A multisite randomized trial of implicit versus explicit modeling in clinical teaching
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Faculty modeling of desired behaviors has historically been a part of the apprenticeship model of clinical teaching, yet little is known about best practices for modeling. This study compared the educational impact of implicitly versus explicitly modeled communication skills among U.S. medical students. METHOD/UNASSIGNED:Fourth-year medical students from six U.S. academic medical centers were randomly assigned one simulated clinical encounter in which faculty provided either implicit or explicit modeling of important communication skills. Outcomes were assessed by electronic surveys immediately before and after the simulations. Students were blinded to the purpose of the study. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:â€‰=â€‰0.002). Participating faculty stated they would modify their teaching approach in response to their experiences in the study. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In a multi-center randomized trial, explicit faculty role-modeling led to greater uptake of communication knowledge, greater recognition of skills, and a greater sense that faculty expected these skills to be adopted by students. These results must be considered in the context, however, of a simulated environment and a short timeframe for assessing learning with students who volunteered for a simulated experience.
Zika Virus-Associated Guillain-BarrÃ© Syndrome in a Returning US Traveler
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with Guillain-BarrÃ© Syndrome (GBS). Roughly 60% of people in countries such as the U.S. live in areas at risk for seasonal spread of ZIKV. ZIKV belongs to a class of diseases that is not typically seen in hospital settings across the U.S. and Europe. We describe the case presentation, management, and treatment of ZIKV infection complicated by GBS. A 64-year-old woman with recent travel to the Dominican Republic presented with rash followed by an acute, ascending polyneuropathy consistent with GBS. She was confirmed to have an acute ZIKV infection by detection of ZIKV nucleic acid by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. She met Brighton Collaboration criteria level 1 evidence for GBS. She received two courses of intravenous immunoglobulin and slowly improved, though still had weakness at discharge. More research is needed to identify the pathophysiology behind ZIKV-associated GBS and its optimal treatment. Prevention is fundamental to limiting infection and spread of ZIKV.
Can Unannounced Standardized Patients Assess Professionalism and Communication Skills in the Emergency Department?
Abstract Objectives: The authors piloted unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in an emergency medicine (EM) residency to test feasibility, acceptability, and performance assessment of professionalism and communication skills. Methods: Fifteen postgraduate year (PGY)-2 EM residents were scheduled to be visited by two USPs while working in the emergency department (ED). Multidisciplinary support was utilized to ensure successful USP introduction. Scores (% well done) were calculated for communication and professionalism skills using a 26-item, behaviorally anchored checklist. Residents' attitudes toward USPs and USP detection were also surveyed. Results: Of 27 USP encounters attempted, 17 (62%) were successfully completed. The detection rate was 44%. Eighty-three percent of residents who encountered a USP felt that the encounter did not hinder daily practice and did not make them uncomfortable (86%) or suspicious of patients (71%). Overall, residents received a mean score of 60% for communication items rated 'well done' (SD +/- 28%, range = 23%-100%) and 53% of professionalism items 'well done' (SD +/- 20%, range = 23%-85%). Residents' communication skills were weakest for patient education and counseling (mean = 43%, SD +/- 31%), compared with information gathering (68%, SD +/- 36% and relationship development (62%, SD +/- 32%). Scores of residents who detected USPs did not differ from those who had not. Conclusions: Implementing USPs in the ED is feasible and acceptable to staff. The unpredictability of the ED, specifically resident schedules, accounted for most incomplete encounters. USPs may represent a new way to assess real-time resident physician performance without the need for faculty resources or the bias introduced by direct observation. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2009; 16:1-4 (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine