Patterns of mean-level changes in vocational interests: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies
The present meta-analysis used meta-analytic techniques to determine the patterns of mean-level change in vocational interests from early adolescence (age 12) to the end of emerging adulthood (age 24.9). Results showed that vocational interests show a clear pattern of normative change. Across gender, Investigative, Artistic, Social and Enterprising interests were found to increase across the studied period, with the greatest changes in mean-levels occurring during middle- through late-adolescence into emerging adulthood. Conventional interests were found to increase for women and decrease for men during the same period. However, contrary to stereotypes, Realistic interests increased in women and decreased in men. Gender was also a moderating factor in mean-level changes of basic interests. Longer studies showed greater change. The ages at which the greatest change occurred were markedly different across general and basic interest categories, suggesting differential rates or timelines of development across the broad band of interests.
The experiences of bystanders of workplace ethnic harassment
The present research examined the experiences of individuals who witnessed or knew about ethnic harassment of their coworkers. Through 3 studies, we found that knowledge of other people's harassment was differentiated from personal experiences as a target and was associated with deleterious occupational, health-related, and psychological consequences beyond those accounted for by direct harassment and affective disposition. Ethnicity and gender did not moderate these relationships. Knowledge of others' ethnic harassment can therefore be construed as bystander harassment. Results also indicated that bystander and direct harassment were relatively common occurrences. Both harassment types contributed to how ethnic conflict is experienced. The consequences of ethnic harassment are not restricted to ethnic minority employees. Rather, everyone is at risk from such behaviors.
Interest change and continuity from early adolescence to middle adulthood
The present paper discusses the continuity and change of individuals' vocational interests by reviewing recent research on interest development across the life course. Five forms of change and continuity were proposed to adequately describe interest development. The developmental trajectory of interests based on a recent meta-analysis by Low, Yoon, Roberts, and Rounds (2005) was presented. Mechanisms resulting in change and continuity are discussed within a biopsychosocial context. Implications for understanding the way interests can simultaneously change and become stable were presented.
Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2006