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The Effect of Femoral Head Size on Groin Pain in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Moore, Michael R; Lygrisse, Katherine A; Singh, Vivek; Arraut, Jerry; Chen, Eric A; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Macaulay, William
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Although increased femoral head size reduces the risk of instability in total hip arthroplasty (THA), it may lead to iliopsoas irritation and increased anterior groin pain. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between non-modular dual mobility (NDM) implants, small (≤32mm), and large (≥36mm) fixed bearing (FB) constructs. METHODS:A retrospective review of all primary THAs from 2011-2021 was conducted at a single, urban academic institution. Patients were separated into three cohorts: NDM, ≤32mm, and ≥36mm FB implants. Demographics and outcomes such as length of stay (LOS), dislocation, and anterior groin pain were assessed. Patients were deemed as having groin pain if they received an iliopsoas injection or had extended physical therapy ordered beyond 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS:There were 178 NDM implants, 936 ≤32mm FB, and 2,454 ≥36mm FB implants included. LOS significantly differed between the groups (48.4±43.3 vs. 63.2±40.6 vs. 57.2±38.1 hours; p=0.001). Although not statistically significant, the ≥36mm FB cohort had the highest rate of dislocations (0.6% vs. 0.7% vs. 0.9%; p=0.84). While no patients with a NDM implant received an iliopsoas injection, 9 patients (0.9%) with a ≤32mm FB implant and 9 patients (0.4%) with a ≥36mm implant received an injection (p=0.06). However, 18 (10.1%) patients with a NDM implant, 304 (32.5%) patients with a ≤32mm FB implant, and 355 (14.5%) patients with a ≥36mm FB implant received extended physical therapy 3 months after surgery (p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:NDM implants, as well as FB implants with both small and large head sizes are effective at preventing dislocation. NDM implants did not result in an increase in anterior groin pain compared to ≤32mm, and ≥36mm FB constructs.
PMID: 35283236
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5183742

Discontinued Use of Outpatient Portable Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices May Be Safe for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Low-Dose Aspirin

Tang, Alex; Zak, Stephen; Lygrisse, Katherine; Slover, James; Meftah, Morteza; Lajam, Claudette; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Macaulay, William
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare, but serious complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Current VTE guidelines recommend pharmacologic agents with or without intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPCDs). At our institution, both 81-mg aspirin (ASA) twice a day (BID) and portable IPCDs were previously prescribed to TKA patients at standard risk for VTE, but the IPCDs were discontinued and patients were treated with ASA alone going forward. The aim of this study is to determine if discontinued use of outpatient IPCDs is safe and does not increase the rate of VTE or any other related complications in patients following TKA. A retrospective review of 2,219 consecutive TKA cases was conducted, identifying patients with VTE, bleeding complications, infection, and mortality within 90 days postoperatively. Patients were divided into two cohorts. Patients in cohort one received outpatient IPCDs for a period of 14 days (control), while those in cohort two did not (ASA alone). All study patients received inpatient IPCDs and were maintained on 81-mg ASA BID for 28 days. A posthoc power analysis was performed using a noninferiority margin of 0.25 (α = 0.05; power = 80%), which showed that our sample size was fully powered for noninferiority for our reported deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rates, but not for pulmonary embolism (PE) rates. A total of 867 controls and 1,352 patients treated with ASA alone were identified. Only two control patients were diagnosed with a PE (0.23%), while one patient in the ASA alone group had DVT (0.07%). There was no statistical difference between these rates (p = 0.33). Furthermore, no differences were found in bleeding complications (p = 0.12), infection (p = 0.97), or 90-day mortality rates (p = 0.42) between both groups. The discontinued use of outpatient portable IPCDs is noninferior to outpatient IPCD use for DVT prophylaxis. Our findings suggest that this protocol change may be safe and does not increase the rate of VTE in standard risk patients undergoing TKA while using 81-mg ASA BID.
PMID: 33241544
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 4680922

Evaluation of Emergency Department Visits Following Total Joint Arthroplasty: Same-Day Discharge versus Non-Same-Day Discharge

Singh, Vivek; Kurapatti, Mark; Anil, Utkarsh; Macaulay, William; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy I
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Traditionally, most efforts have focused on readmission rates while little has been reported on emergency department (ED) presentation. This study aims to analyze the difference between same-day discharge (SDD) and non-SDD primary total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) cases to determine the rate and reasons associated with 90-day ED presentations. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent primary THA and TKA between 2011-2021. The patients were separated into two cohorts: 1.)SDD;2.)required a longer length-of-stay(LOS). The primary outcome was an ED visit within 90-days of the index operation. Secondary outcomes included reasons for ED visits and readmission rates. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to compare the two groups while accounting for significant demographic variables. RESULTS:Of the 24,933 patients included, 1,725(7%) were SDD and 23,208(93%) required a longer LOS. The overall rate of 90-day ED visits was significantly lower for patients who were SDD compared to non-SDD (1.6%vs.4.0%,p=0.004). However, when stratified based on the reason for ED visit, no single cause was significant between the two cohorts. The most commonly reported reasons were pain (32.1%vs.26.7%,p=0.064) and other non-orthopedic related medical issues (25.0%vs.29.5%,p=0.206). Among those who presented to the ED, the readmission rate did not statistically differ (25.0%vs.23.4%,p=0.131). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients that underwent SDD were less likely to present to the ED within 90-days following their surgery compared to non-SDD. Approximately three-fourths of the patients in both cohorts that visited the ED did not require readmission. Future efforts should focus on developing interventions to reduce the burden of these visits on the healthcare system.
PMID: 35181447
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5163712

Comparison of Operating Room Air Quality in Primary vs. Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

Sicat, Chelsea Sue; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James D; Macaulay, William; Rozell, Joshua C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Airborne biologic particles (ABPs) can be measured intraoperatively to evaluate operating room (OR) sterility. Particulate matter (PM) up to 2.5 microns can contain microbial species which may increase infection risk. Our study examines differences in air quality and ABP count in primary (pTKA) and revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). METHODS:We analyzed primary and revision TKAs in a single operating room at an academic institution from January 2020 to December 2020. Procedures from March 15, 2020-May 4, 2020 were excluded to avoid COVID-related confounding. Temperature, humidity, and ABP count per minute were recorded with a particle counter intraoperatively and cross-referenced with surgical data from the electronic health records (EHR) using procedure start and end times. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate differences in variables. P-values were calculated using t-test and chi-square. RESULTS:A total of 107 TKA cases were included: 79(73.8%) pTKAs and 28(26.2%) rTKAs. Time spent in room was significantly higher for rTKAs (primary: 176+46.7 minutes vs. revision: 220+47.1,p<0.0001). Compared to pTKAs, rTKAs had significant percent increases in ABP rates for particles measuring 0.3um(+70.4%,p<0.001), 0.5um(+97.2%,p<0.0001), 1.0um(+53.2%,p=0.001), 2.5um(+30.3%,p=0.017), and for PM 2.5(+108.3%,p<0.001) and PM5.0(+105.6%,p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:RTKAs had significantly longer time spent in room and significant percent increases in ABP rates for particles measuring 0.3um, 0.5um, and 1.0um compared to pTKAs. Measurements of PM2.5 and PM5.0 (which can contain large numbers of microbes) were also significantly greater in rTKAs. Further research is needed to determine whether the size and quantity of ABPs translates to higher infection rates following rTKA.
PMID: 35202754
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5172342

Dual-mobility versus Fixed-bearing in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: Outcome Comparison

Singh, Vivek; Loloi, Jeremy; Macaulay, William; Hepinstall, Matthew S; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Aggarwal, Vinay K
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Use of dual mobility (DM) articulations can reduce the risk of instability in both primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). Knowledge regarding the impact of this design on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is limited. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes between DM and fixed bearing (FB) prostheses following primary THA. Materials and Methods/UNASSIGNED:All patients who underwent primary THA between 2011-2021 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were separated into three cohorts: FB vs monoblock-D vs modular-DM. An evaluation of PROMs including HOOS, JR, and FJS-12, as well as discharge-disposition, 90-day readmissions, and revisions rates was performed. Propensity-score matching was performed to limit significant demographic differences, while ANOVA and chi-squared test were used for comparison of outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:=0.608) between the groups. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:DM bearings yield PROMs similar to those of FB implants in patients undergoing primary THA. Although DM implants are utilized more often in patients at higher-risk for instability, we suggest that similar patient satisfaction may be attained while achieving similar dislocation rates.
PMID: 35800126
ISSN: 2287-3260
CID: 5280612

