Radiation-induced inferior brachial plexopathy after stereotactic body radiotherapy: Pooled analyses of risks
Milano, Michael T; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Ryckman, Jeff; Yorke, Ellen; Doucette, Christopher; Mahadevan, Anand; Kapitanova, Irina; Spring Kong, Feng-Ming; Marks, Lawrence B; Grimm, Jimm
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP), resulting in symptomatic motor or sensory deficits of the upper extremity, is a risk after exposure of the brachial plexus to therapeutic doses of radiation. We sought to model dosimetric factors associated with risks of RIBP after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS:From a prior systematic review, 4 studies were identified that included individual patient data amenable to normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modelling after SBRT for apical lung tumors. Two probit NTCP models were derived: one from 4 studies (including 221 patients with 229 targets and 18 events); and another from 3 studies (including 185 patients with 192 targets and 11 events) that similarly contoured the brachial plexus. RESULTS: > 90-100 Gy in 2-Gy equivalents. CONCLUSIONS:. Comparisons to data from less conformal radiotherapy suggests potential dose-volume dependences of RIBP risks, though published data were not amenable to NTCP modelling of dose-volume measures associated with RIBP after SBRT.
5-year outcomes after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for primary renal cell carcinoma: an individual patient data meta-analysis from IROCK (the International Radiosurgery Consortium of the Kidney)
Siva, Shankar; Ali, Muhammad; Correa, Rohann J M; Muacevic, Alexander; Ponsky, Lee; Ellis, Rodney J; Lo, Simon S; Onishi, Hiroshi; Swaminath, Anand; McLaughlin, Mark; Morgan, Scott C; Cury, Fabio L; Teh, Bin S; Mahadevan, Anand; Kaplan, Irving D; Chu, William; Grubb, William; Hannan, Raquibul; Staehler, Michael; Warner, Andrew; Louie, Alexander V
BACKGROUND:Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is a non-invasive treatment option for primary renal cell carcinoma, for which long-term data are awaited. The primary aim of this study was to report on long-term efficacy and safety of SABR for localised renal cell carcinoma. METHODS:This study was an individual patient data meta-analysis, for which patients undergoing SABR for primary renal cell carcinoma across 12 institutions in five countries (Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, and the USA) were eligible. Eligible patients had at least 2 years of follow-up, were aged 18 years or older, had any performance status, and had no previous local therapy. Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma or upper-tract urothelial carcinoma were excluded. SABR was delivered as a single or multiple fractions of greater than 5 Gy. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed local failure per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1, and was evaluated using cumulative incidence functions. FINDINGS:(IQR 5·4-22·5) by 5 years post-SABR. Seven (4%) patients required dialysis post-SABR. The cumulative incidence of local failure at 5 years was 5·5% (95% CI 2·8-9·5) overall, with single-fraction SABR yielding fewer local failures than multifraction (Gray's p=0·020). There were no grade 3 toxic effects or treatment-related deaths. One (1%) patient developed an acute grade 4 duodenal ulcer and late grade 4 gastritis. INTERPRETATION:SABR is effective and safe in the long term for patients with primary renal cell carcinoma. Single-fraction SABR might yield less local failure than multifraction, but further evidence from randomised trials is needed to elucidate optimal treatment schedules. These mature data lend further support for renal SABR as a treatment option for patients unwilling or unfit to undergo surgery. FUNDING:None.
Impact of Dosimetric Factors on Local Failure in Patients with Spine Metastasis after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study [Meeting Abstract]
LeCompte, M C; Chen, X; Tseng, C L; Campbell, M; Balagamwala, E H; Hanan, J; Byun, D J; Silverman, J S; Foote, M C; Gatt, N; Mahadevan, A; Grimm, J; Redmond, K J
Purpose/Objective(s): Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly utilized in the treatment of spine metastasis. Preliminary data suggest that higher doses may improve local control, but may also increase risk of toxicity including vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Our single institution study recently found that a minimum dose of at least 21 Gy to 80% of planning target volume (PTV D80%) in 2 fractions was associated with higher risk of VCF. The purpose of this study is to assess this variable's relationship with local failure (LF) and VCF in an international, multi-institutional cohort. Materials/Methods: Patients with radiation naive solid tumor spine metastases treated with SBRT at 5 international institutions from 2010 - 2020 were included. Patients with surgical stabilization were excluded. LF was defined per spine response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria. Variables examined included spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) factors and dosimetric/volumetric characteristics of radiation planning. All fractionation scheme doses were converted to 2-fraction equivalent doses (2fxED) using the linear quadratic model with an alpha/beta of 3 and used in analyses of PTV D80%. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models for LF and VCF were constructed using the Fine and Gray competing risk method.
Result(s): 357 vertebral segments from 234 patients were treated with SBRT. Common primary tumor types were prostate (n = 50, 22%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 42, 18%), breast (n = 35, 15%), and kidney (n = 25, 11%). Most (n = 199 pts, 242 segments) were treated with 2 or 3 fractions with a median prescription dose of 24 Gy or 27 Gy, respectively (range: 14-45 Gy in 1-5 fractions). Median follow was 21.1 months (0.6-88.4 mo). LF was 12.6% and 18.1% at 1- and 2-years, respectively. Variables associated with increased LF on univariate analysis were lower PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.65, p = 0.001) and lower prescription dose BED3 (HR 0.98 as continuous variable, CI 0.97-0.99, p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, only PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy remained associated with increased risk of LF (HR 0.46, CI 0.24-0.85, p = 0.01). VCF incidence was low, at 4.2% and 6.7% at 1- and 2-years, respectively. Higher SINS was predictive of VCF (HR 1.22, CI 1.1-1.36, p <0.001). Patients with higher PTVD80% at 2fxED>21 Gy had a higher, albeit non-significant, risk of VCF (HR 3.30, CI 0.80-13.6, p = 0.10), consistent with our previous single institution study.
Conclusion(s): This multi-institutional, international study suggests that a PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy may increase the risk of LF, while >21 Gy may increase the likelihood of VCF. Prospective studies are needed to further explore this complex relationship and identify the dose/fractionation schedule that best balances local control with normal tissue toxicity including VCF.
An International Consensus on the Design of Prospective Clinical-Translational Trials in Spatially Fractionated Radiation Therapy for Advanced Gynecologic Cancer
Amendola, Beatriz E; Mahadevan, Anand; Blanco Suarez, Jesus Manuel; Griffin, Robert J; Wu, Xiaodong; Perez, Naipy C; Hippe, Daniel S; Simone, Charles B; Mohiuddin, Majid; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Snider, James W; Zhang, Hualin; Le, Quynh-Thu; Mayr, Nina A
Despite the unexpectedly high tumor responses and limited treatment-related toxicities observed with SFRT, prospective multi-institutional clinical trials of SFRT are still lacking. High variability of SFRT technologies and methods, unfamiliar complex dose and prescription concepts for heterogeneous dose and uncertainty regarding systemic therapies present major obstacles towards clinical trial development. To address these challenges, the consensus guideline reported here aimed at facilitating trial development and feasibility through a priori harmonization of treatment approach and the full range of clinical trial design parameters for SFRT trials in gynecologic cancer. Gynecologic cancers were evaluated for the status of SFRT pilot experience. A multi-disciplinary SFRT expert panel for gynecologic cancer was established to develop the consensus through formal panel review/discussions, appropriateness rank voting and public comment solicitation/review. The trial design parameters included eligibility/exclusions, endpoints, SFRT technology/technique, dose/dosimetric parameters, systemic therapies, patient evaluations, and embedded translational science. Cervical cancer was determined as the most suitable gynecologic tumor for an SFRT trial. Consensus emphasized standardization of SFRT dosimetry/physics parameters, biologic dose modeling, and specimen collection for translational/biological endpoints, which may be uniquely feasible in cervical cancer. Incorporation of brachytherapy into the SFRT regimen requires additional pre-trial pilot investigations. Specific consensus recommendations are presented and discussed.
Influence of Dexamethasone Premedication on Acute Lung Toxicity in Lung SBRT
Alite, Fiori; Shaikh, Parvez M; Mahadevan, Anand
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:The cooperative group experience of thoracic sterotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in medically inoperable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) historically utilized corticosteroid premedication. Patterns of care have been mixed as to whether premedication adds benefit in terms of improved lung toxicity and treatment tolerance. Methods/UNASSIGNED:-test for continuous variables. Multivariate analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards model to adjust for age, pretreatment DLCO, ECOG, tumor size, central versus peripheral location, and biological effective dose. Results/UNASSIGNED:= 0.293). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In this retrospective analysis, pretreatment steroid prophylaxis with dexamethasone confers a similar acute toxicity profile and no added clinical benefit to treatment without pretreatment steroid prophylaxis.
PA- and NP-led Ommaya clinics to manage leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
Leese, Erika N; Weeder, Jamie L; Manikowski, Jesse J; DeLaRue, Angela M; Conger, Andrew R; Mahadevan, Anand; Vogel, Victor G; Mongelluzzo, Gino J; Gatson, Na Tosha N
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Physician assistants (PAs) and NPs are essential to quality care delivery. The need to demonstrate value and optimize PA and NP roles in neurology subspecialty clinics is unmet. We outline the development of a PA- and NP-led neuro-oncology procedural clinic and provide metrics to support the institutional and clinician value added. METHODS:We designed a PA- and NP-led Geisinger Ommaya Clinic (GOC) to manage leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) with defined clinician roles and the GOC treatment protocol. A retrospective review of 135 patients (2012-2019) compared survival outcomes for patients treated on the protocol compared with those treated off the protocol. RESULTS:Centralized care in the GOCs minimized shared physician encounters and improved PA and NP autonomy and utility. LMC therapy as part of the GOC protocol improved care continuity and survival outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:PA- and NP-led procedural clinics optimize use of these clinicians and open physician availability for nonprocedural duties. This research highlights the institutional patient and financial benefit while demonstrating the operational and leadership growth potential for PAs and NPs.
Evaluation of Long-Term Outcomes and Toxicity After Stereotactic Phosphorus-32-Based Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Cystic Craniopharyngioma
Yu, Xin; Christ, Sebastian M; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yaming; Hu, Chenhao; Feng, Bo; Mahadevan, Anand; Kasper, Ekkehard M
PURPOSE:Interstitial brachytherapy based on phosphorus-32 (P-32) has an established role as a minimally invasive treatment modality for patients with cystic craniopharyngioma. However, reporting on long-term outcomes with toxicity profiles for large cohorts is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the long-term visual, endocrinal, and neurocognitive functions in what is the largest patient series having received this treatment to date. METHODS AND MATERIALS:We retrospectively evaluated 90 patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas who were treated with stereotactic intracavitary brachytherapy between 1998 and 2010. Colloidal activity of injected radioisotope P-32 was based on an even distribution within the tumor. After treatment, patients were followed-up for a minimum of 5 years and over a mean of 121 months (60-192 months) to assess radiographic and clinical responses. RESULTS:The 90 patients included in our study cohort underwent a total of 108 stereotactic surgical procedures for 129 craniopharyngioma-related cysts. Of the included tumors, 65 (72.2%) were associated with a single cyst, 15 (16.7%) were associated with 2 cysts, and 10 (11.1%) tumors had developed septations with 3 to 4 cysts. Stereotactic cyst puncture and content aspiration were used to drain a mean cyst fluid volume of 21.4 mL (1.0-55.0 mL). Each cyst was then instilled for interstitial brachytherapy with colloidal P-32 solution. Based on radiographic follow-up assessments, 56 cysts (43.4%) showed resolution and/or nonrecurrence, which was classified as a complete response to treatment; 47 cysts (36.4%) showed a partial response; and 5 cysts (3.9%) displayed a stable appearance. Treatment resulted in immediate and clinically significant vision improvement in 54 of 63 (86%) symptomatic patients, and this improvement was maintained. Progression-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 95.5% and 84.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:P-32-based interstitial brachytherapy can play an effective role in managing patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas. It can be considered a valid alternative to surgery in select patients with a favorable toxicity profile and long-term clinical outcomes.
An international Delphi consensus for pelvic stereotactic ablative radiotherapy re-irradiation
Slevin, Finbar; Aitken, Katharine; Alongi, Filippo; Arcangeli, Stefano; Chadwick, Eliot; Chang, Ah Ram; Cheung, Patrick; Crane, Christopher; Guckenberger, Matthias; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Kamran, Sophia C; Kinj, Rémy; Loi, Mauro; Mahadevan, Anand; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Mendez, Lucas C; Muirhead, Rebecca; Pasquier, David; Pontoriero, Antonio; Spratt, Daniel E; Tsang, Yat Man; Zelefsky, Michael J; Lilley, John; Dickinson, Peter; Hawkins, Maria A; Henry, Ann M; Murray, Louise J
INTRODUCTION:Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat metastatic oligorecurrence and locoregional recurrences but limited evidence/guidance exists in the setting of pelvic re-irradiation. An international Delphi study was performed to develop statements to guide practice regarding patient selection, pre-treatment investigations, treatment planning, delivery and cumulative organs at risk (OARs) constraints. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty-one radiation oncologists were invited to participate in three online surveys. In Round 1, information and opinion was sought regarding participants' practice. Guidance statements were developed using this information and in Round 2 participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each statement. Consensus was defined as â‰¥75% agreement. In Round 3, any statements without consensus were re-presented unmodified, alongside a summary of comments from Round 2. RESULTS:Twenty-three radiation oncologists participated in Round 1 and, of these, 21 (91%) and 22 (96%) completed Rounds 2 and 3 respectively. Twenty-nine of 44 statements (66%) achieved consensus in Round 2. The remaining 15 statements (34%) did not achieve further consensus in Round 3. Consensus was achieved for 10 of 17 statements (59%) regarding patient selection/pre-treatment investigations; 12 of 13 statements (92%) concerning treatment planning and delivery; and 7 of 14 statements (50%) relating to OARs. Lack of agreement remained regarding the minimum time interval between irradiation courses, the number/size of pelvic lesions that can be treated and the most appropriate cumulative OAR constraints. CONCLUSIONS:This study has established consensus, where possible, in areas of patient selection, pre-treatment investigations, treatment planning and delivery for pelvic SABR re-irradiation for metastatic oligorecurrence and locoregional recurrences. Further research into this technique is required, especially regarding aspects of practice where consensus was not achieved.
Estimating the tolerance of brachial plexus to hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy: a modelling-based approach from clinical experience
Kapitanova, Irina; Biswas, Sharmi; Divekar, Sabrina; Kemmerer, Eric J; Rostock, Robert A; Forster, Kenneth M; Grimm, Rachel J; Scofield, Carla J; Grimm, Jimm; Emami, Bahman; Mahadevan, Anand
BACKGROUND:Brachial plexopathy is a potentially serious complication from stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) that has not been widely studied. Therefore, we compared datasets from two different institutions and generated a brachial plexus dose-response model, to quantify what dose constraints would be needed to minimize the effect on normal tissue while still enabling potent therapy for the tumor. METHODS:Two published SBRT datasets were pooled and modeled from patients at Indiana University and the Richard L. Roudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center from 1998 to 2007, as well as the Karolinska Institute from 2008 to 2013. All patients in both studies were treated with SBRT for apically located lung tumors localized superior to the aortic arch. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and a probit dose response model was created with maximum likelihood parameter fitting. RESULTS:This analysis includes a total of 89 brachial plexus maximum point dose (Dmax) values from both institutions. Among the 14 patients who developed brachial plexopathy, the most common complications were grade 2, comprising 7 patients. The median follow-up was 30Â months (range 6.1-72.2) in the Karolinska dataset, and the Indiana dataset had a median of 13Â months (range 1-71). Both studies had a median range of 3 fractions, but in the Indiana dataset, 9 patients were treated in 4 fractions, and the paper did not differentiate between the two, so our analysis is considered to be in 3-4 fractions, one of the main limitations. The probit model showed that the risk of brachial plexopathy with Dmax of 26Â Gy in 3-4 fractions is 10%, and 50% with Dmax of 70Â Gy in 3-4 fractions. CONCLUSIONS:This analysis is only a preliminary result because more details are needed as well as additional comprehensive datasets from a much broader cross-section of clinical practices. When more institutions join the QUANTEC and HyTEC methodology of reporting sufficient details to enable data pooling, our field will finally reach an improved understanding of human dose tolerance.
Case series review of neuroradiologic changes associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy
Gatson, Na Tosha N; Makary, Mina; Bross, Shane P; Vadakara, Joseph; Maiers, Tristan; Mongelluzzo, Gino J; Leese, Erika N; Brimley, Cameron; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Mahadevan, Anand; Sarkar, Atom; Panikkar, Rajiv
While immuno-oncotherapy (IO) has significantly improved outcomes in the treatment of systemic cancers, various neurological complications have accompanied these therapies. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) risks multi-organ autoimmune inflammatory responses with gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and endocrine complications being the most common types of complications. Despite some evidence that these therapies are effective to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, there are a significant range of related neurological side effects due to ICIs. Neuroradiologic changes associated with ICIs are commonly misdiagnosed as progression and might limit treatment or otherwise impact patient care. Here, we provide a radiologic case series review restricted to neurological complications attributed to ICIs, anti-CTLA-4, and PD-L-1/PD-1 inhibitors. We report the first case series dedicated to the review of CNS/PNS radiologic changes secondary to ICI therapy in cancer patients. We provide a brief case synopsis with neuroimaging followed by an annotated review of the literature relevant to each case. We present a series of neuroradiological findings including nonspecific parenchymal and encephalitic, hypophyseal, neural (cranial and peripheral), meningeal, cavity-associated, and cranial osseous changes seen in association with the use of ICIs. Misdiagnosis of radiologic abnormalities secondary to neurological immune-related adverse events can impact patient treatment regimens and clinical outcomes. Rapid recognition of various neuroradiologic changes associated with ICI therapy can improve patient tolerance and adherence to cancer therapies.