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Wound Closure in Nonidiopathic Scoliosis: Does Closure Matter?

Ward, James P; Feldman, David S; Paul, Justin; Sala, Debra A; Errico, Thomas J; Otsuka, Norman Y; Margiotta, Michael S
BACKGROUND: Postoperative wound complications after posterior spinal fusion are difficult to manage. The incidence in the nonidiopathic patient population is significantly higher than the adolescent idiopathic population. A comparison of wound complications after posterior spinal fusion for nonidiopathic scoliosis between the utilization of the orthopaedic surgical team at the time of closure performing a nonstandardized wound closure versus a plastic surgeon with a plastic multilayered closure technique and rotational flap coverage when needed had not previously been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the complication rate between nonstandardized and plastic multilayered closure of the surgical incision in patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion for nonidiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: The charts of 76 patients with a primary diagnosis of scoliosis associated with a syndrome or neuromuscular disease and who underwent a posterior spinal fusion were reviewed. Forty-two patients had their incisions closed using the nonstandardized technique and 34 using the plastic multilayered technique. These 2 groups were compared for age, sex, primary diagnosis, number of levels fused, estimated blood loss, number of units transfused, operating room time, wound complication, and return to operating room. RESULTS: The wound complication rate in the nonstandardized closure group was 19% (8/42) compared with 0% (0/34) in the plastic multilayered closure group (P=0.007). The unanticipated return to the operating room rate was 11.9% (5/42) for the nonstandardized closure patients versus 0% (0/34) for the plastic multilayered closure patients (P=0.061). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the plastic multilayered closure technique in this patient population is important in an effort to decrease postoperative wound complications. The ability of the surgical team to decrease the infection rate of nonidiopathic scoliosis cannot be overstated. The method of wound closure plays a major role in lowering this incidence. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-therapeutic.
PMID: 26214326
ISSN: 1539-2570
CID: 1698422

The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of vascular malformations of the trunk and extremities [Case Report]

Rinker, Brian; Karp, Nolan S; Margiotta, Michael; Blei, Francine; Rosen, Robert; Rofsky, Neil M
Vascular malformations can usually be diagnosed on clinical grounds. They have a well-defined appearance on magnetic resonance imaging, which can effectively determine their tissue and flow characteristics. However, the role of cross-sectional imaging in the management of vascular malformations is not well defined. Most reviews suggest that magnetic resonance imaging should be reserved for cases in which the extent of the lesion cannot be estimated on physical examination. However, to date no group has compared the accuracy of physical examination alone to that of magnetic resonance imaging in determining this extent. A review was performed of all the patients evaluated for vascular malformations at the New York University Trunk and Extremity Vascular Anomalies Conference between July of 1994 and August of 1999. Patients who underwent magnetic resonance evaluation at other institutions and whose images were not available for review were excluded. All study patients either underwent magnetic resonance imaging examination at New York University Medical Center or had outside films reviewed at the center. The physical examination findings were compared with the magnetic resonance findings and the surgeon and radiologist made a joint decision about whether there was a correlation between the magnetic resonance and physical examination findings. Fifty-eight patients met the study criteria, 44 (76 percent) of whom were found to have more extensive disease on magnetic resonance examination than appreciated on physical examination. Of the 51 patients with low-flow vascular malformations (venous vascular malformations, lymphatic malformations, and capillary malformations), 39 (76 percent) had more extensive disease on magnetic resonance examination than on physical examination. Of the seven patients with high-flow arteriovenous malformations, five had more extensive disease on magnetic resonance. In all of the 44 patients whose magnetic resonance imaging findings did not correlate with those of the physical examination, therapeutic decision making was affected. Contrary to the conventional wisdom of published reviews, physical examination findings significantly underestimated the extent of vascular malformations in the majority of cases. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed in all patients with vascular malformations of the trunk and extremities before therapy is planned. In an age when physicians are asked to justify their decisions, especially where the use of expensive diagnostic modalities is concerned, the situations in which these tests are indispensable must be clearly defined or else patients will be denied access to them
PMID: 12900608
ISSN: 0032-1052
CID: 38870

Vascularized acellular dermal matrix island flaps for the repair of abdominal muscle defects

Chung, Seum; Hazen, Alexes; Levine, Jamie P; Baux, Germania; Olivier, Wendy-Ann M; Yee, Herman T; Margiotta, Michael S; Karp, Nolan S; Gurtner, Geoffrey C
The potential widespread use of tissue-engineered matrices in soft-tissue reconstruction has been limited by the difficulty in fabricating and confirming a functional microcirculation. Acellular dermal matrix placed in a soft-tissue pocket acts as a scaffold to be incorporated by the host's fibrovascular tissue. A new method for noninvasive real-time observation of functional microvascular networks using orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging has recently been reported. Arterioles, venules, and capillaries can be directly visualized, and the movement of individual blood cells through them can be observed. The present study was performed to investigate the use of prefabricated acellular dermal matrix with an arteriovenous unit for the repair of abdominal muscle defects. OPS imaging was used to determine the presence of a functional microcirculation in the neovascularized matrix. In Sprague-Dawley rats, vascularized matrix was prefabricated by placing the superficial epigastric artery and vein on a 2-cm x 2-cm implant-type acellular dermal matrix in the thigh. Three weeks after implantation, the matrix-arteriovenous unit was elevated as an axial-type flap and a 2-cm x 2-cm full-thickness block of abdominal muscle immediately superior to the inguinal ligament was resected. Additional procedures were performed according to group: no repair (group 1, = 20); repair with nonvascularized acellular dermal matrix (group 2, = 20); repair with devascularized acellular dermal matrix (group 3, = 20); and repair with vascularized acellular dermal matrix (group 4, = 20). OPS imaging (field of view, 1 mm in diameter; scan depth range, 0.2 mm) was performed on both sides of each flap on a total of 10 random distal regions before and after pedicle transection in group 3 and with the pedicle preserved in group 4. Hernia rate and duration of survival were compared for 21 days. OPS imaging showed directional blood cell movement through the capillary network in all areas scanned in group 4. No microvascular perfusion was observed after pedicle transection in group 3. Hernia rates of 100, 80, 90, and 0 percent were seen in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median survival times of 9, 11.5, 9, and 21 postoperative days were noted in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Histopathologic analysis with factor VIII revealed full-thickness infiltration of the matrix by endothelial cells, signifying newly formed blood vessels. Repair of abdominal muscle defects using vascularized acellular dermal matrix resulted in no hernia and survival of all animals for the duration of study. However, repairs using avascular or devascularized matrix resulted in significant rates of hernia and decreased survival. Acellular dermal matrix can be prefabricated into vascularized tissue using an arteriovenous unit and used successfully to repair abdominal muscle defects. OPS imaging allowed for high-contrast direct visualization of microcirculation in previously acellular tissue following prefabrication with an arteriovenous unit
PMID: 12496583
ISSN: 0032-1052
CID: 33783

The use of subatmospheric pressure dressing for the coverage of radial forearm free flap donor-site exposed tendon complications [Case Report]

Greer SE; Longaker MT; Margiotta M; Mathews AJ; Kasabian A
Since its description in China in 1978, the radial forearm free flap has become a workhorse for the reconstructive surgeon. However, the flap has known disadvantages in complications of the wrist donor site. Skin graft breakdown with exposure of the flexor tendons of the wrist is the most common. The authors describe in a patient series a new treatment for this complication. They used subatmospheric pressure dressing to stimulate granulation tissue coverage of the tendon and to facilitate epithelialization. As many as one third of all patients undergoing radial forearm free flaps develop exposed tendon complications and may benefit from Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy
PMID: 10560875
ISSN: 0148-7043
CID: 56481

Treatment of a neuroma-in-continuity of the peroneal nerve with nerve bypass grafts--a case report [Case Report]

Kasabian A; Karp N; Margiotta M
Treatment of neuroma-in-continuity involves neurolysis or resection with interposition nerve grafting of the involved segment. These techniques may be complicated by loss of remaining conduction through axons that were intact prior to surgical neurolysis or grafting. The authors have shown previously that axonal regeneration occurs in an autologous bypass graft in the rat model. They applied this technique to a neuroma-in-continuity of the peroneal nerve of a 22-year-old woman who sustained an injury to the peroneal nerve after arthroscopic surgery, with excellent results. Nerve bypass may be the procedure of choice for treatment of neuroma-in-continuity
PMID: 10213410
ISSN: 0148-7043
CID: 56425

Complications of tissue expansion in a public hospital [Case Report]

Youm T; Margiotta M; Kasabian A; Karp N
Avoidance of complications in tissue expansion requires careful outpatient observation and consistent follow-up-two factors that are difficult to manage in a city hospital-based population. To determine the complication rate of tissue expanders in a given population, the authors reviewed retrospectively 34 tissue expanders placed in 30 patients at a New York City public hospital over a 7-year period from 1989 to 1996. The mean age of the patients at the time of insertion was 25 years (range, 11 months-65 years). The most common conditions for treatment were nevi (N = 11), burn scars (N = 8), breast reconstructions (N = 8), and spina bifida (N = 4). Complications occurred in 22 of 34 expanders (65%). Complications included deep infection (N = 11), exposure (N = 7), breakdown of the surgical wound (N = 4), cellulitis (N = 3), drainage (N = 1), and deflation (N = 1). Major complications resulted in premature removal in 13 of 34 expanders (38%). Minor complications leading to successful completion of the expansion process occurred with 9 of 34 expanders (27%). No complications were recorded in the remaining 12 of 34 expanders (35%). Although tissue expansion is a potentially safe and effective method of reconstruction, this review should alert the surgeon to the distinct challenges that may be encountered in the public hospital
PMID: 10213400
ISSN: 0148-7043
CID: 56424

Humorally mediated thrombocytosis in major lower extremity trauma

Margiotta MS; Kasabian AK; Karp NS; Ting V; Dublin BK; Sagiroglu J; Dublin BA
Thrombocytosis in patients undergoing free tissue transfer for coverage of posttraumatic lower extremity defects may be associated with an increased incidence of microvascular thrombosis. Patients with isolated lower extremity trauma have an elevated platelet count that peaks approximately 2 weeks after injury. It is our theory that a humoral component of trauma sera is responsible for the induction of this thrombocytosis. Eight patients with isolated soft-tissue and bony trauma were included in the study. Serum was collected at baseline and throughout the study period. Platelet count, leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit were determined. Immunoassay for human interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, and IL-11 as well as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were performed by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Balb-C mice were then injected intraperitoneally with the human trauma sera from all time points. Blood was collected at baseline and throughout the study period for determination of platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Mean initial platelet count in the 8 human subjects was 152,000 per cubic millimeter with an average peak to 642,000 per cubic millimeter. IL-3, IL-11, and GM-CSF were not detectable in the serum of any patient. Elevated levels of IL-6 were detected in all patients in a nonspecific pattern. In the murine model, an early and late thrombocytosis was elicited. The early peak averaged 78.6% over baseline whereas the late peak average 81.0% over baseline. The induction by human trauma sera of an early and late thrombocytosis in this mouse bioassay supports the theory of humoral mediators. The humoral mediators are yet to be determined but may include IL-6
PMID: 9600428
ISSN: 0148-7043
CID: 57204

A nerve distraction model in the rat

Margiotta MS; Usal H; Karp NS; Dublin BK; Sagiroglu J; Ting V; Kasabian AK
Segmental loss of a peripheral nerve has been a challenging reconstructive problem. Management of the nerve gap has been accomplished classically with nerve grafting. However, autogenous nerve grafts are not always available for bridging large nerve gaps, and clinical results of large nerve cable grafts have been disappointing. Newer techniques concentrate on nerve lengthening with different methods. Tissue expansion of peripheral nerves has been producing promising results. Since the introduction of the Ilizarov external fixator, much attention has turned to limb-lengthening techniques and studies investigating the results of nerve and soft tissues lengthened during the course of this procedure. Primary nerve distraction may be an alternative to nerve elongation, by expansion or nerve grafting to repair the peripheral nerve gap. This study describes a device and a model for peripheral nerve distraction in a rat. Primary nerve distraction will need to be subjected to vigorous studies before clinical application
PMID: 9600432
ISSN: 0148-7043
CID: 12129