Identifying Different Causes of Hyponatremia With Fractional Excretion of Uric Acid [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:There is controversy over the prevalence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral or renal salt wasting (RSW), 2 syndromes with identical common clinical and laboratory parameters but different therapies. The traditional approach to the hyponatremic patient relies on volume assessment, but there are limitations to this method. METHODS:We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases. RESULTS:Overall, 2 patients had increased FEurate [normal: 4-11%], as is seen in SIADH and RSW. A diagnosis of SIADH was made in 1 patient by correcting the hyponatremia with 1.5% saline and observing a characteristic normalization of an elevated FEurate that is characteristic of SIADH as compared to FEurate being persistently increased in RSW. A patient with T-cell lymphoma had symmetrical leg edema due to lymphomatous obstruction of the inferior vena cava, postural hypotension, pleural effusion, ascites, decreased cardiac output and urine sodium level of 10mmol/L. Saline-induced excretion of dilute urines and undetectable plasma antidiuretic hormone were consistent with RSW. Furosemide, given for presumed heart failure, induced a profound diuresis that required large volumes of fluid resuscitation. A normal FEurate identified a reset osmostat in a transplant patient with a slowly developing pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A volume-depleted hyponatremic patient with Addison×³s disease had a low FEurate of 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS:These illustrative cases suggest that an approach to hyponatremia using FEurate may be a useful alternative to traditional volume-based approaches.
Recognition of Hyponatremia As a Risk Factor for Hip Fractures in Older Persons [Letter]
Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio.
Reversible anuric acute kidney injury secondary to acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction [Case Report]
Autoregulation of glomerular capillary pressure via regulation of the resistances at the afferent and efferent arterioles plays a critical role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate over a wide range of mean arterial pressure. Angiotensin II and prostaglandins are among the agents which contribute to autoregulation and drugs which interfere with these agents may have a substantial impact on afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance. We describe a patient who suffered an episode of anuric acute kidney injury following exposure to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent while on two diuretics, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and an angiotensin receptor blocker. The episode completely resolved and we review some of the mechanisms by which these events may have taken place and suggest the term "acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction" to describe this syndrome.
Prostaglandin D2 synthase: Apoptotic factor in alzheimer plasma, inducer of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and dialysis dementia
BACKGROUND:Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines have all been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The present study identifies the apoptotic factor that was responsible for the fourfold increase in apoptotic rates that we previously noted when pig proximal tubule, LLC-PK1, cells were exposed to AD plasma as compared to plasma from normal controls and multi-infarct dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:The apoptotic factor was isolated from AD urine and identified as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS). L-PGDS was found to be the major apoptotic factor in AD plasma as determined by inhibition of apoptosis approximating control levels by the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, NS398, and the antibody to L-PGDS. Blood levels of L-PGDS, however, were not elevated in AD. We now demonstrate a receptor-mediated uptake of L-PGDS in PC12 neuronal cells that was time, dose and temperature-dependent and was saturable by competition with cold L-PGDS and albumin. Further proof of this endocytosis was provided by an electron microscopic study of gold labeled L-PGDS and immunofluorescence with Alexa-labeled L-PGDS. RESULTS:The recombinant L-PGDS and wild type (WT) L-PGDS increased ROS but only the WTL-PGDS increased IL6 and TNFÎ±, suggesting that differences in glycosylation of L-PGDS in AD was responsible for this discrepancy. CONCLUSIONS:These data collectively suggest that L-PGDS might play an important role in the development of dementia in patients on dialysis and of AD.
Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting
UNLABELLED:We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE) of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.Â Previous studies suggest as wellÂ that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer's disease patients.Â The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.Â Â METHODS:Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff) to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of (22)Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. RESULTS:Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of (22)Na above a concentration of 3Â Î¼g protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20Â Î¼g/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients) or with SIADH (2 patients). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.Â Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future experimental analysis and allow the natriuretic factor to be investigated as a potential biomarker for RSW.
Normal fractional urate excretion identifies hyponatremic patients with reset osmostat
BACKGROUND: Reset osmostat (RO) occurs in 36% of patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and is not often considered when evaluating hyponatremic patients. Patients with RO are not usually treated, but recent awareness that symptoms are associated with mild hyponatremia creates a therapeutic dilemma. We encountered patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia and high urine sodium concentration (UNa), who had normal fractional excretion (FE) of urate and excreted dilute urines that were consistent with RO. We decided to test whether a normal FEurate in nonedematous hyponatremia irrespective of UNa or serum urate would identify patients with RO. METHODS: We determined FEurate in nonedematous hyponatremic patients. A diagnosis of RO was made if urine osmolality (Uosm) was <200 mOsm/kg in a random urine. We performed a modified water-loading test in patients with a normal FEurate whose random Uosm was >200 mOsm/kg. RESULTS: All nonedematous hyponatremic patients with FEurate of 4%-11% had RO, as determined by Uosm <200 mOsm/kg on a random urine collection in 8 patients, or after a modified water-loading test in 6 patients. Plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in 4 patients was undetectable at <1 pg/mL during water-loading. Nine patients had baseline concentrated urine, 12 had UNa >20 mmol/L, 9 were hypouricemic, yet all had a normal FEurate. Comorbidities were similar to those reported in RO. CONCLUSIONS: RO, a benign form of SIADH, occurs commonly. A normal FEurate in a nonedematous hyponatremic patient is highly suggestive of RO. Determining FEurate is superior to serum urate. The therapeutic dilemma for RO must be resolved.
Is it cerebral or renal salt wasting?
Cerebral salt-wasting (CSW), or renal salt-wasting (RSW), has evolved from a misrepresentation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) to acceptance as a distinct entity. Challenges still confront us as we attempt to differentiate RSW from SIADH, ascertain the prevalence of RSW, and address reports of RSW occurring without cerebral disease. RSW is redefined as 'extracellular volume depletion due to a renal sodium transport abnormality with or without high urinary sodium concentration, presence of hyponatremia or cerebral disease with normal adrenal and thyroid function.' Our inability to differentiate RSW from SIADH lies in the clinical and laboratory similarities between the two syndromes and the difficulty of accurate assessment of extracellular volume. Radioisotopic determinations of extracellular volume in neurosurgical patients reveal renal that RSW is more common than SIADH. We review the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate in RSW as compared to correction of both in SIADH, the appropriateness of ADH secretion in RSW, and the importance of differentiating renal RSW from SIADH because of disparate treatment goals: fluid repletion in RSW and fluid restriction in SIADH. Patients with RSW are being incorrectly treated by fluid restriction, with clinical consequences. We conclude that RSW is common and occurs without cerebral disease, and propose changing CSW to RSW.
The Case | A 66-year-old male with hyponatremia. Psychogenic polydipsia [Case Report]
More on renal salt wasting without cerebral disease: response to saline infusion [Case Report]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. RESULTS:One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. CONCLUSIONS:The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW