Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Meta-Cognitive Therapy Without Metacognition: A Case of ADHD Response [Letter]

Solanto, Mary V; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 2079762

Childhood stimulant treatment and teen depression: is there a relationship?

Staikova, Ekaterina; Marks, David J; Miller, Carlin J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Recent preclinical data have raised the possibility that prepubertal treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant medication might increase risk for later depression. The current longitudinal study investigated whether children with ADHD who were treated with stimulant medication displayed heightened levels of adolescent depression. Adolescents diagnosed with ADHD during childhood who had received a minimum of 1 year of treatment with stimulant medication were compared to adolescents with a childhood history of ADHD who were never treated with stimulants and a demographically matched comparison group on self-reports of depressive symptoms and diagnoses of depressive disorders. Both subgroups with childhood ADHD reported significantly higher dimensional ratings of depression and categorical rates of depressive disorders relative to the comparison group (all p<0.05), yet those who were and were not medicated did not differ from one another. Results indicate that, while childhood ADHD increases risk for adolescent depression, stimulant treatment for ADHD neither heightens nor protects against such risk.
PMID: 20973709
ISSN: 1044-5463
CID: 164597

Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal smoking on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders symptoms and diagnosis in offspring

Nomura, Yoko; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M
The study examined the effect of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy on the child's inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, and the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Generalized estimating equations, incorporating data from multiple informants (parents and teachers), was used to evaluate levels of ADHD as a function of parental smoking. The risk for ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD and ODD was evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. We found that maternal, but not paternal, smoking was significantly associated with elevated inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and total ADHD symptoms in children. Children of smoking, relative to nonsmoking, mothers had a significant increased risk for comorbid ADHD and ODD and ADHD, but not ODD. Although father's smoking was not associated with an increased risk, as it strongly influenced mothers' smoking, intervention for both parents may be most effective in preventing the pathway to ADHD-related problems in the children.
PMID: 20823730
ISSN: 0022-3018
CID: 164598

Efficacy of meta-cognitive therapy for adult ADHD

Solanto, Mary V; Marks, David J; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Mitchell, Katherine; Abikoff, Howard; Alvir, Jose Ma J; Kofman, Michele D
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the efficacy of a 12-week manualized meta-cognitive therapy group intervention designed to enhance time management, organization, and planning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Eighty-eight clinically referred adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD according to clinical and structured diagnostic interviews and standardized questionnaires were stratified by ADHD medication use and otherwise randomly assigned to receive meta-cognitive therapy or supportive psychotherapy in a group modality. Meta-cognitive therapy uses cognitive-behavioral principles and methods to impart skills and strategies in time management, organization, and planning and to target depressogenic and anxiogenic cognitions that undermine effective self-management. The supportive therapy condition controlled for nonspecific aspects of treatment by providing support while avoiding discussion of cognitive-behavioral strategies. Therapeutic response was assessed by an independent (blind) evaluator via structured interview before and after treatment as well as by self-report and collateral informant behavioral ratings. RESULTS: General linear models comparing change from baseline between treatments revealed statistically significant effects for self-report, collateral report, and independent evaluator ratings of DSM-IV inattention symptoms. In dichotomous indices of therapeutic response, a significantly greater proportion of members of the meta-cognitive therapy group demonstrated improvement compared with members of the supportive therapy group. Logistic regression examining group differences in operationally defined response (controlling for baseline ADHD severity) revealed a robust effect of treatment group (odds ratio=5.41; 95% CI=1.77-16.55). CONCLUSIONS: Meta-cognitive therapy yielded significantly greater improvements in dimensional and categorical estimates of severity of ADHD symptoms compared with supportive therapy. These findings support the efficacy of meta-cognitive therapy as a viable psychosocial intervention
PMID: 20231319
ISSN: 1535-7228
CID: 139438

Profiles of service utilization and the resultant economic impact in preschoolers with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Marks, David J; Mlodnicka, Agnieszka; Bernstein, Melissa; Chacko, Anil; Rose, Scott; Halperin, Jeffrey M
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether preschool children with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize more speech and language therapy (ST), occupational therapy (OT), and physical therapy (PT) services and are more likely to be placed in special education (SPED) classrooms as compared to their peers. Corresponding financial consequences were also examined. METHODS: The amount of ST, OT, and PT, as well as SPED placements, was examined in 3- and 4-year-old children with and without ADHD (n = 109 and n = 97, respectively) during the baseline portion of an ongoing, 5-year longitudinal study. Costs for individual services and aggregate cost were determined per child and compared across groups. RESULTS: Preschool children with ADHD were more likely to receive individual and multiple services. Higher rates of service utilization translated into increased costs for each individual service with the exception of PT. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive understanding of service utilization in the early years of development is important in addressing the increased service use in the preschool years and assist in guiding allocation of resources.
PMID: 19028716
ISSN: 0146-8693
CID: 164599