Preoperative Patient Expectation of Discharge Planning is an Essential Component in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Feng, James E; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Morton, Jessica S; Petersen, William; Singh, Vivek; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Macaulay, William
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:A better understanding of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) candidate expectations within the perioperative setting will enable clinicians to promote patient-centered practices, optimize recovery times, and enhance quality metrics. In the current study, TKA candidates were surveyed pre- and postoperatively to elucidate the relationship between patient expectations and length of stay (LOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:This is a prospective study of patients undergoing TKA between December 2017 and August 2018. Patients were electronically administered surveys regarding their discharge plan 10 days pre-/postoperatively. All patients were categorized into three cohorts based on their LOS: 1, 2, and 3+ days. The effect of preoperative discharge education on patient postoperative satisfaction was evaluated. RESULTS:In total, 221 TKAs were included, of which 83 were discharged on postoperative day (POD) 1, 96 on POD-2, and 42 POD-3+. Female gender, increasing body mass index (BMI), and surgical time correlated with increased LOS. Preoperative discussions regarding LOS occurred in 84.62% (187/221) of patients but did correlate with differences in LOS. However, patients discharged on POD-1 were more inclined to same-day surgery preoperatively. Patients discharged on POD-3+ were found to be more uncomfortable regarding their discharge during the preoperative phase. Multivariable regressions demonstrated that preoperative discharge discussion was positively correlated with home discharge. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Physician-driven discussion regarding patient discharge did not alter patient satisfaction or length of stay but did correlate with improved odds of home discharge. These findings underscore the importance of patient education, shared decision-making, and managing patient expectations.
PMID: 35527265
ISSN: 2234-0726
CID: 5214032

Failure to Meet Same-Day Discharge is Not a Predictor of Adverse Outcomes

Singh, Vivek; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Macaulay, William; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy I
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:As more centers introduce same-day discharge (SDD) total joint arthroplasty (TJA) programs, it is vital to understand the factors associated with successful outpatient TJA and whether outcomes vary for those that failed SDD. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of patients that are successfully discharged home the day of surgery to those that fail-to-launch (FTL) and require a longer in-hospital stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who enrolled in our institution's SDD TJA program from 2015 to 2020. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on whether they were successfully SDD or FTL. Outcomes of interest included discharge disposition, 90-day readmissions, 90-day revisions, surgical time, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) as assessed by the FJS-12 (3 months, 1 year, and 2 years), HOOS, JR, and KOOS, JR (preoperatively, 3 months, and 1 year). Demographic differences were assessed with chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Outcomes were compared using multilinear regressions, controlling for demographic differences. RESULTS:A total of 1491 patients were included. Of these, 1384 (93%) were successfully SDD while 107 (7%) FTL and required a longer length-of-stay. Patients who FTL were more likely to be non-married (p = 0.007) and ASA class III (p = 0.017) compared to those who were successfully SDD. Surgical time was significantly longer for those who FTL compared to those who were successfully SDD (100.86 vs. 83.42 min; p < 0.001). Discharge disposition (p = 0.100), 90-day readmissions (p = 0.897), 90-day revisions (p = 0.997), and all PROM scores both preoperatively and postoperatively did not significantly differ between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results support the notion that FTL is not a predictor of adverse outcomes as patients who FTL achieved similar outcomes as those who were successfully SDD. The findings of this study can aid orthopedic surgeons to educate their patients who wish to participate in a similar program, as well as patients that have concerns after they failed to go home on the day of surgery. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 34075486
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4891522

Cemented Stems in Total Hip Arthroplasty What is Old and What is New Again?

