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Mother to Newborn Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Evolution of Evidence in 1.5 Years of COVID-19 Pandemic

Gupta, Arpit; Kamity, Ranjith; Sharma, Rishika; Caprio, Martha; Mally, Pradeep; Verma, Sourabh
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant mortality and morbidity in people of all age groups worldwide. Given the uncertainty regarding the mode of transmission and potential effects of COVID-19 on pregnant mothers and their newborns, guidelines for taking care of maternal-newborn dyads have evolved tremendously since the pandemic began. There has been an enormous influx of published materials regarding the outcomes of mothers and newborns. Still, multiple knowledge gaps regarding comprehensive information about risk to the mothers and newborns exist, which need to be addressed. Current evidence suggests that mothers with symptomatic COVID-19 infection are at increased risk of severe illness during pregnancy, with a higher need for respiratory support and premature deliveries. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 are at increased risk of needing intensive care; however, most newborns do well after birth. As new mutant variants arise, we need to be cautious while proactively understanding any new evolving patterns. All leading health authorities strongly recommend COVID-19 vaccination before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of maternal morbidities and benefit from passing antibodies to newborns prenatally and via breastmilk. Additionally, there are racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in outcomes and vaccination coverage for pregnant women. This article summarizes the rapidly evolving evidence for the last 1.5 years and aims to help health care professionals care for mothers with COVID-19 and their newborns. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 in pregnancy can cause perinatal morbidities.. · Breastfeeding and breast milk are safe for newborns.. · COVID-19 vaccination reduces the risk for morbidities..
PMID: 35738288
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 5282092

Near-infrared spectroscopy in the medical management of infants

Bailey, Sean M; Prakash, Shrawani Soorneela; Verma, Sourabh; Desai, Purnahamsi; Kazmi, Sadaf; Mally, Pradeep V
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technology that is easy to use and can provide helpful information about organ oxygenation and perfusion by measuring regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) with near-infrared light. The sensors can be placed in different anatomical locations to monitor rSO2 levels in several organs. While NIRS is not without limitations, this equipment is now becoming increasingly integrated into modern healthcare practice with the goal of achieving better outcomes for patients. It can be particularly applicable in the monitoring of pediatric patients because of their size, and especially so in infant patients. Infants are ideal for NIRS monitoring as nearly all of their vital organs lie near the skin surface which near-infrared light penetrates through. In addition, infants are a difficult population to evaluate with traditional invasive monitoring techniques that normally rely on the use of larger catheters and maintaining vascular access. Pediatric clinicians can observe rSO2 values in order to gain insight about tissue perfusion, oxygenation, and the metabolic status of their patients. In this way, NIRS can be used in a non-invasive manner to either continuously or periodically check rSO2. Because of these attributes and capabilities, NIRS can be used in various pediatric inpatient settings and on a variety of patients who require monitoring. The primary objective of this review is to provide pediatric clinicians with a general understanding of how NIRS works, to discuss how it currently is being studied and employed, and how NIRS could be increasingly used in the near future, all with a focus on infant management.
PMID: 36404215
ISSN: 1538-3199
CID: 5371942

Impact on neonatal morbidities after a change in policy to administer antenatal corticosteroids to mothers at risk for late preterm delivery

Mally, Pradeep; Katz, Julia; Verma, Sourabh; Purrier, Sheryl; Wachtel, Elena V; Trillo, Rebecca; Bhutada, Kiran; Bailey, Sean M
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) administered to mothers at risk for preterm delivery before 34 weeks has been standard care to improve neonatal outcomes. After introducing a new obstetric policy based on updated recommendations advising the administration of ACS to pregnant women at risk for late preterm (LPT) delivery (34-36 6/7 weeks), we set out to determine the short-term clinical impact on those LPT neonates. METHODS:Retrospective chart review of LPT neonates delivered at NYU Langone Medical Center both one year before and after the policy went into place. We excluded subjects born to mothers with pre-gestational diabetes, multiple gestations, and those with congenital/genetic abnormalities. We also excluded subjects whose mothers already received ACS previously in pregnancy. Subjects were divided into pre-policy and post-policy groups. Neonatal and maternal data were compared for both groups. RESULTS:388 subjects; 180 in the pre-policy and 208 in the post-policy group. This policy change resulted in a significant increase in ACS administration to mothers who delivered LPT neonates (67.3 vs. 20.6%, p<0.001). In turn, there was a significant reduction in LPT neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions (44.2 vs. 54.4%, p=0.04) and need for respiratory support (27.9 vs. 42.8%, p<0.01). However, we also found an increased incidence of hypoglycemia (49.5 vs. 28.3%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This LPT ACS policy appears effective in reducing the need for LPT NICU level care overall. However, clinicians must be attentive to monitor for adverse effects like hypoglycemia, and there remains a need for better understanding of potential long-term impacts.
PMID: 36318716
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5358552

Effects of Inhaled Iloprost for the Management of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

Verma, Sourabh; Lumba, Rishi; Kazmi, Sadaf H; Vaz, Michelle J; Prakash, Shrawani Soorneela; Bailey, Sean M; Mally, Pradeep V; Randis, Tara M
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of inhaled iloprost on oxygenation indices in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:) were recorded. RESULTS: < 0.05), with no significant change in required mean airway pressure over that same period. There was no change in vasopressor use or clinically significant worsening of platelets count, liver, and kidney functions after initiating iloprost. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled iloprost is well tolerated and seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO. There is a need of well-designed prospective trials to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost as an adjunct treatment in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO alone. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:· Inhaled iloprost seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in PPHN.. · Inhaled iloprost is generally well tolerated in newborns with PPHN.. · There is a need for prospective RCTs to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost..
PMID: 33477175
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4760862

