Photorealistic imaging of left atrial appendage occlusion/exclusion
Recent improvements in 3D TEE post processing rendering techniques referred to as TrueVue (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA). It allows for novel photorealistic imaging of cardiac structures including left atrial appendage (LAA) and its closure devices. Here we present TrueVue images of the LAA prior to and after LAA exclusion/occlusion using various percutaneous and surgical techniques. TrueVue may improve delineation of LAA anatomy prior to occlusion as well as visualization of occluder device position within the LAA.
Aggressive tissue aortic valve replacement in younger patients and the risk of re-replacement: Implications from microsimulation analysis
OBJECTIVE:Advances in transcatheter aortic valve replacement have led to the consideration of tissue aortic valve replacement in younger patients. Part of this enthusiasm is the presumption that younger patients would have more flexibility in future treatment options, such as a primary surgical aortic valve replacement followed later by transcatheter aortic valve replacement(s) (valve-in-valve), vice versa, or other permutations. We created a microsimulation model using published longevity of tissue valves to predict the outcomes of patients after primary tissue surgical aortic valve replacement. METHODS:The model calculated survival by incorporating annual mortality (Social Security Administration) and mortality from re-replacements (Society of Thoracic Surgeons) in patients with surgical aortic valve replacement. Freedom from reoperation for structural valve degeneration incorporated best published data to determine the annual risk of re-replacement for structural valve degeneration based on implant duration and stratified by patient age. A constant rate of re-replacement for nonstructural valve degeneration indications was also incorporated. Each simulation was performed for 50,000 individuals. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to represent survival. All simulations were run within the MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc, Natick, Mass). RESULTS:Earlier decades of life at primary surgical aortic valve replacement were associated with higher incidences of re-replacements and especially multiple re-replacements. For those patients receiving a primary tissue surgical aortic valve replacement at age 50Â years, 57.2% will require a second valve, 18.0% will require a third valve, and 1.6% will require a fourth valve with average operative mortalities of 2.9%, 4.8%, and 7.3%, respectively. A 50-year-old patient at primary surgical aortic valve replacement has a 13.1% chance of re-replacement before turning 60Â years of age. CONCLUSIONS:Microsimulation incorporates changing hazards to estimate the risk of aortic valve re-replacement in patients undergoing tissue surgical aortic valve replacement and may be a starting point for patient education and healthcare economic planning.
Ninety-Day Readmissions of Bundled Valve Patients: Implications for Healthcare Policy
OBJECTIVE:Medicare's Bundle Payment for Care Improvement(BPCI) Model 2 groups reimbursement for valve surgery into 90-day episodes of care(EOC) which include operative costs, inpatient stay, physician fees, post-acute care, and readmissions up to 90 days post-procedure. We analyzed our BPCI patients' 90-day outcomes to understand the late financial risks and implications of the bundle payment system for valve patients. METHODS:All BPCI valve patients from 10/2013 (start of risk-sharing phase) through 12/2015 were included. Readmissions were categorized as early (â‰¤30 days) or late (31-90 days). Data were collected from institutional databases as well as Medicare claims. RESULTS:Analysis included 376 BPCI valve patients: 202 open and 174 transcatheter aortic valves (TAVR). TAVR patients were older (83.6 vs 73.8 years; p=0.001) and had higher STS predicted risk (7.1% vs 2.8%; p=0.001). Overall, 18.6% of patients (70/376) had one-or-more 90-day readmission, and total claims was on average 51% greater for these patients. Overall readmissions were more common among TAVR patients (22.4%(39/174) vs 15.3%(31/202),p=0.052) as was late readmission. TAVR patients had significantly higher late readmission claims, and early readmission was predictive of late readmission for TAVR patients only (p=0.04). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Bundled claims for a 90-day episode of care are significantly increased in patients with readmissions. TAVR patients represent a high-risk group for late readmission, possibly a reflection of their chronic disease processes. Being able to identify patients at highest risk for 90-day readmission and the associated claims will be valuable as we enter into risk-bearing EOC agreements with Medicare.
PERSISTENT ALCAPA PHYSIOLOGY AFTER ALCAPA REPAIR [Meeting Abstract]
Totally endoscopic resection of an unsuspected recurrent pleural tumor in a patient undergoing robotic mitral and tricuspid valve repair [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: A 75-year-old woman with New York Heart Association class II heart failure presented with severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. Eight years prior, the patient had a large right thoracotomy for resection of a pleural tumor. Our goal was to demonstrate a totally endoscopic resection of an unsuspected recurrent pleural tumor preceding concomitant mitral and tricuspid valve repair.