Morton, Jessica; Christensen, Thomas; Lajam, Claudette; Macaulay, William; Schwarzkopf, Ran
Cement fixation of the femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty, first popularized in the 1960s following the success of Sir John Charnley's design, remains a prevalent topic in arthroplasty literature today. Though this technique is still widely used among European surgeons, since the 1980s many American surgeons have shifted to the use of cementless, press-fit stems except for particular cases such as those at increased risk for periprosthetic fracture. In this article we review the history and literature regarding the use of cemented stems in total hip arthroplasty in the United States and Europe over the past 70 years.
PMID: 35234581
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5190172

Incomplete Administration of Intravenous Vancomycin Prophylaxis is Common and Associated With Increased Infectious Complications After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Feder, Oren I; Yeroushalmi, David; Lin, Charles C; Galetta, Matthew S; Meftah, Moretza; Lajam, Claudette M; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Bosco, Joseph A; Macaulay, William B
BACKGROUND:Vancomycin is often used as antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Vancomycin requires longer infusion times to avoid associated side effects. We hypothesized that vancomycin infusion is often started too late and that delayed infusion may predispose patients to increased rates of surgical site infections and prosthetic joint infections. METHODS:We reviewed clinical data for all primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients at our institution between 2013 and 2020 who received intravenous vancomycin as primary perioperative gram-positive antibiotic prophylaxis. We calculated duration of infusion before incision or tourniquet inflation, with a cutoff of 30 minutes defining adequate administration. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) appropriate administration and 2) incomplete administration. Surgical factors and quality outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS:We reviewed 1047 primary THA and TKA patients (524 THAs and 523 TKAs). The indication for intravenous vancomycin usage was allergy (61%), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization (17%), both allergy and colonization (14%), and other (8%). 50.4% of patients began infusion >30 minutes preoperatively (group A), and 49.6% began infusion <30 minutes preoperatively (group B). Group B had significantly higher rates of readmissions for infectious causes (3.6 vs 1.3%, P = .017). This included a statistically significant increase in confirmed prosthetic joint infections (2.2% vs 0.6%, P = .023). Regression analysis confirmed <30 minutes of vancomycin infusion as an independent risk factor for PJI when controlling for comorbidities (OR 5.22, P = .012). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Late infusion of vancomycin is common and associated with increased rates of infectious causes for readmission and PJI. Preoperative protocols should be created to ensure appropriate vancomycin administration when indicated.
PMID: 33840539
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4845622

Femoral Neck Notching in Dual Mobility Implants: Is This a Reason for Concern?

Lygrisse, Katherine A; Matzko, Chelsea; Shah, Roshan P; Macaulay, William; Cooper, John H; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Hepinstall, Matthew S
BACKGROUND:Dual mobility (DM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants have been advocated for patients at risk for impingement due to abnormal spinopelvic mobility. Impingement against cobalt-chromium acetabular bearings, however, can result in notching of titanium femoral stems. This study investigated the incidence of femoral stem notching associated with DM implants and sought to identify risk factors. METHODS:A multicenter retrospective study reviewed 256 modular and 32 monoblock DM components with minimum 1-year clinical and radiographic follow-up, including 112 revisions, 4 conversion THAs, and 172 primary THAs. Radiographs were inspected for evidence of femoral notching and to calculate acetabular inclination and anteversion. Revisions and dislocations were recorded. RESULTS:Ten cases of femoral notching were discovered (3.5%), all associated with modular cylindrospheric cobalt-chromium DM implants (P = .049). Notches were first observed radiographically at mean 1.3 years after surgery (range 0.5-2.7 years). Notch location was anterior (20%), superior (60%), or posterior (20%) on the prosthetic femoral neck. Notch depth ranged from 1.7% to 20% of the prosthetic neck diameter. Eight cases with notching had lumbar pathology that can affect spinopelvic mobility. None of these notches resulted in stem fracture, at mean 2.7-year follow-up (range 1-7.6 years). There were no dislocations or revisions in patients with notching. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Femoral notching was identified in 3.5% of DM cases, slightly surpassing the dislocation rate in a cohort selected for risk of impingement and instability. Although these cases of notching have not resulted in catastrophic failures thus far, further study of clinical sequelae is warranted. Component position, spinopelvic mobility, and implant design may influence risk.
PMID: 33875287
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4871582