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Accuracy of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement by emergency physicians using bedside ultrasound

Hassen, Getaw Worku; Bruck, Isaac; Donahue, Joseph; Mason, Benjamin; Sweeney, Brett; Saab, Weafue; Weedon, Jeremy; Patel, Neal; Perry, Kenneth; Matari, Hussein; Jaiswal, Rajnish; Kalantari, Hossein
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been utilized as an indirect assessment of intracranial pressure. It is usually performed by trained ultrasonographers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether or not emergency physicians (EP) are capable of measuring the ONSD accurately by US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective measurement of ONSD was conducted on computed tomography (CT) scans of the head or facial bones. These patients had undergone ocular US performed by EPs prior to CT scanning. The CT scan measurements of ONSD read by a board-certified radiologist were compared with that of the US read by a registered diagnostic medical sonographer. A difference in measurements of the ONSD >/= 0.5 mm between the two modalities was considered as significant for this study. RESULTS: The ONSD measurements were performed with CT scan and compared to that of the US. Of the 61 patients studied, 36 (59%) were male and 25 (41%) were female. The average age was 56 +/- 17 years. All but 3 patients had ONSD measurements that were between 5 and 6 mm. Discrepancy in measurements of the ONSD between US and CT for both groups fell within our predetermined value (0.5 mm) for the majority of cases. None of the measurements were above 6 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8846-0.9303). CONCLUSION: Emergency physicians were capable of accurately measuring the ONSD using bedside US. Prospective studies with a larger sample size are recommended to validate these findings.
PMID: 25497897
ISSN: 0736-4679
CID: 1866032

Long-term use of topical tacrolimus (FK506) in high-risk penetrating keratoplasty [Case Report]

Dhaliwal, Jasmeet S; Mason, Benjamin F; Kaufman, Stephen C
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and side effects of off-label topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment (Protopic; Fujisawa Health, Deerfield, IL) as a sole second-line immunosuppressive agent in the management of high-risk corneal grafts. METHODS: Four consecutive patients underwent high-risk penetrating keratoplasty (4 grafts) with a prior diagnosis of corneal scar secondary to herpetic keratitis, keratoconus, acanthamoeba keratitis, and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, respectively. All 4 patients developed steroid-induced glaucoma and failed traditional immunosuppressant therapy. Patients were started on topical tacrolimus ointment 0.03%, twice daily, which was tapered to the lowest possible therapeutic dose that maintained its antirejection efficacy. Patients were monitored for adverse treatment effects. The mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 26-48 months), and the mean treatment duration was 22.6 months (range, 13-32 months). RESULTS: All 4 high-risk corneal transplant patients experienced episodes of acute rejection that was successfully reversed with topical tacrolimus treatment. During tacrolimus treatment, there were no further episodes of graft rejection and no incidents of herpes simplex virus infection or reactivation, with the longest follow-up being 4 years. Two patients have been successfully tapered off tacrolimus, and 2 patients are currently on once-daily dosing. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment seems to be a promising second-line immunosuppressant in management of high-risk grafts
PMID: 18434855
ISSN: 0277-3740
CID: 95384