Childhood maltreatment and conduct disorder: independent predictors of adolescent substance use disorders in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

De Sanctis, Virginia A; Trampush, Joey W; Harty, Seth C; Marks, David J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Miller, Carlin J; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11 years old were screened for histories of childhood maltreatment, and SUD diagnoses were formulated in accordance with the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Lifetime history of problematic substance use was obtained for each parent at baseline. Childhood maltreatment predicted SUD outcome over and above that accounted for by childhood conduct disorder and problematic parental substance use, two potent predictors of adolescent SUDs.
PMID: 18991129
ISSN: 1537-4416
CID: 164600

Stimulant treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder moderates adolescent academic outcome

Powers, Robyn L; Marks, David J; Miller, Carlin J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Treatment with psychostimulant medication has been shown to improve scholastic functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the extent to which long-term academic gains are apparent in those having received such treatment remains elusive. This study examined prospectively the relationship of childhood stimulant treatment to academic functioning during adolescence. Children (n = 169) were initially recruited and diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7-11 years old. A subsample of those with childhood ADHD (n = 90) was reevaluated on average 9.13 (SD = 1.5) years later. Probands who did and did not receive treatment with stimulant medication were compared to each other and to a never-ADHD comparison group (n = 80) on three subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II), as well as high school grade point average (GPA) and number of retentions in school as derived from school records. Analyses of covariance controlling for severity of childhood ADHD symptoms indicated that probands treated with psychostimulant medication achieved better academic outcomes, as measured by WIAT-II subtests and high school GPA, than those not treated with psychostimulants (p < .05). However, treated probands did not fare as well as the never-ADHD comparison group. Psychostimulant treatment for children with ADHD may benefit long-term adolescent academic performance, although the extent of improvement is likely to vary as a function of multiple factors.
PMID: 18928410
ISSN: 1044-5463
CID: 164601

Neuropsychological outcome in adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD: profiles of persisters, remitters and controls

Halperin, Jeffrey M; Trampush, Joey W; Miller, Carlin J; Marks, David J; Newcorn, Jeffrey H
BACKGROUND: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not remitters, differing significantly from controls. In contrast, persisters and remitters were hypothesized to perform similarly, and different from controls, on tasks requiring less effortful processing. METHODS: Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were reevaluated approximately 10 years later. Eighty-five never-ADHD controls similar in age, IQ, and sex distribution served as a comparison group. Participants were administered a psychiatric interview and neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: Those with childhood ADHD demonstrated broad neuropsychological deficits relative to controls. When the group with childhood ADHD was subdivided based on adolescent ADHD status, compared to controls, both persisters and remitters showed deficient perceptual sensitivity and response variability, and increased ankle movements recorded by a solid-state actigraph. Only persisters differed from controls on several measures of more effortful executive processes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary support to the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with early-appearing and enduring subcortical dysfunction, while recovery over the course of development is associated with improvements in executive control functions.
PMID: 18573145
ISSN: 0021-9630
CID: 164602

The impact of impairment criteria on rates of ADHD diagnoses in preschoolers

Healey, Dione M; Miller, Carlin J; Castelli, Katia L; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in inattentive/hyperactive children aged 36 through 60-months-old, we first developed, and psychometrically evaluated, the Children's Problem Checklist (CPC) which was designed to assess psychosocial impairment associated with ADHD in a community sample of preschoolers (n = 394), and found its reliability and validity to be acceptable. We then examined the impact of the inclusion of various CPC-determined impairment criteria, over and above symptom criteria measured by the ADHD-RS-IV, using various cut points ranging from the 75th to 90th percentile of our community sample. This reduced the number of children meeting criteria for ADHD by 46-77%. These findings are discussed in terms of the importance of using impairment criteria, rather than just severity of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, when diagnosing ADHD in preschool children.
PMID: 18224434
ISSN: 0091-0627
CID: 164603

Development of a new psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD

Solanto, Mary V; Marks, David J; Mitchell, Katherine J; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. METHOD: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week program designed to target impairments in time management, organization, and planning skills. Treatment efficacy was measured using pre- and posttreatment self-report standardized measures (CAARS-S:L & Brown ADD Scales). RESULTS: General linear modeling revealed a robust significant posttreatment decline on the CAARS DSM-IV Inattentive symptom scale (p < .001) as well as improvement on the Brown ADD Scales (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that participants in the MCT program showed marked improvement with respect to core ADHD symptoms of inattention, as well as executive functioning skills, suggesting that this program has promise as a treatment for meta-cognitive deficits in adults with ADHD.
PMID: 17712167
ISSN: 1087-0547
CID: 164604