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In-utero Diagnosis of Prostatic Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma [Case Report]

Schiller, Emily; Joshi, Parth; El-Ali, Alexander; Brenseke, William; Magid, Margret S; Wexler, Leonard; Gitlin, Jordan
Though rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue tumor diagnosed in children there are no reported cases of prenatally detected prostatic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This report demonstrates the first reported case of this phenomenon and its subsequent workup, diagnosis, and treatment.
PMID: 37696305
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5593792

Educational Case: Clinical and pathologic features of primary hyperparathyroidism

Roig, Nicholas J.; Sum, Melissa; Magid, Margret S.
ISSN: 2374-2895
CID: 5425222

Case of the Season: Asymmetric Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis [Case Report]

Koneru, Sirisha; Magid, Margret S; Fritz, Jan
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare noninfectious inflammatory bone disease diagnosed based on the synthesis of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. The differential diagnostic considerations are led by multifocal infectious osteomyelitis and multifocal neoplasms. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl who emergently presented with worsening back pain, inability to walk, and normal vital signs. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated, whereas the white blood cell count was normal. Initial radiographs and MRI of the spine showed multiple edematous vertebral body lesions. Subsequent whole-body MRI demonstrated multiple additional edematous bone lesions in the right half of the body, including the scapula, femur, and tibia. The lack of symmetrical bone lesion distribution indicated image-guided percutaneous core biopsy to exclude neoplastic disease. Pathological examination of an osseous core biopsy specimen showed a noninfectious osteomyelitis pattern with no findings of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, malignancy, or infectious osteomyelitis. The synthesis of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings was diagnostic of asymmetric right-sided chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, representing an atypical presentation that deviates from the typically symmetrical bilateral chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis pattern.
PMID: 35842240
ISSN: 1558-4658
CID: 5278532

Giant mediastinal teratoma in a young infant: a case report [Case Report]

Howell, Raelina S; Magid, Margret S; Kuenzler, Keith A; Kumar, T K Susheel
Background/UNASSIGNED:Giant mediastinal tumors in the pediatric population can pose unique challenges for resection such as cardiovascular collapse on induction of anesthesia and injury to surrounding structures that may be compressed, displaced, or invaded by the mass. Principles that must be borne in mind during removal of giant mediastinal masses include: appropriate cross-sectional imaging to define extent of mass; airway control during induction of anesthesia; a multidisciplinary collaborative approach including cardiothoracic surgery; preparation for urgent sternotomy; plan for peripheral cannulation to institute cardiopulmonary bypass if needed; preservation of neurovasculature structures during dissection; complete resection whenever possible. While complete resection is desirable and results in an excellent prognosis, it may not be achievable especially if the tumor encases coronary arteries, and it is acceptable to leave small amounts of tumor behind. Case Description/UNASSIGNED:Here we present a case describing surgical management of a giant mediastinal teratoma in a two-month-old female. The patient was found to have a large mediastinal mass during workup for cough and noisy breathing. She underwent preoperative echocardiogram demonstrating normal cardiac function followed by uncomplicated, open resection of the mass. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Giant mediastinal tumors give rise to unique challenges for resection in small infants. The principles of airway control, preparation for urgent sternotomy, preparation for peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation, and preservation of neurovasculature during dissection must be borne in mind.
PMID: 36164358
ISSN: 2522-6711
CID: 5334112

Assessment Question Characteristics Predict Medical Student Performance in General Pathology

Hernandez, Tahyna; Magid, Margret S; Polydorides, Alexandros D
CONTEXT.—:Evaluation of medical curricula includes appraisal of student assessments in order to encourage deeper learning approaches. General pathology is our institution's 4-week, first-year course covering universal disease concepts (inflammation, neoplasia, etc). OBJECTIVE.—:To compare types of assessment questions and determine which characteristics may predict student scores, degree of difficulty, and item discrimination. DESIGN.—:Item-level analysis was employed to categorize questions along the following variables: type (multiple choice question or matching answer), presence of clinical vignette (if so, whether simple or complex), presence of specimen image, information depth (simple recall or interpretation), knowledge density (first or second order), Bloom taxonomy level (1-3), and, for the final, subject familiarity (repeated concept and, if so, whether verbatim). RESULTS.—:Assessments comprised 3 quizzes and 1 final exam (total 125 questions), scored during a 3-year period, (total 417 students) for a total 52 125 graded attempts. Overall, 44 890 attempts (86.1%) were correct. In multivariate analysis, question type emerged as the most significant predictor of student performance, degree of difficulty, and item discrimination, with multiple choice questions being significantly associated with lower mean scores (P = .004) and higher degree of difficulty (P = .02), but also, paradoxically, poorer discrimination (P = .002). The presence of a specimen image was significantly associated with better discrimination (P = .04), and questions requiring data interpretation (versus simple recall) were significantly associated with lower mean scores (P = .003) and a higher degree of difficulty (P = .046). CONCLUSIONS.—:Assessments in medical education should comprise combinations of questions with various characteristics in order to encourage better student performance, but also obtain optimal degrees of difficulty and levels of item discrimination.
PMID: 33450752
ISSN: 1543-2165
CID: 5039002

Surgical Management of Giant Intrapericardial Teratoma Encasing the Coronary Artery

Minocha, Prashant; Hodzic, Emina; Sharma, Madhu; Bhatla, Puneet; Nielsen, James; Ramirez, Michelle; Magid, Margret; Fisher, Jason C; Mosca, Ralph; Kumar, Tk Susheel
Intrapericardial teratomas are rare, predominantly benign tumors that warrant surgical resection in the neonatal period because of their potential detrimental effects on the cardiorespiratory system. Surgical resection can be a challenge when the tumor encases and obscures a coronary artery. Adherence to certain operative principles is necessary to achieve successful outcomes.
PMID: 33888026
ISSN: 2150-136x
CID: 4852092

Inflammation, Active Fibroplasia, and End-stage Fibrosis in 172 Biliary Atresia Remnants Correlate Poorly With Age at Kasai Portoenterostomy, Visceral Heterotaxy, and Outcome

Bove, Kevin E; Thrasher, Andrew D; Anders, Robert; Chung, Catherine T; Cummings, Oscar W; Finegold, Milton J; Finn, Laura; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Kim, Grace E; Lovell, Mark; Magid, Margret S; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Russo, Pierre; Shehata, Bahig; Wang, Larry; White, Francis; Chen, Zhen; Spino, Catherine; Magee, John C
Published histologic studies of the hilar plate or entire biliary remnant at the time of Kasai portoenterostomy (KHPE) have not provided deep insight into the pathogenesis of biliary atresia, relation to age at surgery, prognosis or the basis for successful drainage. We report detailed histologic findings in 172 centrally reviewed biliary remnants with an average of 6 sections per subject. Active lesions were classified as either necroinflammatory (rare/clustered in a few subjects) or active concentric fibroplasia with or without inflammation (common). Inactive lesions showed bland replacement by collagen and fibrous cords with little or no inflammation. Heterogeneity was common within a given remnant; however, relatively homogenous histologic patterns, defined as 3 or more inactive or active levels in the hepatic ducts levels, characterized most remnants. Homogeneity did not correlate with age at KHPE, presence/absence of congenital anomalies at laparotomy indicative of heterotaxy and outcome. Remnants from youngest subjects were more likely than older subjects to be homogenously inactive suggesting significantly earlier onset in the youngest subset. Conversely remnants from the oldest subjects were often homogenously active suggesting later onset or slower progression. More data are needed in remnants from subjects <30 days old at KHPE and in those with visceral anomalies. Prevalence of partially preserved epithelium in active fibroplastic biliary atresia lesions at all ages suggests that epithelial regression or injury may not be a primary event or that reepithelialization is already underway at the time of KHPE. We hypothesize that outcome after KHPE results from competition between active fibroplasia and reepithelialization of retained, collapsed but not obliterated lumens. The driver of active fibroplasia is unknown.
PMID: 30247160
ISSN: 1532-0979
CID: 3313962

Educational Case: A Uterine Neoplasm: Leiomyoma-A Benign Neoplasm

Magid, Margret S
The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see
PMID: 30116773
ISSN: 2374-2895
CID: 3241122

Key Histopathologic Features of Liver Biopsies That Distinguish Biliary Atresia From Other Causes of Infantile Cholestasis and Their Correlation With Outcome: A Multicenter Study

Russo, Pierre; Magee, John C; Anders, Robert A; Bove, Kevin E; Chung, Catherine; Cummings, Oscar W; Finegold, Milton J; Finn, Laura S; Kim, Grace E; Lovell, Mark A; Magid, Margret S; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Shehata, Bahig M; Wang, Larry L; White, Frances V; Chen, Zhen; Spino, Catherine
The liver biopsy guides diagnostic investigation and therapy in infants with undiagnosed cholestasis. Histologic features in the liver may also have prognostic value in the patient with biliary atresia (BA). We assessed the relative value of histologic features in 227 liver needle biopsies in discriminating between BA and other cholestatic disorders in infants enrolled in a prospective Childhood Liver Disease Research Network (ChiLDReN) cohort study by correlating histology with clinical findings in infants with and without BA. In addition, we reviewed 316 liver biopsies from clinically proven BA cases and correlated histologic features with total serum bilirubin 6 months after hepatoportoenterostomy (the Kasai procedure, HPE) and transplant-free survival up to 6 years. Review pathologists were blinded to clinical information except age. Semiquantitative scoring of 26 discrete histologic features was based on consensus. Bile plugs in portal bile ducts/ductules, moderate to marked ductular reaction, and portal stromal edema had the largest odds ratio for predicting BA versus non-BA by logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of the needle biopsy was estimated to be 90.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.2%, 94.9%), whereas sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of BA are 88.4% (95% CI: 81.4, 93.5) and 92.7% (95% CI: 84.8, 97.3), respectively. No histologic features were associated with an elevated serum bilirubin 6 months after HPE, although it (an elevated serum bilirubin) was associated with an older age at HPE. Higher stages of fibrosis, a ductal plate configuration, moderate to marked bile duct injury, an older age at HPE, and an elevated international normalized ratio were independently associated with a higher risk of transplantation.
PMID: 27776008
ISSN: 1532-0979
CID: 3092702

Swallowed Fluticasone Propionate Is an Effective Long-Term Maintenance Therapy for Children With Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Andreae, Doerthe A; Hanna, Matthew G; Magid, Margret S; Malerba, Stefano; Andreae, Michael H; Bagiella, Emilia; Chehade, Mirna
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although effective in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in children, limited data exist on long-term safety and efficacy of swallowed topical corticosteroids. We investigated whether long-term use of swallowed fluticasone in children with EoE leads to sustained reduction in esophageal eosinophils, and endoscopic and clinical improvement. METHODS:In an open-label, prospective, single-center study, we offered pediatric patients with active EoE fluticasone 2 puffs to swallow twice a day (strengths in μg/puff: 2-4 years: 44, 5-11 years: 110, ≥12 years: 220). Clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessments were performed at baseline and shortly after therapy. If histological remission was seen, fluticasone was continued with clinical follow-ups every 4 months and endoscopic and histological follow-ups yearly. Clinical scores were derived from eight symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia, food impaction, and early satiety). Endoscopic scores were derived from six features (rings, exudates, furrows, edema, stricture, and shearing). Scores were expressed as ratio (features present/total). In addition to peak eosinophils/high power field (HPF) (primary outcome), histological features (eosinophilic microabscesses, degranulation, superficial layering, basal zone hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces, and lamina propria fibrosis) were assessed. Median clinical and endoscopic scores and individual histologic features were compared over 4 time intervals: <4 months, 4-12 months, 13-24 months, and >24 months. Growth and adverse effects were monitored. RESULTS:We enrolled 54 patients, 80% male, median age 6.5 years (range 2-17 years), 85% atopic (57% asthma, 68% allergic rhinitis, and 31% atopic dermatitis), and 74% with food allergy. Mean follow-up was 20.4 months, the longest being 68 months (5.7 years). Esophageal eosinophil counts significantly decreased (median peak eosinophils/HPF at baseline 72, <4 months: 0.5, 4-12 months: 1.75, 13-24 months: 10, and >24 months: 12, all P<0.01). All histological features significantly decreased from baseline to all follow-up time points (all P<0.01). Lamina propria fibrosis significantly decreased (% patients with fibrosis at baseline 92, <4 months: 41, 4-12 months: 50, 13-24 months: 45, and >24 months: 39, all P<0.01). Endoscopic features improved (score at baseline 0.37, <4 months: 0.17, 4-12 months: 0.17, 13-24 months: 0, and >24 months: 0.1, all P<0.01, except at >24 months: P<0.05). Symptoms improved (score at baseline 0.22, <4 months: 0, 4-12 months: 0.11, 13-24 months: 0.11, and >24 months: 0.11, all P<0.05 except at >24 months: P=0.05). In a mixed linear regression model that accounts for correlation of repeated observations in the patient in a per-patient analysis, we found that treatment with swallowed fluticasone led to a statistically significant and sustained decrease in peak esophageal eosinophil counts. Asymptomatic esophageal candidiasis was seen in three children but resolved with anti-fungal therapy. Height and weight z-scores followed expected growth curves. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate that swallowed fluticasone is effective as a long-term maintenance therapy for children with EoE, without growth impediment or serious side effects.
PMID: 27325220
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 2910402