Breast Milk and Breastfeeding of Infants Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Mothers: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒThere are limited published data on the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from mothers to newborns through breastfeeding or from breast milk. The World Health Organization released guidelines encouraging mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to breastfeed as the benefits of breastfeeding outweighs the possible risk of transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 was present in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test prior to delivery, and the clinical outcomes for their newborns. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:by two-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the clinical characteristics of the maternal newborn dyad, results of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing, and neonatal follow-up data were collected. RESULTS:â€ƒA total of 19 mothers were included in the study and their infants who were all fed breast milk. Breast milk samples from 18 mothers tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, and 1 was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The infant who ingested the breast milk that tested positive had a negative nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2, and had a benign clinical course. There was no evidence of significant clinical infection during the hospital stay or from outpatient neonatal follow-up data for all the infants included in this study. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒIn a small cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive lactating mothers giving birth at our institution, most of their breast milk samples (95%) contained no detectable virus, and there was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in their breast milk-fed neonates. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Breast milk may rarely contain detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA and was not detected in asymptomatic mothers.. Â· Breast milk with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a symptomatic mother had no clinical significance for her infant.. Â· Breast feeding with appropriate infection control instructions appears to be safe in mother with COVID infection..
Neonate Born to a Mother with a Diagnosis of Suspected Intra-Amniotic Infection versus COVID-19 or Both [Case Report]
A diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection is typically made based on clinical criteria, including maternal intrapartum fever and one or more of the following: maternal leukocytosis, purulent cervical drainage, or fetal tachycardia. The diagnosis can also be made in patients with an isolated fever of 39Â°C, or greater, without any other clinical risk factors present. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been noted to have varying signs and symptoms over the course of the disease including fever, cough, fatigue, anorexia, shortness of breath, sputum production, and myalgia. In this report, we detail a case of a newborn born to a mother with a clinical diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection with maternal fever and fetal tachycardia, who was then found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive on testing. Due to the varying presentation of COVID-19, this case illustrates the low threshold needed to test mothers for SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent horizontal transmission to neonates and to healthcare providers.
Skin-to-Skin Care and the Development of the Preterm Infant Oral Microbiome
Objective The oral cavity represents an initial entry way for oral and gut indigenous colonization. Skin-to-skin (STS) care, in which the mother holds the diaper clad naked preterm (PT) infant between her breasts, is associated with improved digestive function, decreased stress, and improved survival. This study evaluated the development of oral microbial colonization repertoires and health characteristics in PT infants with or without STS exposure. Methods Saliva from 42 PT infants (<32 weeks of gestation at birth) was collected prospectively at 1 month and/or at discharge. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing identified microbial diversity and prevalence of bacterial signatures correlated with clinical STS or non-STS care. Results Corrected for gestational age (CGA) at sampling, bacterial taxa demonstrated increased Streptococcus as a signature of oral repertoire maturation. STS was associated with increased Streptococcus (p < 0.024), while non-STS was associated with greater Corynebacterium (p < 0.023) and Pseudomonas (p < 0.019) in infants = 32 weeks CGA. In infants > 32 weeks CGA, Neisseria and Acinetobacter were more prevalent, 50 vs. 16.7% and 40 vs. 0%, respectively. STS care was associated with shorter hospitalization (p < 0.039). Conclusion STS care during earlier gestation was associated with a distinct microbial pattern and an accelerated pace of oral microbial repertoire maturity.
Maternal and Neonatal Nurse Perceived Value of Kangaroo Mother Care and Maternal Care Partnership in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Background Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) enhances infant and maternal well-being and requires maternal-care partnerships (MCP) for implementation.Objective To examine maternal and neonatal nurse provider perspectives on the value of KMC and MCP.Study Design Prospective cohort design of neonatal nurses and mothers of preterm infants self-report anonymous questionnaire. Analyses of categorical independent variables and continuous variables were calculated.Results In all, 82.3% of nurses (42) and 100% (143) of mothers participated in the survey. compared with 18% of nurses, 63% of mothers believed "KMC should be provided daily" and 90% of mothers compared with 40% of nurses strongly believed "mothers should be partners in care." In addition, 61% of nonwhite mothers identified that "KMC was not something they were told they could do for their infant" compared with 39% of white mothers. Nonwhite and foreign-born nurses were 2.8 and 3.1 times more likely to encourage MCP and KMC.Conclusion Mothers held strong positive perceptions of KMC and MCP value compared with nurses. Nonwhite mothers perceived they received less education and access to KMC. Barriers to KMC and MCP exist among nurses, though less in nonwhite, foreign-born, and/or nurses with their own children, identifying important provider educational opportunities to improve maternal KMC access in the NICU.
Maternal antenatal treatments influence initial oral microbial acquisition in preterm infants
Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of maternal antenatal therapy on initial preterm infant oral microbial acquisition of gut metabolically important bacteria: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides species.Study Design Infant oral samples were collected prefeeding at 24 hours and analyzed using group-specific primers by real-time 16S rRNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction with analysis of variance and logistic regression to evaluate effect of antenatal exposure.Results Sixty-five infants <34 weeks' gestational age (GA) were evaluated; mean GA was 28.6 +/- 2.6 (standard deviation) weeks. Infants unexposed to antenatal treatment (n = 5) acquired <1% Firmicutes, which was composed of 100% Lactobacillus species with no detectable Bifidobacterium, Bacteroidetes, or Bacteroides species. Infants exposed to antibiotics (n = 7), acquired fivefold less total bacterial density (TBD) with 45% Firmicutes 1.3% Lactobacillus species, 23.5% Bacteroidetes and rare Bacteroides. Compared with unexposed infants, steroids (n = 26) or steroid and antibiotics (n = 27) exposure led to an eightfold increase in TBD with <1% Lactobacillus species and Bacteroides species 100% and 30%, respectively (p < 0.04). Bifidobacterium was undetectable in all groups.Conclusion Preterm infant exposure to routine maternal antenatal treatments influence early oral microbial acquisition during the primary hours related to establishment of gut commensal bacteria.
Factors that influence neonatal nursing perceptions of family-centered care and developmental care practices
The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of developmental care education and training and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) developmental team structure in promoting neonatal nursing perception and beliefs of key characteristics of family-centered care (FCC), developmental care, and kangaroo mother care (KMC). A 24-item Likert scale survey of specific perceptions and beliefs of aspects of FCC, KMC, and developmental care characteristics was conducted with 59 neonatal nurses from three distinct level III NICUs in New York City where nurses had undergone recent reeducation and developmental team configuration. There was no difference in nursing beliefs of technical developmental care approaches to infant care at all three sites. Neonatal nurses who were supported by an on-site infant developmental specialist were more likely to have strong beliefs related to the affective areas of FCC and the technique of KMC. FCC and clinical care approaches that include a high level of parental participation such as KMC in the NICU are likely to be facilitated by a comprehensive approach of continuing training as well as a team structure that includes dedicated, specially trained infant developmental specialist personnel.