Young patients undergoing carotid stenting procedures have an increased rate of procedural failure at 1-year follow-up
OBJECTIVE:The outcomes of patients with premature cerebrovascular disease (age ≤55 years) who undergo carotid artery stenting are not well-defined. Our study objective was to analyze the outcomes of younger patients undergoing carotid stenting. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative was queried for transfemoral carotid artery stenting (TF-CAS) and transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) procedures between 2016 and 2020. Patients were stratified based on age ≤55 or >55 years. Primary endpoints were periprocedural stroke, death, myocardial infarction (MI), and composite outcomes. Secondary endpoints included procedural failure (defined as ipsilateral restenosis ≥80% or occlusion) and reintervention rates. RESULTS:Of the 35,802 patients who underwent either TF-CAS or TCAR, 2912 (6.1%) were ≤55 years. Younger patients were less likely than older patients to have coronary disease (30.5% vs 50.2%; P < .001), diabetes (31.5% vs 37.9%; P < .001), and hypertension (71.8% vs 89.8%; P < .001), but were more likely to be female (45% vs 35.4%; P < .001) and active smokers (50.9% vs 24.0%; P < .001) Younger patients were also more likely to have had a prior transient ischemic attack or stroke than older patients (70.7% vs 56.9%; P < .001). TF-CAS was more frequently performed in younger patients (79.7% vs 55.4%; P < .001). In the periprocedural period, younger patients were less likely to have a MI than older patients (0.3% vs 0.7%; P < .001), but there was no significant difference in the rates of periprocedural stroke (1.5% vs 2.0%; P = .173) and composite outcomes of stroke/death (2.6% vs 2.7%; P = .686) and stroke/death/MI (2.9% vs 3.2%; P = .353) between our two cohorts. The mean follow-up was 12 months regardless of age. During follow-up, younger patients were significantly more likely to experience significant (≥80%) restenosis or occlusion (4.7% vs 2.3%; P = .001) and to undergo reintervention (3.3% vs 1.7%; P < .001). However, there was no statistical difference in the frequency of late strokes between younger and older patients (3.8% vs 3.2%; P = .129). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with premature cerebrovascular disease undergoing carotid artery stenting are more likely to be African American, female, and active smokers than their older counterparts. Young patients are also more likely to present symptomatically. Although periprocedural outcomes are similar, younger patients have higher rates of procedural failure (significant restenosis or occlusion) and reintervention at 1-year follow-up. However, the clinical implication of late procedural failure is unknown, given that we found no significant difference in the rate of stroke at follow-up. Until further longitudinal studies are completed, clinicians should carefully consider the indications for carotid stenting in patients with premature cerebrovascular disease, and those who do undergo stenting may require close follow-up.
International Multi-Institutional Experience with Presentation and Management of Aortic Arch Laterality in Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Kommerell's Diverticulum
BACKGROUND:Aberrant subclavian artery (ASA) with or without Kommerell's diverticulum (KD) is a rare anatomic aortic arch anomaly that can cause dysphagia and/or life-threatening rupture. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes of ASA/KD repair in patients with a left versus right aortic arch. METHODS:Using the Vascular Low Frequency Disease Consortium methodology, a retrospective review was performed of patients ≥18 years old with surgical treatment of ASA/KD from 2000 to 2020 at 20 institutions. RESULTS:288 patients with ASA with or without KD were identified; 222 left-sided aortic arch (LAA), and 66 right-sided aortic arch (RAA). Mean age at repair was younger in LAA 54 vs. 58 years (P = 0.06). Patients in RAA were more likely to undergo repair due to symptoms (72.7% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.01), and more likely to present with dysphagia (57.6% vs. 39.1%, P < 0.01). The hybrid open/endovascular approach was the most common repair type in both groups. Rates of intraoperative complications, death within 30 days, return to the operating room, symptom relief and endoleaks were not significantly different. For patients with symptom status follow-up data, in LAA, 61.7% had complete relief, 34.0% had partial relief and 4.3% had no change. In RAA, 60.7% had complete relief, 34.4% had partial relief and 4.9% had no change. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with ASA/KD, RAA patients were less common than LAA, presented more frequently with dysphagia, had symptoms as an indication for intervention, and underwent treatment at a younger age. Open, endovascular and hybrid repair approaches appear equally effective, regardless of arch laterality.
Young Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy Have Increased Rates of Recurrent Disease and Late Neurologic Events
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes of patients with premature cerebrovascular disease (age ≤ 55 years) who undergo carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The objective of this study was to analyze the demographics, presentation, perioperative and later outcomes of younger patients undergoing CEA. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative was queried for CEA cases between 2012-2022. Patients were stratified based on age ≤ 55 or age > 55 years. Primary endpoints were periprocedural stroke, death, myocardial infarction and composite outcomes. Secondary endpoints included restenosis (≥80%) or occlusion, late neurologic events and re-intervention. RESULTS:Of 120,549 patients undergoing CEA, 7,009 (5.5%) were ≤ 55 years old (mean age of 51.3 years). Younger patients were more likely to be African American (7.7% vs 4.5%, p < .001), female (45.2% vs 38.9%, p < .001) and active smokers (57.3% vs 24.1%, p < .001). They were less likely than older patients to have hypertension (82.5% vs 89.7%, p < .001), coronary artery disease (25% vs 27.3%, p < .001) and CHF (7.8% vs 11.4%, p<.001). Younger patients were significantly less likely than older patients to be on aspirin, anti-coagulation, statins, or beta-blockers but were more likely to be taking P2Y12 inhibitors (37.2 vs 33.7%, p <.001). Younger patients were more likely to present with symptomatic disease (35.1% vs 27.6%, p<.001) and were more likely to undergo non-elective CEA (19.2% vs 12.8%; P < .001). Younger and older patients had similar rates of perioperative stroke/death (2% vs 2%, p= NS) and post-operative neurologic events (1.9% vs 1.8%, p = NS). However, younger patients had lower rates of overall postoperative complications compared to their older counterparts (3.7% vs 4.7%, p<.001). 72.6% of patients had recorded follow-up (mean 13 months). During follow-up, younger patients were significantly more likely than older patients to experience a late failure, defined as significant (≥80%) restenosis or complete occlusion of the operated artery (2.4% vs 1.5%, p <.001) and were more likely to experience any neurologic event (3.1% vs 2.3%, p<.001). Re-intervention rates did not significantly differ between the two cohorts. After controlling for co-variates using a logistic regression model, age ≤ 55 years was independently associated with increased odds of late re-stenosis/occlusion (OR 1.591, 95% CI 1.221-2.073, p<.001) as well as late neurologic events (OR 1.304, 95% CI 1.079-1.576, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Young patients undergoing CEA are more likely to be African American, female, and active smokers. They are more likely to present symptomatically and undergo non-elective CEA. Although perioperative outcomes are similar, younger patients are more likely to experience carotid occlusion or restenosis as well as subsequent neurological events, during relatively short follow-up. These data suggest that younger CEA patients may require more diligent follow-up, and a continued aggressive approach to medical management of atherosclerosis to prevent future events related to the operated artery, given the particularly aggressive nature of premature atherosclerosis.
Aortobifemoral reconstruction in open AAA repair is associated with increased morbidity and mortality
OBJECTIVE:Much attention has been given to the influence of anatomic and technical factors, such as maximum abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and proximal clamp position, in open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OSR). However, no studies have rigorously examined the correlation between site of distal anastomosis and OSR outcomes despite conventional wisdom that more proximal sites of anastomosis are preferrable when technically feasible. This study aimed to test the association between sites of distal anastomosis and clinical outcomes for patients undergoing primary elective OSR. METHODS:Our study included 5683 patients undergoing primary elective OSR at 233 centers from 2014 to 2020. Using a variety of statistical methods to account for potential confounders, including multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling, as well as subgroup analysis, we examined the association between site of distal anastomosis and clinical outcomes in elective OSR. Primary outcomes were major in-hospital complication rate, 30-day mortality, and long-term survival. RESULTS:Patients undergoing elective aortobifemoral reconstruction (n = 672) exhibited significantly increased rates of smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral artery disease in comparison to patients undergoing elective OSR with distal anastomosis to the aorta (n = 2298), common iliac artery (n = 2163), or external iliac artery (n = 550). Patients undergoing aorto-aortic tube grafting were significantly less likely to exhibit iliac aneurysmal disease and significantly more likely to be undergoing elective OSR with a suprarenal or supraceliac proximal clamp position. Using multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis to control for important confounders, such as age, smoking status, and medical history, we found that distal anastomosis to the common femoral artery was associated with increased odds of major in-hospital complications (adjusted odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.18; P < .001) and reduced long-term survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.89; P = .010). We observed no significant differences in 30-day mortality across sites of distal anastomosis in our study population. CONCLUSIONS:It is generally accepted that more proximal sites of distal anastomosis should be selected in OSR when technically feasible. Our findings support this hypothesis by demonstrating that distal anastomosis to the common femoral artery is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and reduced long-term survival. Careful diligence regarding optimization of preoperative health status, perioperative care, and long-term follow-up should be applied to mitigate major complications in this patient population.
