cases. The overall total processing time per case was âˆ¼10â€‰minutes, including data routing (âˆ¼1 minute), preprocessing (âˆ¼6 minute), segmentation (âˆ¼1-2 minute), and postprocessing (âˆ¼1 minute). Implementation challenges were discussed. CONCLUSIONS:We show the feasibility and advantages of building a coordinated model with a clinical pipeline for the rapid and accurate deep learning segmentation of both preoperative and postoperative gliomas. The ability of the model to accommodate cases of postoperative glioma is clinically important for follow-up. An end-to-end approach, such as used here, may lead us toward successful clinical translation of tools for quantitative volume measures for glioma.
18F-FDG PET-CT postoperative changes after maxillectomy: Findings and pitfalls in interpretation
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:We investigated the findings and pitfalls of FDG-PET/CT scanning after maxillectomy with reconstruction/rehabilitation procedures, in patients with head and neck malignancies treated during nine years at one tertiary medical centre. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Fourteen patients (10 males), aged 22-84 years, underwent 17 reconstruction/rehabilitation maxillectomy surgeries and 35 PET/CT scans. Postoperative PET/CT findings were correlated with clinical and imaging follow-up. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:=0.17). CONCLUSIONS:/UNASSIGNED:Increased FDG uptake, together with corresponding non-specific CT features, may persist for a prolonged period after surgery with obturators and mesh implantations, mimicking malignancy or infection. Awareness of variations in postoperative PET-CT appearance can help avoid false interpretations and redundant invasive procedures.
Widespread cortical dyslamination in epilepsy patients with malformations of cortical development
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Recent research in epilepsy patients confirms our understanding of epilepsy as a network disorder with widespread cortical compromise. Here, we aimed to investigate the neocortical laminar architecture in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) using clinically feasible 3 T MRI. METHODS:Eighteen epilepsy patients (FCD and PNH groups; n = 9 each) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 9) underwent T1 relaxation 3 T MRI, from which component probability T1 maps were utilized to extract sub-voxel composition of 6 T1 cortical layers. Seventy-eight cortical areas of the automated anatomical labeling atlas were divided into 1000 equal-volume sub-areas for better detection of cortical abnormalities, and logistic regressions were performed to compare FCD/PNH patients with healthy controls with the T1 layers composing each sub-area as regressors. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was determined by a likelihood-ratio test with correction for false discovery rate using Benjamini-Hochberg method. RESULTS:Widespread cortical abnormalities were observed in the patient groups. Out of 1000 sub-areas, 291 and 256 bilateral hemispheric cortical sub-areas were found to predict FCD and PNH, respectively. For each of these sub-areas, we were able to identify the T1 layer, which contributed the most to the prediction. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results reveal widespread cortical abnormalities in epilepsy patients with FCD and PNH, which may have a role in epileptogenesis, and likely related to recent studies showing widespread structural (e.g., cortical thinning) and diffusion abnormalities in various human epilepsy populations. Our study provides quantitative information of cortical laminar architecture in epilepsy patients that can be further targeted for study in functional and neuropathological studies.
Preliminary Findings Associate Hippocampal 1H-MR Spectroscopic Metabolite Concentrations with Psychotic and Manic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Previous hippocampal proton MR spectroscopic imaging distinguished patients with schizophrenia from controls by elevated Cr levels and significantly more variable NAA and Cho concentrations. This goal of this study was to ascertain whether this metabolic variability is associated with clinical features of the syndrome, possibly reflecting heterogeneous hippocampal pathologies and perhaps variability in its "positive" (psychotic) and "negative" (social and emotional deficits) symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:, we examined the association of NAA and Cho levels with research diagnostic interviews and clinical symptom ratings of the patients. Metabolite concentrations were previously obtained with 3D proton MR spectroscopic imaging at 3T, a technique that facilitates complete coverage of this small, irregularly shaped, bilateral, temporal lobe structure. RESULTS:â€‰â‰¥â€‰ .055). CONCLUSIONS:These preliminary findings suggest that NAA and Cho variations reflect different pathophysiologic processes, consistent with microgliosis/astrogliosis and/or lower vitality (reduced NAA) and demyelination (elevated Cho). In particular, the active state-related symptoms, including psychosis and mania, were associated with demyelination. Consequently, their deviations from the means of healthy controls may be a marker that may benefit precision medicine in selection and monitoring of schizophrenia treatment.
Emerging Artificial Intelligence Imaging Applications for Stroke Interventions
Medical Imaging and Privacy in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: Myth, Fallacy, and the Future
Vigabatrin Toxicity in a Patient with Infantile Spasms Treated with Concomitant Hormonal Therapy