Pilot study investigating brain natriuretic peptide, troponin, galectin-3 and miRNA-126a-5p as biomarkers of persistent pulmonary hypertension in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury receiving therapeutic hypothermia

Jano, Eni; Vaz, Michelle J; Mally, Pradeep V; Wachtel, Elena
Objective To evaluate the utility of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), troponin, galectin-3 and miRNA-126a-5p as screening biomarkers for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) by comparing expression in serum of infants with hypoxic-ischemic injury that develop PPHN to those that do not. Study design This was a prospective, observational pilot study including neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) at two regional perinatal medical centers. PPHN in this population was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by ECHO. Serial measurements of biomarkers were performed from 6-96 hours post-TH initiation in 40 patients. Results Of 40 infants in study, 10 (25%) developed PPHN and 30 (75%) did not. Baseline demographics and hemodynamics were similar between the groups. Patients with PPHN had significantly higher need for vasopressors compared to patients without PPHN (70% vs. 27%, p=0.007). Mean serum BNP and troponin levels were significantly higher in PPHN group peaking at 12-24 hours and decreasing following PPHN treatment initiation. MiRNA-126a-5p expression was increased in patients with PPHN compared to patients without, with statistical significance detected at 12 hours (p=0.005) and 96 hours (p=0.01). Mean circulating Gal-3 levels were not statistically different between the two groups; however, Gal-3 was elevated in all patients with hypoxic-ischemic injury on TH compared to healthy infants from prior studies. Conclusion BNP and troponin are readily available, low-cost biomarkers that showed significant serial elevations in PPHN group of study, thus may have value in screening for PPHN in the setting of HIE. Galectin-3 was elevated in all patients with HIE and may be a useful biomarker of hypoxic injury in infants being evaluated for TH. Elevations in MiRNA-126a-5p were not consistently seen in this study. Larger studies are required to establish an association between PPHN and these biomarkers in patients with and without HIE.
PMID: 35436801
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 5218182

"Impact of the COVID pandemic on the incidence of prematurity: Critical role of gestational age and environment." [Letter]

Weinberger, Barry; Divers, Jasmin; Campbell, Deborah; Ham, Steven; Juliano, Courtney; Kurepa, Dalibor; Lagamma, Edmund; Mally, Pradeep; Nafday, Suhas; Sheri, Nemerofsky; Sridhar, Shanthy; Williams, Kim; Hanna, Nazeeh
PMID: 35218696
ISSN: 1097-6868
CID: 5172662

Identification and Treatment of Neonatal Seizures During Therapeutic Hypothermia and Rewarming

Verma, Sourabh; Bailey, Sean M; Mally, Pradeep V
PMID: 35377420
ISSN: 2168-6157
CID: 5201572


Arevalo-Marcano, S.; Mally, P. N.; Wachtel, E. V.
ISSN: 1081-5589
CID: 5243712

Breast Milk and Breastfeeding of Infants Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Mothers: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Kunjumon, Bgee; Wachtel, Elena V; Lumba, Rishi; Quan, Michelle; Remon, Juan; Louie, Moi; Verma, Sourabh; Moffat, Michael A; Kouba, Insaf; Bennett, Terri-Ann; Mejia, Claudia Manzano De; Mally, Pradeep V; Lin, Xinhua; Hanna, Nazeeh
OBJECTIVE: There are limited published data on the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from mothers to newborns through breastfeeding or from breast milk. The World Health Organization released guidelines encouraging mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to breastfeed as the benefits of breastfeeding outweighs the possible risk of transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 was present in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test prior to delivery, and the clinical outcomes for their newborns. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:by two-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the clinical characteristics of the maternal newborn dyad, results of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing, and neonatal follow-up data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 19 mothers were included in the study and their infants who were all fed breast milk. Breast milk samples from 18 mothers tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, and 1 was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The infant who ingested the breast milk that tested positive had a negative nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2, and had a benign clinical course. There was no evidence of significant clinical infection during the hospital stay or from outpatient neonatal follow-up data for all the infants included in this study. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: In a small cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive lactating mothers giving birth at our institution, most of their breast milk samples (95%) contained no detectable virus, and there was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in their breast milk-fed neonates. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:· Breast milk may rarely contain detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA and was not detected in asymptomatic mothers.. · Breast milk with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a symptomatic mother had no clinical significance for her infant.. · Breast feeding with appropriate infection control instructions appears to be safe in mother with COVID infection..
PMID: 34182576
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4965602

Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area

Verma, Sourabh; Lumba, Rishi; Dapul, Heda M; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von; Phoon, Colin K; Phil, M; Lighter, Jennifer L; Farkas, Jonathan S; Vinci, Alexandra; Noor, Asif; Raabe, Vanessa N; Rhee, David; Rigaud, Mona; Mally, Pradeep V; Randis, Tara M; Dreyer, Benard; Ratner, Adam J; Manno, Catherine S; Chopra, Arun
PMID: 33033078
ISSN: 2154-1671
CID: 4627202