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Neuronally produced versican V2 renders C-fiber nociceptors IB4 -positive

Bogen, Oliver; Bender, Olaf; Lowe, Jana; Blenau, Wolfgang; Thevis, Beatrice; Schroder, Wolfgang; Margolis, Richard U; Levine, Jon D; Hucho, Ferdinand
A subpopulation of nociceptors, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-dependent, non-peptidergic C-fibers, expresses a cell-surface glycoconjugate that can be selectively labeled with isolectin B4 (IB4 ), a homotetrameric plant lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia. We show that versican is an IB4 -binding molecule in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence experiments on rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion, we provide the first demonstration that versican is produced by neurons. In addition, by probing Western blots with splice variant-specific antibodies we show that the IB4 -binding versican contains only the glycosaminoglycan alpha domain. Our data support V2 as the versican isoform that renders this subpopulation of nociceptors IB4 -positive (+). A subset of nociceptors, the GDNF-dependent non-peptidergic C-fibers can be characterized by its reactivity for isolectin B4 (IB4), a plant lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia. We have previously demonstrated that versican V2 binds IB4 in a Ca2 + -dependent manner. However, given that versican is thought to be the product of glial cells, it was questionable whether versican V2 can be accountable for the IB4-reactivity of this subset of nociceptors. The results presented here prove - for the first time - a neuronal origin of versican and suggest that versican V2 is the molecule that renders GDNF-dependent non-peptidergic C-fibers IB4-positive.
PMID: 25845936
ISSN: 1471-4159
CID: 1640182

Glypican-1, phosphacan/receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta and its ligand, tenascin-C, are expressed by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from embryonic stem cells

Abaskharoun, Mary; Bellemare, Marie; Lau, Elizabeth; Margolis, Richard U
The heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan phosphacan/RPTP (receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-zeta/beta and the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C were all found to be expressed by neural stem cells and by neural cells derived from them. Expression of proteoglycans and tenascin-C increased after retinoic acid induction of SSEA1-positive ES (embryonic stem) cells to nestin-positive neural stem cells, and after neural differentiation, proteoglycans and tenascin-C are expressed by both neurons and astrocytes, where they surround cell bodies and processes and in certain cases show distinctive expression patterns. With the exception of tenascin-C (whose expression may decrease somewhat), expression levels do not change noticeably during the following 2 weeks in culture. The significant expression, by neural stem cells and neurons and astrocytes derived from them, of two major heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of nervous tissue and of tenascin-C, a high-affinity ligand of phosphacan/RPTP-zeta/beta, indicates that an understanding of their specific functional roles in stem cell neurobiology will be important for the therapeutic application of this new technology in facilitating nervous tissue repair and regeneration
PMID: 20689858
ISSN: 1759-0914
CID: 111590

Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage

Schachtrup, Christian; Ryu, Jae K; Helmrick, Matthew J; Vagena, Eirini; Galanakis, Dennis K; Degen, Jay L; Margolis, Richard U; Akassoglou, Katerina
Scar formation in the nervous system begins within hours after traumatic injury and is characterized primarily by reactive astrocytes depositing proteoglycans that inhibit regeneration. A fundamental question in CNS repair has been the identity of the initial molecular mediator that triggers glial scar formation. Here we show that the blood protein fibrinogen, which leaks into the CNS immediately after blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption or vascular damage, serves as an early signal for the induction of glial scar formation via the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway. Our studies revealed that fibrinogen is a carrier of latent TGF-beta and induces phosphorylation of Smad2 in astrocytes that leads to inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Consistent with these findings, genetic or pharmacologic depletion of fibrinogen in mice reduces active TGF-beta, Smad2 phosphorylation, glial cell activation, and neurocan deposition after cortical injury. Furthermore, stereotactic injection of fibrinogen into the mouse cortex is sufficient to induce astrogliosis. Inhibition of the TGF-beta receptor pathway abolishes the fibrinogen-induced effects on glial scar formation in vivo and in vitro. These results identify fibrinogen as a primary astrocyte activation signal, provide evidence that deposition of inhibitory proteoglycans is induced by a blood protein that leaks in the CNS after vasculature rupture, and point to TGF-beta as a molecular link between vascular permeability and scar formation
PMID: 20427645
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 109662

Expression of hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans neurocan, aggrecan, and versican by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from embryonic stem cells