Open surgical repair for in-stent restenosis of internal carotid artery covered stent-graft
Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA) are rare vascular anomalies defined as any aneurysmal dilatation of the common, external, or internal carotid artery leading up to the skull base. Operative management is indicated due to the high incidence of morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Endovascular techniques include aneurysm stent-graft exclusions, coil embolization, and transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR). In-stent restenosis is a rare complication without established guidelines for re-intervention. We successfully treated a patient with in-stent restenosis of a covered stent graft placed to exclude an ECAA utilizing a common carotid artery to internal carotid artery bypass.
Positive Preoperative Cardiac Stress Test Associated With Higher Late Mortality in Patients Undergoing Elective Carotid Endarterectomy [Meeting Abstract]
Objectives: This study compared outcomes in patients with and without preoperative cardiac stress testing undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA).
Method(s): Patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative Vascular Implant Surveillance and Interventional Outcomes Network database who underwent elective carotid revascularization between 2016 and 2019 were included. Patients were analyzed by group based upon whether they underwent cardiac stress testing within two years preceding revascularization without subsequent coronary intervention. Subset analysis was performed comparing outcomes between those with negative and positive results, defined as evidence of ischemia or myocardial infarction (MI). Outcomes of interest were periprocedural MI/stroke, 90-day readmission rates, as well as late-term mortality.
Result(s): We analyzed 14,470 patients who underwent elective CEA. Of these, 5411 (37.4%) underwent preoperative stress testing and 1231 (29.4%) were positive. Comorbidities were significantly higher among patients undergoing CEA with preoperative stress test compared to those without stress testing. For patients with positive stress test undergoing CEA, there was a significant increase in postoperative MI (1.7% vs 0.6%; P <.001) and 90-day readmission rates (19.6% vs 15.8%; P =.003), but no significant change in postoperative stroke or congestive heart failure incidence. In 3-year follow-up after CEA, those with a positive stress test were more likely to undergo coronary artery bypass graft/percutaneous coronary intervention (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.27; P <.0001) and also exhibited a 28% increase in mortality (adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.58; P =.03) in follow-up compared to those patients with a negative preoperative stress test (Figure). Conversely, those patients with a negative stress test compared to no stress test undergoing CEA experienced a 14% reduction in follow-up mortality (adjusted HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98; P =.02) despite no difference in in-hospital MI/stroke or follow-up coronary artery bypass graft/percutaneous coronary intervention (adjusted HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.78-1.14; P =.53).
Conclusion(s): Our study highlights that cardiac stress testing in appropriately selected patients can facilitate risk stratification and identify patients at higher risk of postoperative adverse cardiac events. Furthermore, judicious patient selection for elective CEA is warranted in patients with a positive preoperative stress test given the increased late mortality. [Formula presented]
Natural History and Long-term Follow-up of 890 Splenic Artery Aneurysms [Meeting Abstract]
Objectives: Though splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the most common visceral aneurysm, there is a paucity of literature on the natural history of SAAs. The objective of this study was to review the natural history of patients with SAA.
Method(s): This single-institution retrospective analysis studied all patients with SAA diagnosed by computed tomography imaging between 2015 and 2019, identified by our radiology database. Imaging, demographic, and clinical data was obtained via the electronic medical record.
Result(s): The cohort consists of 853 patients with 894 SAA; 693 were female (81.2%), with 37 (5.3%) of them of childbearing age (15-50 years). Mean age at diagnosis was 70.9 years (range, 28-100 years). Medical comorbidities included hypertension (70.2%), prior smoking (32.2%), and hypercholesterolemia (54.7%) (Table I). Imaging indications included abdominal pain (37.3%), unrelated follow-up (28.0%) and follow-up of a previously noted visceral artery aneurysm (8.6%). Mean diameter at diagnosis was 13.3 +/- 6.3 mm. Eighty-one patients (9.0%) had more than one SAA. Anatomical locations included the splenic hilum (36.0%), distal splenic artery (30.3%), mid splenic artery (23.9%), and proximal splenic artery (9.7%). Radiographically, the majority were saccular aneurysms (72.4%). Additional characteristics included calcification (88.5%) and thrombus (13.9%). Associated imaging findings included aortic atherosclerosis (58.7%), abdominal aortic aneurysms (7.0%), and additional visceral aneurysms (4.1%). One patient (a 38-year-old female) was initially diagnosed at the time of rupture of a 25-mm aneurysm; this patient underwent immediate endovascular intervention with no complications. Mean clinical follow-up among 812 patients was 4.1 +/- 4.0 years. Mean radiological follow-up among 514 patients was 3.8 +/- 6.8 years. Of these, 122 patients (23.7%) experienced growth, with mean growth of 2.5mm. Aneurysm growth rates for initial sizes <10 mm (n = 123), 10 to 19 mm (n = 353), 20 to 29 mm (n = 34), and >30 mm (n = 4) were 0.166 mm/y, 0.172 mm/y, 0.383 mm/y, and 0.246 mm/y, respectively. Of the entire cohort, 27 patients (3.2%) eventually underwent intervention (81.5% endovascular), with the most common indications including size/growth criteria (70.4%) and symptom development (18.5%). On multivariate analysis, only prior tobacco use (P =.028) was significantly associated with aneurysm growth. Data stratified by sex and childbearing age are presented in Table II.
