Demographic and digestive laboratory characteristics predict mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Digestive laboratory abnormalities related to COVID-19 have been previously described, but most reports came from single centers and findings have been conflicting. We conducted a multi-center study using data from three large urban VA centers (New York Harbor VA, New Orleans VA and Detroit VA) to examine the association between demographics and digestive laboratory values with mortality on index hospitalization among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19.
Method(s): We manually extracted data on individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 between December 2019 and June 2020 at the three facilities. For this analysis, data on demographics and seven digestive laboratory values (highest AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and INR during admission, as well as lowest hemoglobin and platelets) were analyzed in relation to index hospitalization mortality. We performed descriptive statistics and conducted a multivariable logistic regression model.
Result(s): Out of a total of 390 individuals who were hospitalized with COVID-19, 168 (43%) died and 222 survived. The median age of patients who died was higher than those who survived (75 vs. 69 years). The vast majority (94%) of patients were male. Black patients accounted for a higher proportion of those who died than those who survived (61% vs. 55%), whereas the opposite was true for Whites (26% vs. 31%) and Hispanics (9% vs. 12%). In the multivariable model (Table), mortality was associated with older age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), higher BMI (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10), higher AST (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.004-1.02), lower ALT (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.996), higher alkaline phosphatase (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.02), and lower hemoglobin (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.97).
Conclusion(s): In this multicenter VA study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first half of 2020, overall mortality was 43%. For mortality during index hospitalization, we observed a positive association with age, BMI, AST, and alkaline phosphatase, and an inverse association with ALT and hemoglobin. Every 1 unit increase in hemoglobin was associated with 17% decreased odds of death. These findings suggest that commonly used digestive laboratory tests have prognostic significance for COVID-related survival
The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations
The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant-herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies.