Long-term follow-up of children treated with the Repiphysis expandable prosthesis for lower extremity bone sarcoma
Expandable endoprostheses provide a limb salvage option for skeletally immature patients with bone sarcoma of the lower extremities. Initial reports of the Repiphysis prosthesis were encouraging; however, medium-term follow-up revealed high complication rates. We report on the long-term follow-up of a cohort of patients treated with the Repiphysis prosthesis. Eleven patients were included in the study. Data collected included sex, age at surgery, duration of follow-up, site of disease, histologic diagnosis, number of lengthening sessions, amount lengthened, postoperative complications, endoprosthetic failure, mode of endoprosthetic failure, duration from index surgery to failure and to revision, type of revision surgery and final limb-length discrepancy. The average duration of follow-up from the time of surgery was 180 months (range, 144-215 months). Fifteen Repiphysis implants were used in 11 patients. All implants failed with an average time from surgery to failure of 36 months (range, 3-72 months). Twenty-four complications were observed: one wound dehiscence, two deep infections, 18 mechanical failures, implant collapse with destruction of proximal tibia epiphysis in two and one periprosthetic proximal femur fracture with dislodgement of the stem. Despite being an option for limb salvage, the Repiphysis prosthesis has a high rate of mechanical failure and need for revision, similar to other expandable implants. The authors, therefore, recommend full disclosure of the potential short- and long-term complications and need for revision, as well as alternative treatment options if their use is considered. Level of evidence: IV (Therapeutic).
Impact of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion rate in children with cerebral palsy undergoing hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic lysine analogue, has been used in orthopedic procedures to limit blood loss and prevent allogeneic blood transfusions. However, data are scarce on its use in hip reconstruction of patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This study examines the effect of TXA on patients with CP undergoing hip reconstruction with at least two osteotomies. METHODS:This is a single-center, retrospective study of patients with CP who underwent hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies from January 2013 to April 2019. There were 43 patients, with a mean age of 9.9Â years. Age, procedure, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin/hematocrit, estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusions and length of stay were recorded. The patients were split into the following two groups: 24 patients who had received intraoperative TXA and 19 who had not. RESULTS:Age, EBL, mean preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin or hematocrit, preoperative to postoperative hematocrit drop, and length of stay were similar for the two groups (p > 0.05). The risk for intraoperative transfusion (21 vs. 17%), postoperative transfusion (26 vs. 8%), and any transfusion (42 vs. 21%) appeared to be greater in the group that did not receive TXA, but this difference did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study shows patients with CP undergoing hip reconstruction with two or more osteotomies; the use of TXA, while not statistically significant, shows a trend toward a decreased need for allogeneic blood transfusion.
Acute Multifocal Nonhematogenous Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis in a Healthy Adolescent: An Atypical Presentation [Case Report]
Osteomyelitis represents inflammation and infection of bone tissue by a pathogen. Acute osteomyelitis is more likely to be unifocal compared to a chronic process which tends to be multifocal and recurrent. Early diagnosis, aggressive appropriate antibiotic therapy and a multidisciplinary approach are essential for a satisfactory prognosis and improved outcome. We report an atypical case of acute multifocal methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) osteomyelitis.
What Are the Rate and Risk Factors for Developing a Complication With the Pavlik Method for the Treatment of Hip Dysplasia?
BACKGROUND:The Pavlik method for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has been proven successful for over 85 years. The high success rate and reproducibility have made it the mainstay of treatment. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with DDH treated with the Pavlik method between September 2016 and August 2018 with at least 24 months of follow up in a single academic center. We excluded patients with neuromuscular conditions, teratologic dislocations, and arthrogryposis. We identified and included a total of 307 patients in the analysis. There were 66 patients with dysplasia, 97 with instability, and 144 with a dislocation. Data collected included age at initiation of the Pavlik method, diagnosis (isolated dysplasia, subluxation, or dislocation), duration of treatment, follow up duration and any complication. At final follow up, anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were used to determine the Severin classification. RESULTS:Major complications were proximal femoral growth disturbance (5.8%) and femoral nerve palsy (0.98%). Multivariate analysis showed that an initial diagnosis of a dislocated hip (odds ratio, 2.20; P<0.01), was significantly associated with developing a complication. At final follow up, we found Severin type I or II radiographic findings in 100% of patients with dysplasia, 95% of patients with instability and 54% of patients with dislocation (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Complications are not entirely uncommon when the Pavlik method is used for the treatment of DDH. The overall rate of major complications was 7%. The Pavlik method is safe, and independent risk factors for complications were being over 5 months of age and having a dislocated hip at initial presentation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV-cohort study.
Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma: Diagnosis, management and prognosis
Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) is a relatively uncommon primary tumor of the soft tissues, which accounts for 20-30% of all reported cases of ES. Being uncommon, all members of the ES family tumors are treated following the same general protocol of sarcoma tumors. The present review summarizes the diagnosis, management and prognosis of EES, focusing on the differences between the subtypes of ESS. The clinical features and imaging of EES are also discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for diagnostic imaging and local staging, while core-needle biopsy with pathological testing is used to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Although several oncology groups endorse that ES family of tumors should be treated with similar algorithm and protocols, some studies have demonstrated that surgery and radiotherapy may be used as a form of local control. However, further studies are required to conclude the optimum treatment option for EES.
Use of hamstring autograft to reconstruct the patellar tendon after endoprosthetic replacement of the proximal tibia for bone sarcomas
Ultrasound Evaluation of Pediatric Orthopaedic Patients
Ultrasonography is a valuable tool that can be used in many capacities to evaluate and treat pediatric orthopaedic patient. It has the capability to depict bone, cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures, and provide dynamic information. This technique can be readily applied to a wide range of pediatric conditions, including developmental dysplasia of the hip, congenital limb deficiencies, fracture management, joint effusions, and many other musculoskeletal pathologies. There are many benefits of implementing ultrasonography as a regular tool. It is readily accessible at most centers, and information can be quickly obtained in a minimally invasive way, which limits the need for radiation exposure. Ultrasonography is a safe and reliable tool that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons can incorporate into the diagnosis and management of a broad spectrum of pathology.
Citation analysis of the highest-cited articles on developmental dysplasia of the hip
The purpose of this study is to determine the highest-cited articles on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and analyze their bibliometric characteristics. We searched the Web of Science (WoS) for articles with the highest number of citations on DDH and recorded their number of citations in WoS, Scopus, and Google Scholar (GS). We ranked and selected the top 100 cited articles. The average number of citations in WoS was 148 (range 66-638). The most-cited article in all databases was Crowe's total hip replacement cohort on DDH. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American Volume (n = 35) had the most articles in the list, and the United States (n = 46) contributed with the most articles. The University of Bern had the most publications (n = 8). Most studies were therapeutic (n = 45) or diagnostic (n = 29). Hip preservation and arthroplasty investigations have had an increment in citations in recent decades. We provide an historical perspective on research conducted on DDH. A majority of the articles were observational and therapeutic. All databases had good correlation in the number of citations.
The association of anaemia and its severity with composite morbidity after total hip arthroplasty
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common orthopaedic procedure and is expected to increase with an increasing elderly population. Many of these patients suffer from chronic diseases which might be associated with anaemia. Anaemia, by itself, increases the risk of morbidity. We aimed to delineate relationship between preoperative anaemia and postoperative composite morbidities in patients undergoing primary THA. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A cohort study analysed the data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2008-2014 database. Adult patients who underwent unilateral primary THA were included and divided into 3 groups: no anaemia, mild anaemia, and moderate-to-severe anaemia. Thirty-day mortality and morbidity were recorded as adverse events. The associations between anaemia, baseline characteristics, and adverse events were analysed after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Moderate-to-severe anaemia patients were at increased risk for composite morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43 [1.17-1.74]) when compared to non-anaemics. The stratification revealed a significant effect of younger age, male gender, white race, obesity, general anaesthesia, and mean operative time >120 minutes in patients with moderate-to-severe anaemia. These patients were also at a higher risk of developing several specific morbidities. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Moderate-to-severe anaemia increases the risk for composite morbidities, but not mortality in patients undergoing primary THA. Further studies are needed to assess whether preoperative management of moderate-to-severe anaemia would improve outcomes in patients undergoing THA.
Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma: Long-Term Survival in the Setting of Metastatic Disease [Case Report]
Three cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) in patients who presented with pulmonary metastases and were managed with long-term close observation without systemic intervention are presented. Follow-up imaging showed slow progression of their disease over several years, and the patients remained asymptomatic from their pulmonary metastases. This clinical experience provides insight into the natural history of the disease and suggests that some patients may experience long-term survival and remain asymptomatic even without systemic intervention, thereby improving their quality of life by avoiding potentially debilitating treatments.