Conclusion(s): The majority of SAAs in this cohort remained stable in size, with few patients requiring intervention over mean follow-up of 4 years. Current guidelines recommending treatment of asymptomatic aneurysms >30 mm appear appropriate given their slow progression. Despite societal recommendations for intervention for all SAAs among women of childbearing age, only a minority underwent intervention in this series, indicating that these recommendations may not be well known in the general medical community. [Formula presented] [Formula presented]
Contemporary Outcomes after Treatment of Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Kommerell's Diverticulum
OBJECTIVE:Aberrant Subclavian Artery (ASA) and Kommerell's Diverticulum (KD) are rare vascular anomalies that may be associated with lifestyle-limiting and life-threatening complications. The aim of this study is to report contemporary outcomes after invasive treatment of ASA/KD using a large international dataset. METHODS:Patients who underwent treatment for ASA/KD (2000-2020) were identified through the Vascular Low Frequency Disease Consortium (VLFDC), a multi-institutional collaboration to investigate uncommon vascular disorders. We report early and mid-term clinical outcomes including stroke and mortality, technical success, and other operative outcomes including reintervention rates, patency and endoleak. RESULTS:Overall, 285 patients were identified during the study period. The mean patient age was 57; 47% were female and 68% presented with symptoms. A right-sided arch was present in 23%. Mean KD diameter was 47.4 mm (range 13-108). The most common indication for treatment was symptoms (59%), followed by aneurysm size (38%). The most common symptom reported was dysphagia (44%). A ruptured KD was treated in 4.2% of cases, with a mean diameter of 43.9 mm (range 18-100). An open procedure (Open) was performed in 101 cases (36%); the most common approach was ASA ligation with subclavian transposition. An endovascular or hybrid approach (Endo/Hybrid) was performed in 184 (64%); the most common approach was thoracic endograft and carotid-subclavian bypass. A staged operative strategy was employed more often than single setting repair (55% vs. 45%). Compared to Endo/Hybrid, those in the Open group were more likely to be younger (49 vs. 61 years; p < .0001), female (64% vs. 36%; p < .0001) and symptomatic (85% vs. 59%; p < .0001). Complete/partial symptomatic relief at 1 year after intervention was 82.6%. There was no association between modality of treatment and symptom relief (open 87.2% vs. endo/hybrid 78.9%; p=0.13). Post-intervention, 11 (4.5%) subclavian occlusions occurred; 3 were successfully thrombectomized resulting in a primary and secondary patency of 95% and 96% respectively, at a median follow-up of 39 months. Among the 33 (12%) reinterventions, the majority were performed for endoleak (36%), and more reinterventions occurred in the Endo/Hybrid than Open group (15% vs. 6%; p = .02). Overall survival was 87.3% at a median follow-up of 41 months. The 30-day stroke and death rates were 4.2% and 4.9%, respectively. Urgent/emergent presentation was independently associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 19.8, 95% CI 3.3-116.6), overall mortality (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-11.2) and intraoperative complications (OR 8.3, 95% CI 2.8-25.1). Females had higher risk of reintervention (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1-6.5). At an aneurysm size of 44.4 mm, Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested that 60% of patients would have symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of ASA/KD can be performed safely with low rates of mortality, stroke and reintervention, and high rates of symptomatic relief regardless of repair strategy. Symptomatic and urgent operations were associated with worse outcomes in general, and female gender was associated with a higher likelihood of reintervention. Given the worse overall outcomes when symptomatic and the inherent risk of rupture, consideration of repair at 40 mm is reasonable in most patients. ASA/KD can be repaired in asymptomatic patients with excellent outcomes and young healthy patients may be considered better candidates for open approaches versus endovascular/hybrid modalities, given the lower likelihood of reintervention and lower early mortality rate.
Renal transplant recipients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair have increased risk of perioperative acute kidney injury but no difference in late mortality
OBJECTIVE:Renal transplant is associated with substantial survival advantage in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, little is known about the outcomes of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This study aimed to study the effect of renal transplant on perioperative outcomes and long-term survival after elective infrarenal EVAR. METHODS:The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing elective EVAR from 2003 to 2021. Functioning RTRs were compared with non-renal transplant recipients without a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (non-RTRs). The outcomes included 30-day mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), new renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), endoleak, aortic-related reintervention, major adverse cardiac events, and 5-year survival. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between RTRs and perioperative outcomes. RESULTS:Of 60,522 patients undergoing elective EVAR, 180 (0.3%) were RTRs. RTRs were younger (median, 71 years vs 74.5 years; P < .001), with higher incidence of hypertension (92% vs 84%; P = .004) and diabetes (29% vs 21%; P = .005). RTRs had higher median preoperative serum creatinine (1.3 mg/dL vs 1.0 mg/dL; P < .001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (51.6 mL/min vs 69.4 mL/min; P < .001). There was no difference in the abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter and incidence of concurrent iliac aneurysms. Procedurally, RTRs were more likely to undergo general anesthesia with lower amount of contrast used (median, 68.6 mL vs 94.8 ml; P < .001) and higher crystalloid infusion (median, 1700 mL vs 1500 mL; P = .039), but no difference was observed in the incidence of open conversion, endoleak, operative time, and blood loss. Postoperatively, RTRs experienced a higher rate of AKI (9.4% vs 2.7%; P < .001), but the need for new RRT was similar (1.1% vs 0.4%; P = .15). There was no difference in the rates of postoperative mortality, aortic-related reintervention, and major adverse cardiac events. After adjustment for potential confounders, RTRs remained associated with increased odds of postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-5.76; P < .001) but had no association with other postoperative complications. A subgroup analysis identified that diabetes (odds ratio, 4.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-15.14; P = .02) is associated with increased odds of postoperative AKI among RTRs. At 5 years, the overall survival rates were similar (83.4% vs 80%; log-rank P = .235). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients undergoing elective infrarenal EVAR, RTRs were independently associated with increased odds of postoperative AKI, without increased postoperative renal failure requiring RRT, mortality, endoleak, aortic-related reintervention, or major adverse cardiac events. Furthermore, 5-year survival was similar. As such, while EVAR may confer comparable benefits and technical success perioperatively, RTRs should have aggressive and maximally optimized renal protection to mitigate the risk of postoperative AKI.
Six-Month Deep Vein Thrombosis Outcomes by Chronicity: Analysis of the Real-World ClotTriever Outcomes Registry
PURPOSE:To analyze the first 250 patients from the prospective, multicenter, industry-sponsored ClotTriever Outcomes (CLOUT) registry, assessing the safety and effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy for acute, subacute, and chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Real-world patients with lower extremity DVT were treated with the ClotTriever System (Inari Medical, Irvine, California). Adjuvant venoplasty, stent placement, or both were performed at the physician's discretion. Thrombus chronicity was determined by visual inspection of removed thrombus, categorizing patients into acute, subacute, and chronic subgroups. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were assessed through 30 days. Clinical and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes are reported through 6 months. RESULTS:Thrombus chronicity was designated for 244 of the 250 patients (acute, 32.8%; subacute, 34.8%; chronic, 32.4%) encompassing 254 treated limbs. Complete or near-complete (≥75%) thrombus removal was achieved in 90.8%, 81.9%, and 83.8% of the limbs with acute, subacute, and chronic thrombus, respectively. No fibrinolytics were administered, and 243 (99.6%) procedures were single sessions. One (0.4%) patient in the subacute group experienced a device-related SAE, a fatal pulmonary embolism. On comparing baseline and 6-month data, improvements were demonstrated in median Villalta scores (acute, from 10 to 1; subacute, from 9 to 1; chronic, from 10 to 3; for all, P < .0001) and mean EuroQol group 5-dimension (EQ-5D) self-report questionnaire scores (acute, 0.58 to 0.89; subacute, 0.65 to 0.87; chronic, 0.58 to 0.88; for all, P < .0001). There were no significant differences in outcomes across the subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Mechanical thrombectomy using the ClotTriever System with adjunctive venoplasty and stent placement is safe and similarly effective for acute, subacute, and chronic DVT.