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Do Social Threat Cognitions Decrease With School-Based CBT and Predict Treatment Outcome in Adolescents With Social Anxiety Disorder?

Ryan, Julie L; Fox, Jeremy K; Lowe, Sarah R; Warner, Carrie Masia
Evidence suggests that Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is less responsive to cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) compared to other anxiety disorders. Therefore, exploring what might facilitate clinical benefit is essential. Social threat cognitions, characterized by exaggerated perceptions of negative evaluation by others, may be one important avenue to examine. The current study investigated whether youths' social threat cognitions decreased with Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS), a group, school-based CBT designed for SAD, and whether decreases predicted SAD severity and treatment response. Participants included 138 high school students with SAD randomly assigned to SASS, or a nonspecific school counseling intervention. SASS participants showed significantly decreased social threat cognitions at 5-month follow-up. Treatment responders had significantly greater reductions in social threat cognitions compared to nonresponders at post-intervention and follow-up. These findings suggest that social threat cognitions may be important to assess and monitor when treating youth with SAD.
PMID: 32746395
ISSN: 1938-887x
CID: 4563362

Food allergy and social anxiety in a community sample of adolescents

Fox, Jeremy K; Warner, Carrie Masia
This investigation explored the relationship between food allergies and social anxiety in a school-based sample of adolescents. A total of 849 participants, including 87 endorsing food allergies, completed standardized questionnaires assessing social anxiety symptoms. Food allergic participants answered questions assessing allergy characteristics, worry and avoidance related to allergen exposure and allergy disclosure, and parental worry and control. Boys with food allergies reported higher social anxiety than boys without food allergies, though no differences were found in girls. Social anxiety was correlated with parental worry and control. Findings may inform anxiety prevention programs for youth with food allergies.
ISSN: 1532-6888
CID: 2507232

Can school counselors deliver cognitive-behavioral treatment for social anxiety effectively? A randomized controlled trial

Masia Warner, Carrie; Colognori, Daniela; Brice, Chad; Herzig, Kathleen; Mufson, Laura; Lynch, Chelsea; Reiss, Philip T; Petkova, Eva; Fox, Jeremy; Moceri, Dominic C; Ryan, Julie; Klein, Rachel G
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically onsets in adolescence and is associated with multiple impairments. Despite promising clinical interventions, most socially anxious adolescents remain untreated. To address this clinical neglect, we developed a school-based, 12-week group intervention for youth with SAD, Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS). When implemented by psychologists, SASS has been found effective. To promote dissemination and optimize treatment access, we tested whether school counselors could be effective treatment providers. METHOD: We randomized 138, ninth through 11th graders with SAD to one of three conditions: (a) SASS delivered by school counselors (C-SASS), (b) SASS delivered by psychologists (P-SASS), or (c) a control condition, Skills for Life (SFL), a nonspecific counseling program. Blind, independent, evaluations were conducted with parents and adolescents at baseline, post-intervention, and 5 months beyond treatment completion. We hypothesized that C-SASS and P-SASS would be superior to the control, immediately after treatment and at follow-up. No prediction was made about the relative efficacy of C-SASS and P-SASS. RESULTS: Compared to controls, adolescents treated with C-SASS or P-SASS experienced significantly greater improvement and reductions of anxiety at the end of treatment and follow-up. There were no significant differences between SASS delivered by school counselors and psychologists. CONCLUSION: With training, school counselors are effective treatment providers to adolescents with social anxiety, yielding benefits comparable to those obtained by specialized psychologists. Questions remain regarding means to maintain counselors' practice standards without external support.
PMID: 27002215
ISSN: 1469-7610
CID: 2052022

Identification of Social Anxiety in Schools: The Utility of a Two-Step Screening Process

Sweeney, Corinne; Warner, Carrie Masia; Brice, Chad; Stewart, Catherine; Ryan, Julie; Loeb, Katharine L; McGrath, Robert E
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent yet largely undetected and untreated in adolescents despite the availability of effective treatments. Implementing interventions in schools enhances recognition and access to treatment for SAD. However, without reliable means to accurately identify youth in need of services, school-based interventions are not feasible. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of a two-step, school-based screening approach to identify youth with SAD. Students at three public high schools were screened with self-report questionnaires or nominated by school personnel. Subsequently, a brief telephone assessment of student symptoms was completed with students' parents. Results showed that using both questionnaires and telephone assessments yielded acceptable detection rates, while school staff nominations were not beneficial. This study provides support for the use of a two-step screening procedure consisting of student self-reports followed by brief parent telephone interviews to identify youth with clinically impairing social anxiety. Implications for enhancing school-based detection of and intervention for socially anxious adolescents are discussed.
PMID: 26609497
ISSN: 2159-2020
CID: 1857032

Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students

Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea
Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.
PMID: 25300193
ISSN: 1573-3327
CID: 1676432

School-based interventions for adolescents with social anxiety disorder

Chapter by: Warner, Carrie Masia; Colognori, Daniela; Brice, Chad; Sanchez, Amanda
in: Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: Development, manifestation and intervention strategies by Ranta, Klaus; La Greca, Annette M; Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Marttunen, Mauri [Eds]
Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; Switzerland, 2015
pp. 271-287
ISBN: 978-3-319-16702-2
CID: 1811072

Treatment for comorbid pediatric gastrointestinal and anxiety disorders: A pilot study of a flexible health sensitive cognitive-behavioral therapy program

Reigada, Laura C; Polokowski, Ashley R; Walder, Deborah J; Szigethy, Eva M; Benkov, Keith J; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Masia Warner, Carrie
Anxiety is a prevalent and impairing psychiatric condition among children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the need for effective treatment, no studies have examined the benefit of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders among children or adults with IBD. The aim of this paper is twofold: (a) to briefly describe a newly adapted CBT protocol, treatment of anxiety and physical symptoms related to IBD (TAPS + IBD), that concurrently addresses anxiety (including IBD-specific anxiety) and disease management among children and adolescents with IBD in pediatric medical offices; and (b) to present initial pilot data examining the feasibility and potential efficacy of TAPS + IBD compared to nondirective supportive therapy (NDST) among youth with comorbid IBD and anxiety. Twenty-two youth (59% female; mean age 13.2 +/- 2.1) with comorbid IBD and anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to a 13-session TAPS + IBD or NDST program. Following treatment, participants in TAPS + IBD demonstrated higher treatment response rates relative to the NDST control treatment. Compared with NDST, TAPS + IBD was associated with significantly greater reductions in IBD-specific anxiety immediately following treatment and 3 months later. TAPS + IBD shows initial promise for the treatment of anxiety in youth with IBD. The direct integration of behavioral health strategies into medical settings and use of a flexible CBT approach sensitive to acute disease fluctuations appears to be beneficial among youth with comorbid IBD and anxiety.
ISSN: 2169-4834
CID: 1910142

Types of parental involvement in CBT with anxious youth: A preliminary meta-analysis

Manassis, Katharina; Lee, Trevor Changgun; Bennett, Kathryn; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Duda, Stephanie; Saini, Michael; Wilansky, Pamela; Baer, Susan; Barrett, Paula; Bodden, Denise; Cobham, Vanessa E; Dadds, Mark R; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Ginsburg, Golda; Heyne, David; Hudson, Jennifer L; Kendall, Philip C; Liber, Juliette; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Silverman, Wendy; Siqueland, Lynne; Spence, Susan H; Utens, Elisabeth; Wood, Jeffrey J
OBJECTIVE: Meta-analytic studies have not confirmed that involving parents in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxious children is therapeutically beneficial. There is also great heterogeneity in the type of parental involvement included. We investigated parental involvement focused on contingency management (CM) and transfer of control (TC) as a potential outcome moderator using a meta-analysis with individual patient data. METHOD: Investigators of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for anxious children, identified systematically, were invited to submit their data. Conditions in each RCT were coded based on type of parental involvement in CBT (i.e., low involvement, active involvement without emphasis on CM or TC, active involvement with emphasis on CM or TC). Treatment outcomes were compared using a 1-stage meta-analysis. RESULTS: All cases involved in active treatment (894 of 1,618) were included for subgroup analyses. Across all CBT groups, means of clinical severity, anxiety, and internalizing symptoms significantly decreased posttreatment and were comparable across groups. The group without emphasis on CM or TC showed a higher proportion with posttreatment anxiety diagnoses than the low-involvement group. Between posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, the proportion with anxiety diagnoses significantly decreased in CBT with active parental involvement with emphasis on CM or TC, whereas treatment gains were merely maintained in the other 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: CBT for anxious children is an effective treatment with or without active parental involvement. However, CBT with active parental involvement emphasizing CM or TC may support long-term maintenance of treatment gains. RESULTS should be replicated as additional RCTs are published. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 24841867
ISSN: 0022-006x
CID: 1422222

Implementation Science in School Mental Health: Key Constructs in a Developing Research Agenda

Owens, Julie Sarno; Lyon, Aaron R; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista; Warner, Carrie Masia; Nadeem, Erum; Spiel, Craig; Wagner, Mary
In this paper, we propose an implementation science research agenda as it applies to school mental health (SMH). First, we provide an overview of important contextual issues to be considered when addressing research questions pertinent to the implementation of mental health interventions in schools. Next, we critically review three core implementation components: (a) professional development and coaching for school professionals regarding evidence-based practices (EBPs); (b) the integrity of EBPs implemented in schools; and (c) EBP sustainment under typical school conditions. We articulate research questions central to the next generation of research in each of these areas as well as methods to address such questions. Our intent in doing so is to contribute to a developing blueprint to guide community-research partnerships as well as funding agencies in their efforts to advance implementation science in SMH.
PMID: 26413173
ISSN: 1866-2625
CID: 2037742

School-Based Treatment for Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: New Developments in Transportability and Dissemination

Chapter by: Fox, Jeremy K; Herzig, Kathleen; Colognori, Daniela; Stewart, Catherine E; Masia-Warner, Carrie
in: Handbook of school mental health : research, training, practice, and policy by Weist, Mark D; Lever, Nancy A; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Owens, Julie Sarno [Eds]
New York : Springer, [2014]
pp. 355-368
ISBN: 1461476232
CID: 1420262