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Traditional and novel risk factors for incident aortic stenosis in community-dwelling older adults

Massera, Daniele; Bartz, Traci M; Biggs, Mary L; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Reiner, Alexander P; Semba, Richard D; Gottdiener, John S; Psaty, Bruce M; Owens, David S; Kizer, Jorge R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in older adults, yet its risk factors remain insufficiently studied in this population. Such studies are necessary to enhance understanding of mechanisms, disease management and therapeutics. METHODS:The Cardiovascular Health Study is a population-based investigation of older adults that completed adjudication of incident AS over long-term follow-up. We evaluated traditional cardiovascular risk factors or disease, as well as novel risk factors from lipid, inflammatory and mineral metabolism pathways, in relation to incident moderate or severe AS (including AS procedures) and clinically significant AS (severe AS, including procedures). RESULTS:) showed a U-shaped relationship. Findings were similar for clinically significant AS, although CHD and sCD14 fell short of significance, but interleukin-(IL) 6 showed a positive association. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:. These factors may hold clues to biology, preventive efforts and potential therapeutics for those at highest risk.
PMID: 37463733
ISSN: 1468-201x
CID: 5535652

Genotype Analysis as a Clinical Tool for Families in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Sherrid, Mark V.; Massera, Daniele
ISSN: 2772-963x
CID: 5621482

What Predicts the Success of Alcohol Septal Ablation?: The Myocardium Counts, After All [Comment]

Massera, Daniele; Sherrid, Mark V
PMID: 37582171
ISSN: 1941-7632
CID: 5595582

Clinical course and outcomes in adults with co-occurring hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension: a scoping review protocol

Arabadjian, Milla; Nicolas, Barnaby; Montgomery, Sophie; Pleasure, Mitchell; Collins, Maxine; Reuter, Maria; Massera, Daniele; Shimbo, Daichi; Sherrid, Mark
INTRODUCTION:Hypertension affects 40%-60% of adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiac condition. It can be a diagnostic confounder for HCM, contributing to delayed diagnosis. Clinically, treatment of co-occurring hypertension and HCM poses challenges as first-line and second-line antihypertensive medications are often contraindicated in HCM. The clinical course in adults with hypertension and HCM is also not well understood, and studies examining patient outcomes in this population are equivocal. In this paper, we aim to outline the protocol of a scoping review, a type of literature review, to systematically synthesise existing knowledge on adults with co-occurring HCM and hypertension, highlighting knowledge and evidence gaps, and identifying future research directions to optimise outcomes in this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This review is guided by Arksey and O'Malley's conceptual framework on conducting scoping reviews. We will search five electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science) and reference lists of publications to identify eligible articles focusing on medical therapy, clinical course or outcomes in adults with HCM and hypertension, between 2011 and 2023. Our search strategy and presentation of results will be guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Scoping Review guideline. First, two independent reviewers will screen articles, by title and abstract, followed by a full-text screen to identify eligible articles. Relevant data will be extracted and synthesised. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval is not required for this review as it is a secondary data collection of published articles and does not involve human subject participation. We will present results of this review at relevant professional conferences and patient-centred educational events. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:
PMID: 37463810
ISSN: 2044-6055
CID: 5535662

How common is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy… really?: Disease prevalence revisited 27 years after CARDIA

Massera, Daniele; Sherrid, Mark V; Maron, Martin S; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Barry J
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous albeit treatable cardiac disease of variable severity, with the potential for heart failure, atrial fibrillation and arrhythmic sudden death, characterized by otherwise unexplained left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and affecting all ages and races. Over the last 30 years, several studies have estimated the prevalence of HCM in the general population, employing echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as well electronic health records and billing databases for clinical diagnosis. The estimated prevalence in the general population based on the disease phenotype of LV hypertrophy by imaging is 1:500 (0.2%). This prevalence was initially proposed in 1995 in the population-based CARDIA study employing echocardiography, and more recently confirmed by automated CMR analysis in the large UK Biobank cohort. The 1:500 prevalence appears most relevant to clinical assessment and management of HCM. These available data suggest that HCM is not a rare condition but likely underdiagnosed clinically and by extrapolation potentially affects about 700,000 Americans and possibly 15 million people worldwide.
PMID: 37028711
ISSN: 1874-1754
CID: 5463952

Weight loss in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A clinical case series

Reuter, Maria C.; Massera, Daniele; Axel, Leon; Latson, Larry A.; Goldstein, Jonathan M.; Stepanovic, Alexandra; Sherrid, Mark V.
Background: Obesity is prevalent among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Obese HCM patients have greater wall thickness, LV mass, worse hemodynamic function and NYHA class. Weight loss may favorably influence the HCM phenotype. Case summary: We describe six patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who lost weight through diet and lifestyle changes (n = 4) or bariatric surgery (n = 2). Radiographic imaging, with cardiac MRI or CT scan, was performed before and after their weight loss. There was a mean decrease in LV mass and indexed LV mass, and a mean numerical decrease in mean wall thickness in up to 14 out of 18 LV segments. There was also NYHA class reduction in symptoms. Discussion: In this case series, we have shown that substantial weight loss in HCM patients can be associated with a decrease in LV mass, wall thickness and improvement in symptoms. These observations indicate the potential for positive remodeling of the heart by weight loss. Prospective studies of the benefits of weight loss in HCM are needed.
ISSN: 2772-4875
CID: 5446552

Apical Aneurysms and Mid-Left Ventricular Obstruction in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Sherrid, Mark V; Bernard, Samuel; Tripathi, Nidhi; Patel, Yash; Modi, Vivek; Axel, Leon; Talebi, Soheila; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Sanborn, Danita Y; Saric, Muhamed; Adlestein, Elizabeth; Alvarez, Isabel Castro; Xia, Yuhe; Swistel, Daniel G; Massera, Daniele; Fifer, Michael A; Kim, Bette
BACKGROUND:Apical left ventricular (LV) aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are associated with adverse outcomes. The reported frequency of mid-LV obstruction has varied from 36% to 90%. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to ascertain the frequency of mid-LV obstruction in HCM apical aneurysms. METHODS:The authors analyzed echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance examinations of patients with aneurysms from 3 dedicated programs and compared them with 63 normal controls and 47 controls with apical-mid HCM who did not have aneurysms (22 with increased LV systolic velocities). RESULTS:]; P = 0.004). Complete emptying occurs circumferentially around central PMs that contribute to obstruction. Late gadolinium enhancement was always brightest and the most transmural apical of, or at the level of, complete emptying. CONCLUSIONS:The great majority (95%) of patients in the continuum of apical aneurysms have associated mid-LV obstruction. Further research to investigate obstruction as a contributing cause to apical aneurysms is warranted.
PMID: 36681586
ISSN: 1876-7591
CID: 5419392

Histopathology of the Mitral Valve Residual Leaflet in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Troy, Aaron L; Narula, Navneet; Massera, Daniele; Adlestein, Elizabeth; Alvarez, Isabel Castro; Janssen, Paul M L; Moreira, Andre L; Olivotto, Iacopo; Stepanovic, Alexandra; Thomas, Kristen; Zeck, Briana; Chiriboga, Luis; Swistel, Daniel G; Sherrid, Mark V
BACKGROUND:Mitral valve (MV) elongation is a primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype and contributes to obstruction. The residual MV leaflet that protrudes past the coaptation point is especially susceptible to flow-drag and systolic anterior motion. Histopathological features of MVs in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM), and of residual leaflets specifically, are unknown. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to characterize gross, structural, and cellular histopathologic features of MV residual leaflets in OHCM. On a cellular-level, we assessed for developmental dysregulation of epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation, adaptive endocardial-to-mesenchymal transition and valvular interstitial cell proliferation, and genetically-driven persistence of cardiomyocytes in the valve. METHODS:Structural and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 22 residual leaflets excised as ancillary procedures during myectomy, and compared with 11 control leaflets from deceased patients with normal hearts. Structural components were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and elastic stains. We stained for EPDCs, EPDC paracrine signaling, valvular interstitial cells, endocardial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cardiomyocytes. RESULTS:= 0.08). No markers of primary cellular processes were identified. CONCLUSIONS:MV residual leaflets in HCM were characterized by histologic findings that were likely secondary to chronic hemodynamic stress and may further increase susceptibility to systolic anterior motion.
PMID: 37383048
ISSN: 2772-963x
CID: 5540432

The association of aortic valve sclerosis, aortic annulus increased reflectivity, and mitral annular calcification with subsequent aortic stenosis in older individuals. Findings from the Cardiovascular Health Study

Barasch, Eddy; Gottdiener, John S; Tressel, William; Bartz, Traci M; Buzkova, Petra; Massera, Daniele; deFilippi, Christopher; Biggs, Mary L; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R; Owens, David
BACKGROUND:While aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) is well-described as preceding aortic stenosis (AS), the association of AS with antecedent mitral aortic annular calcification and aortic annulus increased reflectivity (MAC and AAIR, respectively) has not been characterized. In a population-based prospective study, we evaluated whether MAC, AAIR, and AVS are associated with the risk of incident AS. METHODS:Among participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) free of AS at the 1994-1995 visit, the presence of MAC, AAIR, AVS, and the combination of all three were evaluated in 3041 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between the presence of calcification and the incidence of moderate/severe AS in three nested models adjusting for factors associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation both relevant to the pathogenesis of AS. RESULTS:Over a median follow-up of 11.5 years (IQR 6.7 to 17.0), 110 cases of incident moderate/severe AS were ascertained. Strong positive associations with incident moderate/severe AS were found for all calcification sites after adjustment for the main model covariates: AAIR (HR=2.90, 95% CI=[1.95, 4.32], p<0.0005), AVS (HR=2.20, 95% CI=[1.44, 3.37], p<0.0005), MAC (HR=1.67, 95% CI=[1.14, 2.45], p=0.008), and the combination of MAC, AAIR, and AVS (HR=2.50, 95% CI=[1.65, 3.78], p<0.0005). In a secondary analysis, the risk of AS increased with the number of sites at which calcification was present. CONCLUSIONS:In a large cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals, there were strong associations between each of AAIR, AVS, MAC, and the combination of MAC, AAIR, and AVS with incident moderate/severe AS. The novel finding that AAIR had a particularly strong association with incident AS, even after adjusting for other calcification sites, suggests its value in identifying individuals at risk for AS, and potential inclusion in the routine assessment by transthoracic echocardiography.
PMID: 36096340
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 5336152

Sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in COVID-19 illness

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Talmor, Nina; Xia, Yuhe; Berger, Jeffrey S; Iturrate, Eduardo; Adhikari, Samrachana; Pulgarin, Claudia; Quinones-Camacho, Adriana; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Horowitz, James; Jung, Albert S; Massera, Daniele; Keller, Norma M; Fishman, Glenn I; Horwitz, Leora; Troxel, Andrea B; Hochman, Judith S; Reynolds, Harmony R
BACKGROUND:Male sex, elevated troponin levels, and elevated D-dimer levels are associated with more complicated COVID-19 illness and greater mortality; however, while there are known sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in other disease states, it is unknown whether they exist in the setting of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE:We assessed whether sex modified the relationship between troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness (defined as mechanical ventilation, ICU admission or transfer, discharge to hospice, or death). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large, academic health system. We used multivariable regression to assess associations between sex, troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. To test whether sex modified the relationship between severe COVID-19 illness and troponin or D-dimer, models with interaction terms were utilized. RESULTS:Among 4,574 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex was associated with higher levels of troponin and greater odds of severe COVID-19 illness, but lower levels of initial D-dimer when compared with female sex. While sex did not modify the relationship between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, peak D-dimer level was more strongly associated with severe COVID-19 illness in male patients compared to female patients (males: OR=2.91, 95%CI=2.63-2.34, p<0.001; females: OR=2.31, 95%CI=2.04-2.63, p<0.001; p-interaction=0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sex did not modify the association between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, but did modify the association between peak D-dimer and severe COVID-19 illness, suggesting greater prognostic value for D-dimer in males with COVID-19.
PMID: 36334466
ISSN: 1527-3288
CID: 5358922