Multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of cardiac sarcoidosis [Editorial]
Evaluation of solid organ transplant candidates for coronary artery disease
Solid organ transplantation has increased in frequency in the United States, having evolved from an area of experimentation into accepted therapy for end-organ failure. As organ transplantation has become more common, the average age of transplant recipients has increased, thus increasing the potential for multiple comorbidities including coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD has been shown to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney, lung and liver transplant recipients. Identification of CAD in solid organ transplant candidates allows for stratification of short- and long-term risk, ensuring proper use of valuable allograft resources while guiding further patient management. Assessment of asymptomatic transplant candidates for CAD is difficult. Many patients undergo stress echocardiography or nuclear imaging, which have demonstrated inconsistent rates of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD in these patient populations. Cardiac computed tomography is a potential tool for detecting CAD in these populations, but has questionable utility at this time. Coronary angiography has an important role in detecting CAD in high-risk transplant candidates, affecting their long-term management and risk.
Impact of diastolic dysfunction severity on global left ventricular volumetric filling - assessment by automated segmentation of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine relationships between severity of echocardiography (echo) -evidenced diastolic dysfunction (DD) and volumetric filling by automated processing of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). BACKGROUND:Cine-CMR provides high-resolution assessment of left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes. Automated segmentation (LV-METRIC) yields LV filling curves by segmenting all short-axis images across all temporal phases. This study used cine-CMR to assess filling changes that occur with progressive DD. METHODS:115 post-MI patients underwent CMR and echo within 1 day. LV-METRIC yielded multiple diastolic indices - E:A ratio, peak filling rate (PFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR), and diastolic volume recovery (DVR80 - proportion of diastole required to recover 80% stroke volume). Echo was the reference for DD. RESULTS:LV-METRIC successfully generated LV filling curves in all patients. CMR indices were reproducible (< or = 1% inter-reader differences) and required minimal processing time (175 +/- 34 images/exam, 2:09 +/- 0:51 minutes). CMR E:A ratio decreased with grade 1 and increased with grades 2-3 DD. Diastolic filling intervals, measured by DVR80 or TPFR, prolonged with grade 1 and shortened with grade 3 DD, paralleling echo deceleration time (p < 0.001). PFR by CMR increased with DD grade, similar to E/e' (p < 0.001). Prolonged DVR80 identified 71% of patients with echo-evidenced grade 1 but no patients with grade 3 DD, and stroke-volume adjusted PFR identified 67% with grade 3 but none with grade 1 DD (matched specificity = 83%). The combination of DVR80 and PFR identified 53% of patients with grade 2 DD. Prolonged DVR80 was associated with grade 1 (OR 2.79, CI 1.65-4.05, p = 0.001) with a similar trend for grade 2 (OR 1.35, CI 0.98-1.74, p = 0.06), whereas high PFR was associated with grade 3 (OR 1.14, CI 1.02-1.25, p = 0.02) DD. CONCLUSIONS:Automated cine-CMR segmentation can discern LV filling changes that occur with increasing severity of echo-evidenced DD. Impaired relaxation is associated with prolonged filling intervals whereas restrictive filling is characterized by increased filling rates.
Contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging as compared to contrast-enhanced tissue characterization for detection of left ventricular thrombus
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study sought to compare contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging and contrast-enhanced tissue characterization (delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance [DE-CMR]) for left ventricular (LV) thrombus detection. BACKGROUND:Contrast echocardiography (echo) detects LV thrombus based on anatomic appearance, whereas DE-CMR imaging detects thrombus based on tissue characteristics. Although DE-CMR has been validated as an accurate technique for thrombus, its utility compared with contrast echo is unknown. METHODS:Multimodality imaging was performed in 121 patients at high risk for thrombus due to myocardial infarction or heart failure. Imaging included 3 anatomic imaging techniques for thrombus detection (contrast echo, noncontrast echo, cine-CMR) and a reference of DE-CMR tissue characterization. LV structural parameters were quantified to identify markers for thrombus and predictors of additive utility of contrast-enhanced thrombus imaging. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients had thrombus by DE-CMR. Patients with thrombus had larger infarcts (by DE-CMR), more aneurysms, and lower LV ejection fraction (by CMR and echo) than those without thrombus. Contrast echo nearly doubled sensitivity (61% vs. 33%, p < 0.05) and yielded improved accuracy (92% vs. 82%, p < 0.01) versus noncontrast echo. Patients who derived incremental diagnostic utility from DE-CMR had lower LV ejection fraction versus those in whom noncontrast echo alone accurately assessed thrombus (35 +/- 9% vs. 42 +/- 14%, p < 0.01), with a similar trend for patients who derived incremental benefit from contrast echo (p = 0.08). Contrast echo and cine-CMR closely agreed on the diagnosis of thrombus (kappa = 0.79, p < 0.001). Thrombus prevalence was lower by contrast echo than DE-CMR (p < 0.05). Thrombus detected by DE-CMR but not by contrast echo was more likely to be mural in shape or, when apical, small in volume (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Echo contrast in high-risk patients markedly improves detection of LV thrombus, but does not detect a substantial number of thrombi identified by DE-CMR tissue characterization. Thrombi detected by DE-CMR but not by contrast echo are typically mural in shape or small in volume.
Stress-induced ST-segment deviation in relation to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with normal myocardial perfusion imaging
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of stress electrocardiography (ECG) for identifying the presence and severity of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) defined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) among patients with normal nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). METHODS: The study population comprised 119 consecutive patients with normal MPI who also underwent CCTA (interval 3.5+/-3.8 months). Stress ECG was performed at the time of MPI. CCTA and MPI were interpreted using established scoring systems, and CCTA was used to define the presence and extent of CAD, which was quantified by a coronary artery jeopardy score. RESULTS: Within this population, 28 patients (24%) had obstructive CAD identified by CCTA. The most common CAD pattern was single-vessel CAD (61%), although proximal vessel involvement was present in 46% of patients. Patients with CAD were nearly three times more likely to have positive standard test responses (1 mm ST-segment deviation) than patients with patent coronary arteries (36 vs. 13%, P=0.007). In multivariate analysis, a positive ST-segment test response was an independent marker for CAD (odds ratio: 2.02, confidence interval: 1.09-3.78, P=0.03) even after adjustment for a composite of clinical cardiac risk factors (odds ratio: 1.85, confidence interval: 1.05-3.23, P=0.03). Despite uniformly normal MPI, mean coronary jeopardy score was three-fold higher among patients with positive compared to those with negative ST-segment response to exercise or dobutamine stress (1.9+/-2.7 vs. 0.5+/-1.4, P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Stress-induced ST-segment deviation is an independent marker for obstructive CAD among patients with normal MPI. A positive stress ECG identifies patients with a greater anatomic extent of CAD as quantified by coronary jeopardy score.
Effects of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular quantification: increased impact of methodological variability in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy
BACKGROUND:Accurate quantification of left ventricular mass and ejection fraction is important for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed as a standard for these indices, prior studies have variably included papillary muscles and trabeculae in myocardial volume. This study investigated the contribution of papillary muscles and trabeculae to left ventricular quantification in relation to the presence and pattern of hypertrophy. METHODS:Cardiac magnetic resonance quantification was performed on patients with concentric or eccentric hypertrophy and normal controls (20 per group) using two established methods that included papillary muscles and trabeculae in myocardium (method 1) or intracavitary (method 2) volumes. RESULTS:Among all patients, papillary muscles and trabeculae accounted for 10.5% of ventricular mass, with greater contribution with left ventricular hypertrophy than normals (12.6 vs. 6.2%, P < 0.001). Papillary muscles and trabeculae mass correlated with ventricular wall mass (r = 0.53) and end-diastolic volume (r = 0.52; P < 0.001). Papillary muscles and trabeculae inclusion in myocardium (method 1) yielded smaller differences with a standard of mass quantification from linear ventricular measurements than did method 2 (P < 0.001). Method 1 in comparison with method 2 yielded differences in left ventricular mass, ejection fraction and volume in all groups, especially in patients with hypertrophy: the difference in ventricular mass index was three-fold to six-fold greater in hypertrophy than normal groups (P < 0.001). Difference in ejection fraction, greatest in concentric hypertrophy (P < 0.001), was independently related to papillary muscles and trabeculae mass, ventricular wall mass, and smaller ventricular volume (R = 0.56, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Established cardiac magnetic resonance methods yield differences in left ventricular quantification due to variable exclusion of papillary muscles and trabeculae from myocardium. The relative impact of papillary muscles and trabeculae exclusion on calculated mass and ejection fraction is increased among patients with hypertrophy-associated left ventricular remodeling.
Cardiac CT for high sensitivity detection of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with normal nuclear myocardial perfuslon imaging (MPI) [Meeting Abstract]
Diagnostic impact of SPECT image display on assessment of obstructive coronary artery disease
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic assessment of myocardial perfusion impacts the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Although various image displays are available for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) interpretation, the effects of display differences on SPECT interpretation remain undetermined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 183 patients undergoing SPECT, including 131 consecutive patients referred for angiography and 52 at low CAD risk. Studies were visually interpreted by use of color and gray images, with readers blinded to the results of the other display. In accordance with established criteria, a summed stress score (SSS) of 4 or greater was considered abnormal. The prevalence of abnormal SPECT findings was higher with gray images than with color images (54% vs 48%, P < .001) based on a uniform criterion (SSS > or =4). However, color images yielded equivalent sensitivity (79% vs 82%, P = .7) and improved specificity for global (50% vs 33%, P = .02) and vessel-specific CAD involving the right coronary artery (P < .01) and left anterior descending artery (P < .05). When the criterion for gray images was adjusted upward (SSS > or =5) to reflect increased mean defect severity (SSS of 5.1 vs 4.4, P = .01), gray and color images provided equivalent sensitivity and specificity for global and vessel-specific CAD. CONCLUSIONS: SPECT interpretation can vary according to image display as a result of differences in perfusion defect severity. Adjustment of abnormality criteria for gray images to reflect minor increases in defect severity provides equivalent diagnostic performance of gray and color displays for CAD assessment.