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Incomplete Administration of Intravenous Vancomycin Prophylaxis is Common and Associated With Increased Infectious Complications After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Feder, Oren I; Yeroushalmi, David; Lin, Charles C; Galetta, Matthew S; Meftah, Moretza; Lajam, Claudette M; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Bosco, Joseph A; Macaulay, William B
BACKGROUND:Vancomycin is often used as antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Vancomycin requires longer infusion times to avoid associated side effects. We hypothesized that vancomycin infusion is often started too late and that delayed infusion may predispose patients to increased rates of surgical site infections and prosthetic joint infections. METHODS:We reviewed clinical data for all primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients at our institution between 2013 and 2020 who received intravenous vancomycin as primary perioperative gram-positive antibiotic prophylaxis. We calculated duration of infusion before incision or tourniquet inflation, with a cutoff of 30 minutes defining adequate administration. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) appropriate administration and 2) incomplete administration. Surgical factors and quality outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS:We reviewed 1047 primary THA and TKA patients (524 THAs and 523 TKAs). The indication for intravenous vancomycin usage was allergy (61%), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization (17%), both allergy and colonization (14%), and other (8%). 50.4% of patients began infusion >30 minutes preoperatively (group A), and 49.6% began infusion <30 minutes preoperatively (group B). Group B had significantly higher rates of readmissions for infectious causes (3.6 vs 1.3%, P = .017). This included a statistically significant increase in confirmed prosthetic joint infections (2.2% vs 0.6%, P = .023). Regression analysis confirmed <30 minutes of vancomycin infusion as an independent risk factor for PJI when controlling for comorbidities (OR 5.22, P = .012). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Late infusion of vancomycin is common and associated with increased rates of infectious causes for readmission and PJI. Preoperative protocols should be created to ensure appropriate vancomycin administration when indicated.
PMID: 33840539
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4845622

Femoral Neck Notching in Dual Mobility Implants: Is This a Reason for Concern?

Lygrisse, Katherine A; Matzko, Chelsea; Shah, Roshan P; Macaulay, William; Cooper, John H; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Hepinstall, Matthew S
BACKGROUND:Dual mobility (DM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants have been advocated for patients at risk for impingement due to abnormal spinopelvic mobility. Impingement against cobalt-chromium acetabular bearings, however, can result in notching of titanium femoral stems. This study investigated the incidence of femoral stem notching associated with DM implants and sought to identify risk factors. METHODS:A multicenter retrospective study reviewed 256 modular and 32 monoblock DM components with minimum 1-year clinical and radiographic follow-up, including 112 revisions, 4 conversion THAs, and 172 primary THAs. Radiographs were inspected for evidence of femoral notching and to calculate acetabular inclination and anteversion. Revisions and dislocations were recorded. RESULTS:Ten cases of femoral notching were discovered (3.5%), all associated with modular cylindrospheric cobalt-chromium DM implants (P = .049). Notches were first observed radiographically at mean 1.3 years after surgery (range 0.5-2.7 years). Notch location was anterior (20%), superior (60%), or posterior (20%) on the prosthetic femoral neck. Notch depth ranged from 1.7% to 20% of the prosthetic neck diameter. Eight cases with notching had lumbar pathology that can affect spinopelvic mobility. None of these notches resulted in stem fracture, at mean 2.7-year follow-up (range 1-7.6 years). There were no dislocations or revisions in patients with notching. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Femoral notching was identified in 3.5% of DM cases, slightly surpassing the dislocation rate in a cohort selected for risk of impingement and instability. Although these cases of notching have not resulted in catastrophic failures thus far, further study of clinical sequelae is warranted. Component position, spinopelvic mobility, and implant design may influence risk.
PMID: 33875287
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4871582

Patient Satisfaction After Total Hip Arthroplasty Is Not Influenced by Reductions in Opioid Prescribing

Bloom, David A; Manjunath, Amit K; Gualtieri, Anthony P; Fried, Jordan W; Schwarzkopf, Ran M; Macaulay, William B; Slover, James D
BACKGROUND:Opioids have played an important part in post-operative analgesia, but concerns with associated morbidity and the fate of leftover pills have prompted the creation of opioid-sparing protocols. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the implementation of an opioid-sparing protocol on survey-based patient satisfaction scores following total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients who underwent primary THA between November 2014 and July 2019. Inclusion criteria consisted of primary elective THA with complete Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey information. Cohorts were separated based on their date of surgery relative to the start of an institutional opioid-sparing-protocol in October 2018. Discharge prescriptions and refills were recorded on chart review and converted to milligram morphine equivalents (MME) for comparison between different opioids. HCAHPS results were analyzed for percentage of "top box" ratings for comparison between the 2 groups. RESULTS:In total, 1003 patients met inclusion criteria: 804 pre-protocol and 199 post-protocol. Mean length of stay decreased from 1.74 ± 1.03 to 1.50 ± 1.11 days (P < .001). Pre-operative Visual Analog Scale pain decreased from 7.00 ± 2.30 to 6.41 ± 2.66 (P = .011) as did the rate of opioid refills (15.6%-9.1%; P = .019). Quantity of opioid medication prescribed upon discharge also decreased from 432 ± 298 to 114 ± 156 MME (P < .001). There was no change in "top box percentages" for satisfaction with pain control (79.7% pre-protocol, 82.1% post-protocol; P = .767). There was a significant increase in proportion of patients reporting top box satisfaction with their overall surgical experience after protocol implementation (88.2%-94.0%; P = .018). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A reduction in opioids prescribed after THA is not associated with a decrease in patient satisfaction with regard to pain control, as measured by the HCAHPS survey, nor is it associated with an increase in post-operative opioid refills. LOE: III. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that HCAHP scores are not negatively impacted by a reduction in post-operative opioid analgesics.
PMID: 33640183
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4800962

Failure to Meet Same-Day Discharge is Not a Predictor of Adverse Outcomes

Singh, Vivek; Nduaguba, Afamefuna M; Macaulay, William; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy I
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:As more centers introduce same-day discharge (SDD) total joint arthroplasty (TJA) programs, it is vital to understand the factors associated with successful outpatient TJA and whether outcomes vary for those that failed SDD. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of patients that are successfully discharged home the day of surgery to those that fail-to-launch (FTL) and require a longer in-hospital stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who enrolled in our institution's SDD TJA program from 2015 to 2020. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on whether they were successfully SDD or FTL. Outcomes of interest included discharge disposition, 90-day readmissions, 90-day revisions, surgical time, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) as assessed by the FJS-12 (3 months, 1 year, and 2 years), HOOS, JR, and KOOS, JR (preoperatively, 3 months, and 1 year). Demographic differences were assessed with chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Outcomes were compared using multilinear regressions, controlling for demographic differences. RESULTS:A total of 1491 patients were included. Of these, 1384 (93%) were successfully SDD while 107 (7%) FTL and required a longer length-of-stay. Patients who FTL were more likely to be non-married (p = 0.007) and ASA class III (p = 0.017) compared to those who were successfully SDD. Surgical time was significantly longer for those who FTL compared to those who were successfully SDD (100.86 vs. 83.42 min; p < 0.001). Discharge disposition (p = 0.100), 90-day readmissions (p = 0.897), 90-day revisions (p = 0.997), and all PROM scores both preoperatively and postoperatively did not significantly differ between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results support the notion that FTL is not a predictor of adverse outcomes as patients who FTL achieved similar outcomes as those who were successfully SDD. The findings of this study can aid orthopedic surgeons to educate their patients who wish to participate in a similar program, as well as patients that have concerns after they failed to go home on the day of surgery. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 34075486
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4891522

Discontinuation of Intraoperative Liposomal Bupivacaine in Primary THA Does Not Clinically Change Postoperative Subjective Pain, Opioid Consumption, or Objective Functional Status

Feng, James E; Ikwuazom, Chibuokem P; Slover, James D; Macaulay, William; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J
BACKGROUND:There is debate regarding the benefit of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) as part of a periarticular injection (PAI) in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Here, we evaluate the effect of discontinuing intraoperative LB PAI on immediate postoperative subjective pain, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes. METHODS:On July 1, 2019, an institutional policy discontinued the use of intraoperative LB PAI. A consecutive cohort that received LB PAI and a subsequent cohort that did not were compared. All patients received the same opioid-sparing protocol. Nursing documented verbal rating scale pain scores were averaged per patient per 12-hour interval. Opiate administration events were converted into morphine milligram equivalences per patient per 24-hour interval. The validated Activity Measure for Postacute Care (AM-PAC) tool was used to evaluate functional outcomes. RESULTS:Six hundred thirty eight primary THAs received LB followed by 939 that did not. In the non-LB THAs, BMI was higher (30.06 vs 29.43; P < .05). Besides marital status, the remaining baseline demographics were similar between the two cohorts (P > .05). The non-LB THA cohort demonstrated a marginal increase in verbal rating scale pain scores between 12 to 24 hours (4.42 ± 1.70 vs 4.20 ± 1.87; P < .05) and 36 to 48 hours (4.49 ± 1.72 vs 4.21 ± 1.83; P < .05). There was no difference in inpatient opioid administration up to 96 hours postoperatively (P > .05) or AM-PAC functional scores within the first 24 hours (P > .05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A small statistical, but not clinically meaningful, difference was observed in subjective pain scores with LB PAI discontinuation. Opioid consumption and postoperative AM-PAC functional scores were unchanged after LB PAI discontinuation.
PMID: 33610407
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4794052

Adductor Canal Blocks Reduce Inpatient Opioid Consumption While Maintaining Noninferior Pain Control and Functional Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty

Feng, James E; Ikwuazom, Chibuokem P; Umeh, Uchenna O; Furgiuele, David L; Slover, James D; Macaulay, William; Long, William J; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:The use of perioperative adductor canal blocks (PABs) continues to be a highly debated topic for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Here, we evaluate the effect of PABs on immediate postoperative subjective pain scores, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes. METHODS:On December 1, 2019, an institution-wide policy change was begun to use PABs in primary elective TKAs. Patient demographics, immediate postoperative nursing documented pain scores, opioid administration events, and validated physical therapy functional scores were prospectively collected as part of the standard of care and retrospectively queried through our electronic data warehouse. A historical comparison cohort was derived from consecutive patients undergoing TKA between July 1, 2019 and November 30, 2019. RESULTS:405 primary TKAs received PABs, while 789 patients were in the control cohort. Compared with controls, average verbal rating scale pain scores were lower among PAB recipients from 0-12 hours (2.42 ± 1.60 vs 2.05 ± 1.60; <.001) and 24-36 hours (4.92 ± 2.00 vs 4.47 ± 2.27; <.01). PAB recipients demonstrated significantly lower opioid consumption within the first 24 hours (44.34 ± 40.98 vs 36.83 ± 48.13; P < .01) and during their total inpatient stay (92.27 ± 109.81 vs 77.52 ± 123.11; <.05). AM-PAC scores within the first 24 hours were also higher for PABs (total scores: 20.28 ± 3.06 vs 20.71 ± 3.12; <.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While the minimal clinically important differences in pain scores and functional status were comparable between both cohorts, patients demonstrated a significant reduction in overall inpatient opiate consumption after the introduction of PABs. Surgeons should consider these findings when evaluating for perioperative pain management, opioid-sparing, and rapid discharge protocols.
PMID: 33618955
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4794342

Discontinuation of the liposomal delivery of bupivacaine has no effect on pain management after primary total knee arthroplasty : no effect on pain scores, opioid consumption, or functional status

Feng, James E; Ikwuazom, Chibuokem P; Mahure, Siddharth A; Waren, Daniel P; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran S; Long, William J; Macaulay, William B
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) as part of a periarticular injection protocol continues to be a highly debated topic in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated the effect of discontinuing the use of LB in a periarticular protocol on immediate postoperative pain scores, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes. METHODS:On 1 July 2019, we discontinued the use of intraoperative LB as part of a periarticular injection protocol. A consecutive group of patients who received LB as part of the protocol (Protocol 1) and a subsequent group who did not (Protocol 2) were compared. All patients received the same opioid-sparing protocol. Verbal rating scale (VRS) pain scores were collected from our electronic data warehouse and averaged per patient per 12-hour interval. Events relating to the opiate administration were derived as morphine milligram equivalences (MMEs) per patient per 24-hour interval. The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) tool was used to assess the immediate postoperative function. RESULTS:A total of 888 patients received Protocol 1 and while 789 received Protocol 2. The mean age of the patients was significantly higher in those who did not receive LB (66.80 vs 65.57 years, p = 0.006). The sex, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score, race, smoking status, marital status, operating time, length of stay, and discharge disposition were similar in the two groups. Compared with the LB group, discontinuing LB showed no significant difference in postoperative VRS pain scores up to 72 hours (p > 0.05), opioid administration up to 96 hours (p > 0.05), or AM-PAC scores within the first 24 hours (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):102-107.
PMID: 34053282
ISSN: 2049-4408
CID: 4890732

Comparative Analysis of Outcomes in Medicare-Eligible Patients with a Hospital Stay Less than Two-Midnights versus Longer Length of Stay following Total Knee Arthroplasty: Implications for Inpatient-Outpatient Designation

Singh, Vivek; Lygrisse, Katherine A; Macaulay, William; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J
The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) removed primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from the inpatient-only list in January 2018. This study aims to compare outcomes in Medicare-aged patients who underwent primary TKA and had an in-hospital stay spanning less than two-midnights to those with a length of stay greater than or equal to two-midnights. We retrospectively reviewed 4,138 patients ages ≥65 who underwent primary TKA from 2016 to 2020. Two cohorts were established based on length of stay (LOS), those with an LOS <2 midnights were labeled outpatient and those with an LOS ≥2 midnights were labeled inpatient as per CMS designation. Demographic, clinical data, knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score for joint replacement (KOOS, JR), and veterans RAND 12 physical and mental components (VR-12 PCS & MCS) were collected. Demographic differences were assessed with Chi-square and independent sample t-tests. Clinical data and KOOS, JR and VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared by using multilinear regression analysis, controlling for demographic differences. There were 841 (20%) patients with a LOS < 2 midnights and 3,297 (80%) patients with a LOS ≥ 2 midnights. Patients with a LOS < 2 midnights were significantly younger (71.70 vs. 73.06; p < 0.001), more likely male (42.1 vs. 25.7%; p < 0.001), Caucasian (68.8 vs. 57.7%; p <0.001), have lower BMI (30.80 vs. 31.92; p < 0.001), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI; 4.62 vs. 4.96; p < 0.001), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II or higher (p < 0.001). These patients were more likely to be discharged home compared to patients with LOS ≥ 2 midnights (95.8 vs. 73.1%; p < 0.001). Patients who stayed ≥ 2 midnights reported lower patient-reported outcome scores at all time-periods (preoperatively, 3 months and 1 year), but these differences did not exceed the minimum clinically important difference. Mean improvement preoperatively to 1 year postoperatively in KOOS, JR (22.53 vs. 25.89; p < 0.001), and VR-12 PCS (12.16 vs. 11.49; p = 0.002) was statistically higher for patients who stayed < 2 midnights, though these differences were not clinically significant. All-cause ED visits (p = 0.167), 90-day all-cause readmissions (p = 0.069) and revision (p = 0.277) did not statistically differ between the two cohorts. TKA patients classified as outpatient had similar quality metrics and saw similar clinical improvement following TKA with respect to most patient reported outcome measures, although they were demographically different. Outpatient classification is more likely to be assigned to younger males with higher functional scores, lower BMI, CCI, and ASA class compared with inpatients. This Retrospective Cohort Study shows level III evidence.
PMID: 33545728
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 4776792

Impact of Acetabular Implant Design on Aseptic Failure in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Coden, Gloria; Matzko, Chelsea; Hushmendy, Shazaan; Macaulay, William; Hepinstall, Matthew
Background/UNASSIGNED:Failure of cementless acetabular osseointegration is rare in total hip arthroplasty. Nevertheless, new fixation surfaces continue to be introduced. Novel implants may lack large diameter, constrained bearings, or dual mobility (DM) bearings to address instability. We compared clinical and radiographic outcomes for acetabular components with differing fixation surfaces and bearing options, focusing on the relationship between fixation surface and osseointegration and the relationship between bearing options and dislocation rate. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We retrospectively reviewed 463 total hip arthroplasties implanted with 3 different acetabular components between 2012 and 2016. Records were reviewed for demographics, clinical scores, and complications. Radiographs were examined for evidence of acetabular osteointegration. Analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used to compare cohorts. Results/UNASSIGNED:All cohorts had 100% survivorship free of acetabular fixation failure with no differences in clinical scores. Dislocation occurred in 1.3% of cases (n = 6). Analysis of the "transition" sizes, for which brand determined the maximum bearing diameter, revealed a significantly higher dislocation rate (3/50, 6%) in implants with limited bearing options. All 4 revisions for recurrent dislocation involved well-positioned components that did not accept large diameter, constrained bearings, or DM bearings, resulting in 3 shell revisions to expand bearing options. Femoral revisions were associated with dislocation risk but did not vary between cohorts. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Dislocation was the primary mechanical cause for acetabular revision, while acetabular fixation failure was not encountered. We caution against selecting "new and improved" acetabular components without options for large diameter, constrained bearings, or DM bearings, even when enabling technology makes component positioning reliable.
PMID: 33521199
ISSN: 2352-3441
CID: 4771762

Discontinued Use of Outpatient Portable Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices May Be Safe for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Low-Dose Aspirin

Tang, Alex; Zak, Stephen; Lygrisse, Katherine; Slover, James; Meftah, Morteza; Lajam, Claudette; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Macaulay, William
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare, but serious complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Current VTE guidelines recommend pharmacologic agents with or without intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPCDs). At our institution, both 81-mg aspirin (ASA) twice a day (BID) and portable IPCDs were previously prescribed to TKA patients at standard risk for VTE, but the IPCDs were discontinued and patients were treated with ASA alone going forward. The aim of this study is to determine if discontinued use of outpatient IPCDs is safe and does not increase the rate of VTE or any other related complications in patients following TKA. A retrospective review of 2,219 consecutive TKA cases was conducted, identifying patients with VTE, bleeding complications, infection, and mortality within 90 days postoperatively. Patients were divided into two cohorts. Patients in cohort one received outpatient IPCDs for a period of 14 days (control), while those in cohort two did not (ASA alone). All study patients received inpatient IPCDs and were maintained on 81-mg ASA BID for 28 days. A posthoc power analysis was performed using a noninferiority margin of 0.25 (α = 0.05; power = 80%), which showed that our sample size was fully powered for noninferiority for our reported deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rates, but not for pulmonary embolism (PE) rates. A total of 867 controls and 1,352 patients treated with ASA alone were identified. Only two control patients were diagnosed with a PE (0.23%), while one patient in the ASA alone group had DVT (0.07%). There was no statistical difference between these rates (p = 0.33). Furthermore, no differences were found in bleeding complications (p = 0.12), infection (p = 0.97), or 90-day mortality rates (p = 0.42) between both groups. The discontinued use of outpatient portable IPCDs is noninferior to outpatient IPCD use for DVT prophylaxis. Our findings suggest that this protocol change may be safe and does not increase the rate of VTE in standard risk patients undergoing TKA while using 81-mg ASA BID.
PMID: 33241544
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 4680922