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Intravenous BCG driven antigen recognition in a murine tuberculosis model

Singh, Shivani; Bolz, Miriam; Cornelius, Amber; Desvignes, Ludovic
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only approved vaccine against tuberculosis but the subcutaneous route does not provide for the elimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), thus highlighting the need for investigating other routes of administration. We used a unique set of 60 peptide pools with unprecedented coverage of the bacterium that had previously been used to study T cell responses in subjects latently infected with Mtb. We showed that intravenous BCG vaccination of C57BL/6 mice elicited a more robust IFN-γ response from splenocytes than the subcutaneous route, with the highest responses driven by the Ag85A/B and PE/PPE family epitopes, followed by TB10.4 and Esx-1. We then compared the spectrum of antigen recognition in BCG-naïve H37Rv-challenged and BCG-vaccinated H37Rv-challenged mice. Peptides belonging to TB10.4, ESAT-6, CFP-10, Ag85A/Ag85B, PE/PPE and Esx families up-regulated IFN-γ production in the lungs of BCG-naïve H37Rv-challenged mice but the response was much lower in the BCG-vaccinated group. Historically, a limited number of Mtb antigens have been used to study T cell responses in TB. The goal of using this 60-peptide assay was to define T cell responses in TB down to the epitope level. We envision that the use of broad antigen panels such as ours in conjunction with studies of bacterial load reduction will help delineate the protective efficacy of 'groups' of antigens.
PMID: 35700556
ISSN: 1878-1667
CID: 5238252

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Tsay, Jun-Chieh J; Wu, Benjamin G; Yeung, Stephen T; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara A; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Pérez-Pérez, Lizzette; Shen, Guomiao; Jour, George; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel H; Weiden, Michael; Heguy, Adriana; Evans, Laura; Uyeki, Timothy M; Clemente, Jose C; de Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian V; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Khanna, Kamal M; Ghedin, Elodie; Segal, Leopoldo N
Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.
PMID: 34465900
ISSN: 2058-5276
CID: 4998422

Discrete immune response signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination versus infection

Ivanova, Ellie N; Devlin, Joseph C; Buus, Terkild B; Koide, Akiko; Cornelius, Amber; Samanovic, Marie I; Herrera, Alberto; Zhang, Chenzhen; Desvignes, Ludovic; Odum, Niels; Ulrich, Robert; Mulligan, Mark J; Koide, Shohei; Ruggles, Kelly V; Herati, Ramin S; Koralov, Sergei B
Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. A number of studies have described immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, beyond antibody production, immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccine. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling of immune cells, coupled with reconstruction of the B and T cell antigen receptor rearrangement of individual lymphocytes, enabled us to characterize and compare the host responses to the virus and to defined viral antigens. While both infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges. In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients. Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects. Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells. Importantly, the divergence in immune subsets engaged, the transcriptional differences in key immune populations, and the differences in maturation of adaptive immune cells revealed by our analysis have far-ranging implications for immunity to this novel pathogen.
PMCID:8077568
PMID: 33907755
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4852132

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Koralov, Sergei; Wu, Benjamin; Yeung, Stephen; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Perez-Perez, Lizzette; Jour, George; Shen, Guomiao; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel; Heguy, Adriana; Uyeki, Timothy; Clemente, Jose; de Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth; Khanna, Kamal; Ghedin, Elodie; Weiden, Michael; Segal, Leopoldo
Mortality among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure is high and there are no known lower airway biomarkers that predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections and viral load were associated with poor clinical outcome and host immune tone. We obtained bacterial and fungal culture data from 589 critically ill subjects with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. On a subset of the subjects that underwent bronchoscopy, we also quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analyzed the microbiome of the lower airways by metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses and profiled the host immune response. We found that isolation of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. However, poor clinical outcome was associated with enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with an oral commensal ( Mycoplasma salivarium ), while high SARS-CoV-2 viral burden, poor anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, together with a unique host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 1) the extent of viral infectivity drives mortality in severe COVID-19, and therefore 2) clinical management strategies targeting viral replication and host responses to SARS-CoV-2 should be prioritized.
PMCID:8010736
PMID: 33791687
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4830952