Method(s): After initially positioning the patient in the left decubitus position via a posterolateral approach, extensive adhesiolysis between the right lower lobe and the diaphragmrevealed a nonimaged 2- to 3-cmmass in the right lower lobe. Limited parenchymal resection was performed. The patient was repositioned in a supine position. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation with moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation. Five lateral thoracic ports were placed for the da Vinci Xi system. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted via femoral access with independent femoral and internal jugular venous lines. An endoballoon clamp was positioned with fluorescent guidance and antegrade del Nido cardioplegia was administered. Sondergaard's groove was opened, and the left atrial appendage was oversewn with 2 layers of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sutures. The mitral valve was nonmyxoid, inconsistent with Barlow's disease. Inspection confirmed mild prolapse of the anterior leaflet, numerous hypertrophied and calcified secondary chordae, and restriction of the posterior leaflet. Secondary chordae were excised below the A2-A3, P1-P2, and P2-P3 clefts. Small triangular excisions were performed at the A2-A3 and P1-P2 junctions, which were both reconstructed with a running PTFE suture. Hydrostatic testing revealed mild central insufficiency due to a lack of coaptation depth. Commissuroplasty was performed with a single PTFE suture, and the P2-P3 cleft was closed with a running PTFE suture. A 30-mmannuloplasty band was inserted. Final hydrostatic testing revealed excellent leaflet coaptation. The cavae were occluded with snares, and the tricuspid valve was exposed via a right atriotomy. A reduction tricuspid annuloplasty with a 26-mm band was performed. With the heart reperfused and the aortic root and left ventricle vented, the atriotomies were closed.
Result(s): Postoperative transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated preserved left ventricular function with trace mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 6. Final pathological analysis confirmed a completely resected benign solitary fibrous tumor.
Conclusion(s): A totally endoscopic approach to mitral and tricuspid valve repair can be performed safely and effectively in patients with a prior right thoracotomy
Totally endoscopic robotic mitral valve repair in a patient with severe pectus excavatum [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: A 63-year-old man with severe asymmetric pectus excavatum (Haller index 3.55) presented with New York Heart Association class I symptoms, severe mitral regurgitation due to flail posterior leaflet, and preserved left ventricular (LV) function. Our goalwas to demonstrate a totally endoscopic robotic-assisted mitral repair.
Patient(s): Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation with an anteriorly directed jet due to prolapse of the middle scallop of the posterior leaflet. Four ports were placed in the right chest for the da Vinci Xi surgical system (working, camera, left and right instruments), and cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted via femoral access with arterial and long venous cannulae. While preparing the pericardium, we noted that the right pulmonary veins entered the left atrium leftward of the sternum. An endoclamp was positioned with fluorescent guidance, and antegrade Del Nido cardioplegia was administered. Sondergaard's groove was opened and the left atrial appendage was oversewn with 2 layers of polytetrafluoroethylene sutures. With intracorporeal guidance, a 5th port for an atrial retractor was positioned to the right of the sternum, verifying that it could reach deep enough into the left chest. Analysis of lesions demonstrated a flail P2 leaflet and a globally myxoid mitral valve consistent with Barlow's disease. Although a 0-angle scope provided sufficient visualization of the valve and subvalvular regions, intermittent conflict existed between the instruments and the posterior sternum. A triangular excision of P2 was performed; abnormal chordae were excised below P2, and the defect was closed with polytetrafluoroethylene sutures. A 36-mm posterior annuloplasty band was attached with interrupted 2-0 braided sutures, and hydrostatic testing revealed no residual regurgitation.While the patient was being rewarmed, the endoclamp balloon was deflated while the LV and root were vented. The heart spontaneously returned to sinus rhythm, and the patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass without inotropic support. Postoperative transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated preserved LV function and no residual regurgitation or gradient. The patient was extubated in the operating room and discharged on postoperative day 2.