Abaskharoun, Mary; Bellemare, Marie; Lau, Elizabeth; Margolis, Richard U
We have examined the expression and localization patterns of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural stem cells and differentiated neural cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Expression of proteoglycans and hyaluronan was weak in the SSEA1-positive embryonic stem cells but increased noticeably after retinoic acid induction to nestin-positive neural stem cells. After subsequent plating, the hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans aggrecan, neurocan, and versican are expressed by cells in both the astrocytic and neuronal lineages. During the time period that hyaluronan was present, it co-localized with each of the hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans studied and was found to be clearly associated with beta-III tubulin-expressing neurons and oligodendrocytes expressing the O4 sulfatide marker. Although proteoglycan expression levels increased to varying degrees following neural differentiation, they did not change noticably during the following 2 weeks in culture, but there was a significant decrease in hyaluronan expression. Our studies therefore demonstrate the expression by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from them of hyaluronan and its associated proteoglycans, thereby providing a necessary foundation for integrating their specific properties into developing strategies for therapeutic applications
PMID: 20176001
ISSN: 1872-6240
CID: 109031

Inhibitors of slit protein interactions with the heparan sulphate proteoglycan glypican-1: Potential agents for the treatment of spinal cord injury

Lau, Elizabeth; Margolis, Richard U
1. The heparan sulphate proteoglycan glypican-1 is a major high-affinity ligand of the Slit proteins. 2. Messenger RNA for both Slit-2 and glypican-1 is strongly upregulated and coexpressed in the reactive astrocytes of injured adult brain, suggesting a possible function of Slit proteins and glypican-1 in the adult central nervous system as significant components of the inhibitory environment that prevents axonal regeneration after injury. 3. Based on the hypothesis that adverse effects on axonal regeneration may be due to a glypican-Slit complex or the retention of glypican-binding C-terminal proteolytic processing fragments of Slit at the injury site, we used ELISA to examine a number of small molecules and low molecular weight heparin analogues for their ability to inhibit glypican-Slit interactions. 4. Our studies have led to the identification of several potent inhibitors with a favourable therapeutic profile that can now be tested in a spinal cord injury model. Among the most promising of these are a low molecular weight heparin produced by periodate oxidation and having no significant anticoagulant activity, the chemically sulphonated yeast-derived phosphomannan PI-88 and a number of randomly derivatized water-soluble sulphated dextrans
PMID: 19843094
ISSN: 1440-1681
CID: 109197


Schachtrup, C; Ryu, JK; Alexandrou, AA; Helmrick, MJ; Degen, JL; Margolis, RU; Akassoglou, K
ISSN: 0894-1491
CID: 105372

Molecular cloning and characterization of rat Pomt1 and Pomt2

Manya, Hiroshi; Chiba, Atsuro; Margolis, Richard U; Endo, Tamao
Mammalian O-mannosylation, although an uncommon type of protein modification, is essential for normal brain and muscle development. Defective O-mannosylation causes congenital muscular dystrophy with abnormal neuronal migration [Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS)]. Here, we have identified and cloned rat Pomt1 and Pomt2, which are homologues of human POMT1 and POMT2, with identities of 86 and 90%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Coexpression of both genes was found to be necessary for enzymatic activity, as is the case with human POMT1 and POMT2. Northern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that rat Pomt1 and Pomt2 are expressed in all tissues but most strongly in testis. In situ hybridization histochemistry of rat brain revealed that Pomt1 and Pomt2 mRNA are coexpressed in neurons (dentate gyrus and CA1-CA3 region of the hippocampus and cerebellar Purkinje cells). Two transcription-initiation sites were observed in rat Pomt2, resulting in two forms: a testis form and a somatic form. The two forms had equal protein O-mannosyltransferase activity when coexpressed with rat Pomt1. Coexpression studies also showed that the human and rat protein O-mannosyltransferases are interchangeable, providing further evidence for the closeness of their structures
PMID: 16704966
ISSN: 0959-6658
CID: 67277

Developmental changes of aggrecan, versican and neurocan in the retina and optic nerve

Popp, Susanna; Maurel, Patrice; Andersen, Julie S; Margolis, Richard U
We have used a monoclonal antibody to neurocan and specific polyclonal antibodies to the non-homologous glycosaminoglycan attachment regions of aggrecan and mRNA splice variants of versican to compare the localization and developmental changes of these structurally related hyaluronan-binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the rat retina and optic nerve. Staining for aggrecan and versican was first seen at embryonic day 16 in the optic nerve and retina, whereas neurocan was not detected in the embryonic eye. At postnatal day 0 (P0), beta-versican staining is largely confined to the inner plexiform layer whereas alpha-versican is also apparent in the neuroblastic layer. Both aggrecan and, much more weakly, neurocan immunoreactivity is present throughout the neonatal retina. At P9, aggrecan and versican immunoreactivity is most intense in the inner and outer plexiform and ganglion cell layers, accompanied by diffuse staining in the inner and outer nuclear layers. Aggrecan and alpha-versican are also present throughout the optic nerve and disk, whereas beta-versican and neurocan are confined to the laminar beams of the optic nerve. Between P0 and P9 there is a marked increase in beta-versican expression in the inner and outer nuclear layers and in the outer plexiform layer, whereas there is only weak staining of neurocan in the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers of P9 retina. By 1 month postnatal the staining pattern of the fully differentiated retinal layers is essentially identical to that seen in the adult, where there is strong aggrecan and alpha-versican immunoreactivity in the retina and optic nerve, whereas beta-versican has essentially disappeared from the adult retina and, similarly to neurocan, is present only in the laminar beams of the optic nerve. The marked decrease of beta-versican in the retina is consistent with >90% decrease in its concentration in brain during postnatal development, suggesting that the developmental time-course for these proteoglycans in retina parallels that seen in other areas of the central nervous system
PMID: 15336497
ISSN: 0014-4835
CID: 44657

Expression of phosphacan and neurocan during early development of mouse retinofugal pathway

Leung, K M; Margolis, R U; Chan, S O
We have investigated whether the two major brain chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs), phosphacan and neurocan, are expressed in patterns that correlate to the axon order changes in the mouse retinofugal pathway. Expression of these proteoglycans was examined by polyclonal antibodies against phosphacan and N- and C-terminal fragments of neurocan. In E13-E15 mouse embryos, when most optic axons grow in the chiasm and the optic tract, phosphacan and neurocan were observed in the inner regions of the retina. In the chiasm and the tract, phosphacan but not neurocan was expressed prominently at the midline and in the deep parts of the tract. Both proteoglycans were observed on the chiasmatic neurons, which have been shown to regulate axon divergence at the chiasmatic midline and the chronotopic fiber ordering in the tract, but phosphacan appeared to be the predominant form that persists to later developmental stages. Intense staining of both proteoglycans was also observed in a strip of glial-like elements in lateral regions of the chiasm, partitioning axons in the stalk from those in the tract. We conclude that phosphacan but not neurocan is likely the major carrier of the CS glycosaminoglycans that play crucial functions in axon divergence and age-related axon ordering in the mouse optic pathway. Furthermore, localization of these carrier proteins in the optic pathway raises a possibility that these two proteoglycans regulate axon growth and patterning not only through the sulfated sugars but also by interactions of the protein parts with guidance molecules on the optic axons
PMID: 15283989
ISSN: 0165-3806
CID: 44658

Structural determinants of heparan sulfate interactions with Slit proteins

Zhang, Fuming; Ronca, Francesca; Linhardt, Robert J; Margolis, Richard U
We have previously demonstrated that the Slit proteins, which are involved in axonal guidance and related processes, are high-affinity ligands of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1. Glypican-Slit protein interactions have now been characterized in greater detail using two approaches. The ability of heparin oligosaccharides of defined structure (ranging in size from disaccharide to tetradeccasaccharide) to inhibit binding of a glypican-Fc fusion protein to recombinant human Slit-2 was determined using an ELISA. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which measures the interactions in real time, was applied for quantitative modeling of heparin-Slit binding on heparin biochips. Heparin was covalently immobilized on these chips through a pre-formed albumin-heparin conjugate, and the inhibition of Slit binding by heparin, LMW heparin, and heparin-derived oligosaccharides (di-, tetra-, hexa-, and octa-) was examined utilizing solution competition SPR. These competition studies demonstrate that the smallest heparin oligosaccharide competing with heparin binding to Slit was a tetrasaccharide, and that in the ELISA maximum inhibition ( approximately 60% at 2microM concentration) was attained with a dodecasaccharide
PMID: 15063764
ISSN: 0006-291x
CID: 42223