Antibody isotype diversity against SARS-CoV-2 is associated with differential serum neutralization capacities

Noval, Maria G; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Koide, Akiko; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Bruno A; Louie, Ping; Tada, Takuya; Hattori, Takamitsu; Panchenko, Tatyana; Romero, Larizbeth A; Teng, Kai Wen; Bazley, Andrew; de Vries, Maren; Samanovic, Marie I; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Aifantis, Ioannis; Cangiarella, Joan; Mulligan, Mark J; Desvignes, Ludovic; Dittmann, Meike; Landau, Nathaniel R; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A
Understanding antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is indispensable for the development of containment measures to overcome the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies showed that serum from convalescent patients can display variable neutralization capacities. Still, it remains unclear whether there are specific signatures that can be used to predict neutralization. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of sera from a cohort of 101 recovered healthcare workers and we addressed their SARS-CoV-2 antibody response by ELISA against SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain and nucleoprotein. Both ELISA methods detected sustained levels of serum IgG against both antigens. Yet, the majority of individuals from our cohort generated antibodies with low neutralization capacity and only 6% showed high neutralizing titers against both authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Spike pseudotyped virus. Interestingly, higher neutralizing sera correlate with detection of -IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against both antigens, while individuals with positive IgG alone showed poor neutralization response. These results suggest that having a broader repertoire of antibodies may contribute to more potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Altogether, our work provides a cross sectional snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody response in recovered healthcare workers and provides preliminary evidence that possessing multiple antibody isotypes can play an important role in predicting SARS-CoV-2 neutralization.
PMCID:7946906
PMID: 33692390
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4809372

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Tsay, Jun-Chieh J; Wu, Benjamin G; Yeung, Stephen T; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara A; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Perez-Perez, Lizzette; Jour, George; Shen, Guomiao; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel H; Weiden, Michael; Hegu, Adriana; Evans, Laura; Uyeki, Timothy M; Clemente, Jose C; De Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian V; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Khanna, Kamal M; Ghedin, Elodie; Segal, Leopoldo N
Mortality among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure is high and there are no known lower airway biomarkers that predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections and viral load were associated with poor clinical outcome and host immune tone. We obtained bacterial and fungal culture data from 589 critically ill subjects with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. On a subset of the subjects that underwent bronchoscopy, we also quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analyzed the microbiome of the lower airways by metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses and profiled the host immune response. We found that isolation of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. However, poor clinical outcome was associated with enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with an oral commensal ( Mycoplasma salivarium ), while high SARS-CoV-2 viral burden, poor anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, together with a unique host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 1) the extent of viral infectivity drives mortality in severe COVID-19, and therefore 2) clinical management strategies targeting viral replication and host responses to SARS-CoV-2 should be prioritized.
PMCID:7924286
PMID: 33655261
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4801472

A comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals characterizes 3CLpro inhibitor PF-00835231 as a potential new treatment for COVID-19

de Vries, Maren; Mohamed, Adil S; Prescott, Rachel A; Valero-Jimenez, Ana M; Desvignes, Ludovic; O'Connor, Rebecca; Steppan, Claire; Devlin, Joseph C; Ivanova, Ellie; Herrera, Alberto; Schinlever, Austin; Loose, Paige; Ruggles, Kelly; Koralov, Sergei B; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Binder, Joseph; Dittmann, Meike
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a dire need for novel effective antivirals to treat COVID-19, as the only approved direct-acting antiviral to date is remdesivir, targeting the viral polymerase complex. A potential alternate target in the viral life cycle is the main SARS-CoV-2 protease 3CLpro (Mpro). The drug candidate PF-00835231 is the active compound of the first anti-3CLpro regimen in clinical trials. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of PF-00835231, the pre-clinical 3CLpro inhibitor GC-376, and the polymerase inhibitor remdesivir, in alveolar basal epithelial cells modified to express ACE2 (A549+ACE2 cells). We find PF-00835231 with at least similar or higher potency than remdesivir or GC-376. A time-of-drug-addition approach delineates the timing of early SARS-CoV-2 life cycle steps in A549+ACE2 cells and validates PF-00835231's early time of action. In a model of the human polarized airway epithelium, both PF-00835231 and remdesivir potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations. Finally, we show that the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, which was previously suggested to diminish PF-00835231's efficacy based on experiments in monkey kidney Vero E6 cells, does not negatively impact PF-00835231 efficacy in either A549+ACE2 cells or human polarized airway epithelial cultures. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence for the potential of PF-00835231 as an effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral and addresses concerns that emerged based on prior studies in non-human in vitro models.Importance:The arsenal of SARS-CoV-2 specific antiviral drugs is extremely limited. Only one direct-acting antiviral drug is currently approved, the viral polymerase inhibitor remdesivir, and it has limited efficacy. Thus, there is a substantial need to develop additional antiviral compounds with minimal side effects and alternate viral targets. One such alternate target is its main protease, 3CLpro (Mpro), an essential component of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle processing the viral polyprotein into the components of the viral polymerase complex. In this study, we characterize a novel antiviral drug, PF-00835231, which is the active component of the first-in-class 3CLpro-targeting regimen in clinical trials. Using 3D in vitro models of the human airway epithelium, we demonstrate the antiviral potential of PF-00835231 for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2.
PMID: 33622961
ISSN: 1098-5514
CID: 4794542

Comparative study of a 3CL pro inhibitor and remdesivir against both major SARS-CoV-2 clades in human airway models

de Vries, Maren; Mohamed, Adil S; Prescott, Rachel A; Valero-Jimenez, Ana M; Desvignes, Ludovic; O'Connor, Rebecca; Steppan, Claire; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Binder, Joseph; Dittmann, Meike
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic that has claimed over 700,000 human lives. The only SARS-CoV-2 antiviral, for emergency use, is remdesivir, targeting the viral polymerase complex. PF-00835231 is a pre-clinical lead compound with an alternate target, the main SARS-CoV-2 protease 3CL pro (M pro ). Here, we perform a comparative analysis of PF-00835231 and remdesivir in A549 +ACE2 cells, using isolates of two major SARS-CoV-2 clades. PF-00835231 is antiviral for both clades, and, in this assay, statistically more potent than remdesivir. A time-of-drug-addition approach delineates the timing of early SARS-CoV-2 life cycle steps and validates PF-00835231's time of action. Both PF-00835231 and remdesivir potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human polarized airway epithelial cultures. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence for the potential of PF-00835231 as an effective antiviral for SARS-CoV-2, addresses concerns from non-human in vitro models, and supports further studies with this compound.
PMCID:7457613
PMID: 32869028
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4583022

Evidenced-Based Guidelines For Tuberculosis Screening Before Biologic Treatment Initiation [Letter]

Shah, Payal; Rebick, Gabriel; Bajaj, Shirin; Desvignes, Ludovic
PMID: 32222451
ISSN: 1097-6787
CID: 4371212

High titers of multiple antibody isotypes against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain and nucleoprotein associate with better neutralization

Noval, Maria G; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Koide, Akiko; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Bruno A; Louie, Ping; Tada, Takuya; Hattori, Takamitsu; Panchenko, Tatyana; Romero, Larizbeth A; Teng, Kai Wen; Bazley, Andrew; de Vries, Maren; Samanovic, Marie I; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Aifantis, Ioannis; Cangiarella, Joan; Mulligan, Mark J; Desvignes, Ludovic; Dittmann, Meike; Landau, Nathaniel R; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A
ORIGINAL:0014801
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4636922