Conclusion(s): Severe pectus excavatum can make right chest approaches difficult, even in a totally endoscopic robotic approach, but the lack of chest wall disruption allows a speedy recovery
Del Nido cardioplegia for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement
BACKGROUND:We analyzed the impact and safety of del Nido Cardioplegia (DNC) in patients undergoing minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR). METHODS:We analyzed all isolated MIAVR replacements from 5/2013-6/2015 excluding re-operative patients. The approach was a hemi-median sternotomy in all patients. Patients were divided into two cohorts, those who received 4:1 crystalloid:blood DNC solution and those in whom standard 1:4 Buckberg-based cardioplegia (WBC) was used. One-to-one propensity case matching of DNC to WBC was performed based on standard risk factors and differences between groups were analyzed using chi-square and non-parametric methods. RESULTS:MIAVR was performed in 181 patients; DNC was used in 59 and WBC in 122. Case matching resulted in 59 patients per cohort. DNC was associated with reduced re-dosing (5/59 (8.5%) versus 39/59 (61.0%), Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and less total cardioplegia volume (1290â€‰Â±â€‰347â€‰mL vs 2284â€‰Â±â€‰828â€‰mL, Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Antegrade cardioplegia alone was used in 89.8% (53/59) of DNC patients versus 33.9% (20/59) of WBC patients (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Median bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were similar. Clinical outcomes were similar with respect to post-operative hematocrit, transfusion requirements, need for inotropic/pressor support, duration of intensive care unit stay, re-intubation, length of stay, new onset atrial fibrillation, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Del Nido cardioplegia usage during MIAVR minimized re-dosing and the need for retrograde delivery. Patient safety was not compromised with this technique in this group of low-risk patients undergoing MIAVR.
Robotic mitral repair: Denying the enlightenment [Editorial]
Del nido cardioplegia simplifies myocardial protection strategy for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: The longer dosing interval afforded by Del Nido cardioplegia (DNC) may simplify myocardial protection strategies. We analyzed the impact and safety of DNC in patients undergoing minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. Methods: Institutional use of DNC began in May 2013; we analyzed all isolated minimally invasive aortic valve replacements during this transition (May 2013-June 2015), excluding reoperative sternotomy patients. The approach was hemi-median sternotomy in all patients. Prospectively collected local and Society of Thoracic Surgeons database data were used. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: those who received 4:1 crystalloid:blood DNC solution and those in whom standard 1:4 Buckberg-based cardioplegia (BC) was used. One-to-one propensity case matching of DNC to Buckberg-based cardioplegia was performed based on standard risk factors, and differences between groups were analyzed using X2 and nonparametric methods. Results: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement was performed in 181 patients; DNC was usedin 59 and Buckberg-based cardioplegia in 122. Case matching resulted in 59 patients per cohort. DNC was associated with reduced re-dosing [5/59 (8.5%) vs. 39/59 (61.0%), P<0.001] and less total cardioplegia volume (1290 ml+/-347 ml vs. 2284 ml+/-828 ml, P<0.001). Antegrade cardioplegia alone was used in 89.8% (53/59) of DNC patients versus 33.9% (20/59) of patients receiving Buckberg-based cardioplegia (P<0.001). Median bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were similar. Clinical outcomes were similar with respect to postoperative hematocrit, transfusion requirements, need for inotropic/pressor support, duration of stay in the intensive care unit, re-intubation, length of hospital stay, new onset atrial fibrillation, and mortality rate. Table SA15-1 contains demographics, cardioplegia delivery methods, and results. Conclusions: DNC usage markedly simplifies cardioplegia strategy for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. Patient safety was not compromised with this technique. (Table pasented)
Reengineering valve patients' postdischarge management for adapting to bundled payment models
BACKGROUND: Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiatives were developed by Medicare in an effort to reduce expenditures while preserving quality of care. Payment model 2 reimburses based on a target price for 90-day episode of care postprocedure. The challenge for valve patients is the historically high (>35%) 90-day readmission rate. We analyzed our institutional cardiac surgical service line adaptation to this initiative. METHODS: On May 1, 2015, we instituted a readmission reduction initiative (RRI) that included presurgical risk stratification, comprehensive predischarge planning, and standardized postdischarge management led by cardiac nurse practitioners (CNPs) who attempt to guide any postdischarge encounters (PDEs). A prospective database also was developed, accruing data on all cardiac surgery patients discharged after RRI initiation. We analyzed detailed PDEs for all valve patients with complete 30-day follow-up through November 2015. RESULTS: Patients included 219 surgical patients and 126 transcatheter patients. Sixty-four patients had 79 PDEs. Of these 79 PDEs, 46 (58.2%) were guided by CNPs. PDEs were due to fluid overload/effusion (21, 27%), arrhythmia (17, 22%), bleeding/thromboembolic events (13, 16%), and falls/somatic complaints (12, 15%). Thirty-day readmission rate was 10.1% (35/345). Patients with transcatheter aortic valve replacement had a higher rate of readmission than surgical patients (15.0% vs 6.9%), but were older with more comorbidities. The median readmission length of stay was 2.0 days (interquartile range 1.0-5.0 days). Compared with 2014, the 30-day readmission rate for BPCI decreased from 18% (44/248) to 11% (20/175), P = .05. CONCLUSIONS: Our reengineering of pre/postdischarge management of BPCI valve patients under tight CNP control has significantly reduced costly 30-day readmissions in this high-risk population.