Postpartum Pain in the Community Among Migrant and Non-migrant Women in Canada
International migrant women of childbearing age represent a large proportion of immigrants to high-income countries, yet research focusing on their postpartum health is limited. We investigated predictive factors for breast and non-breast pain 1Â week post-birth in migrant and non-migrant women in Canada. Among migrant women, difficulty accessing health services; being from a middle-or high-income country; poor functionality in English and French; living with the father of their infant; and having no regular care provider were predictive of breast pain. Among non-migrant women, difficulties accessing health services, multiparity and prenatal education were predictive of breast pain, while receiving an epidural and having no regular care provider were predictive of non-breast pain. Among both groups, difficulties accessing health services and having no regular care provider were predictive of breast pain, while second degree or higher perineal tearing was predictive of non-breast pain. Migration-specific indicators should be considered in postpartum care planning.
The lateral thoracic artery revisited
BACKGROUND:Although the variations in the origin of the branches of the axillary and subclavian arteries have been well documented, little information regarding the highly variable lateral thoracic artery (LTA) is available. Descriptions of the LTA variations may prove useful during procedures of the lateral aspects of the thorax such as reconstructive plastic surgery and modified radical mastectomy. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine the anatomy of the LTA and offer an accurate account of its variability. METHODS:The entire course and distribution of the LTA was examined in 420 formalin-fixed adult human cadavers. RESULTS:The LTA was found in 96.7 % of the specimens, showing great morphological variability and classified into six types according to its origin. The most common type was where the LTA arose from the thoracoacromial artery (Type I 67.62 %). In decreasing order of incidence were origins from: the axillary artery (Type II 17.02 %), the thoracodorsal artery (Type III 5 %), and the subscapular artery (Type IV 3.93 %). Additionally, multiple LTAs were present (Type V 3.09 %) and complete absence of LTA (Type VI 3.33 %) was observed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite variations in origin of the vessels, our dissections demonstrated that the ultimate tissue distribution of the LTA remained typical in the vast majority of the specimens and descended on the lateral border of the pectoralis minor. Our results illustrate the need for re-evaluation of the branches of the thoracoacromial artery with possible consideration that the LTA arises from it, instead of directly from the axillary artery. We hope that the information supplied by this study will provide useful information to anatomists and surgeons alike.