Cumulative burden of clinically significant aortic stenosis in community-dwelling older adults
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Current estimates of aortic stenosis (AS) frequency have mostly relied on cross-sectional echocardiographic or longitudinal administrative data, making understanding of AS burden incomplete. We performed case adjudications to evaluate the frequency of AS and assess differences by age, sex and race in an older cohort with long-term follow-up. METHODS:We developed case-capture methods using study echocardiograms, procedure and diagnosis codes, heart failure events and deaths for targeted review of medical records in the Cardiovascular Health Study to identify moderate or severe AS and related procedures or hospitalisations. The primary outcome was clinically significant AS (severe AS or procedure). Assessment of incident AS burden was based on subdistribution survival methods, while associations with age, sex and race relied on cause-specific survival methods. RESULTS:The cohort comprised 5795 participants (age 73Â±6, 42.2% male, 14.3% Black). Cumulative frequency of clinically significant AS at maximal 25-year follow-up was 3.69% (probable/definite) to 4.67% (possible/probable/definite), while the corresponding 20-year cumulative incidence was 2.88% to 3.71%. Of incident cases, about 85% had a hospitalisation for severe AS, but roughly half did not undergo valve intervention. The adjusted incidence of clinically significant AS was higher in men (HR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21 to 2.17]) and increased with age (HR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.11]), but was lower in Blacks (HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.81]). CONCLUSIONS:In this community-based study, we identified a higher burden of clinically significant AS than reported previously, with differences by age, sex and race. These findings have important implications for public health resource planning, although the lower burden in Blacks merits further study.
Adverse cardiac mechanics and incident coronary heart disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Speckle-tracking echocardiography enables detection of abnormalities in cardiac mechanics with higher sensitivity than conventional measures of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and may provide insight into the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the relationship of LV longitudinal strain, LV early diastolic strain rate (SR) and left atrial (LA) reservoir strain with long-term CHD incidence in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS:The association of all three strain measures with incidence of non-fatal and fatal CHD (primary outcome of revascularisation, non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction) was examined in the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Follow-up was truncated at 10 years. RESULTS:We included 3313 participants (mean (SD) age 72.6 (5.5) years). During a median follow-up of 10.0 (25th-75th percentile 7.7-10.0) years, 439 CHD events occurred. LV longitudinal strain (HR=1.25 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43) and LV early diastolic SR (HR=1.31 per SD decrement, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.50) were associated with a significantly greater risk of incident CHD after adjustment for potential confounders. By contrast, LA reservoir strain was not associated with incident CHD (HR=1.06 per SD decrement, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.19). Additional adjustment for biochemical and echocardiographic measures of myocardial stress, dysfunction and remodelling did not meaningfully alter these associations. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found an association between echocardiographic measures of subclinically altered LV mechanics and incident CHD. These findings inform the underlying biology of subclinical LV dysfunction and CHD. Early detection of asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction may offer an opportunity for prevention and early intervention.
Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis resulting in haemoptysis: a case series [Case Report]
Background/UNASSIGNED:Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an infrequent complication of atrial fibrillation ablation that is often misdiagnosed due to predominant respiratory symptoms. It can result in pulmonary venous hypertension, with varying presentations, ranging from shortness of breath to haemoptysis. Case summary/UNASSIGNED:We report two patients with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treated with radiofrequency ablation and pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, who subsequently developed PVS. Case 1 initially presented with indolent symptoms of shortness of breath and cough. He was initially diagnosed with and treated for pneumonia. In contrast, Case 2 presented with massive haemoptysis, requiring intubation and intensive care unit admission. Both patients were eventually diagnosed with PVS by computed tomography. They were treated with PV angioplasty and stenting. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:While previously limited to the congenital heart disease population, PVS is occurring more frequently now in adult patients as a complication of ablation procedures. It is most effectively treated with angioplasty and stent implantation but has a high rate of recurrence.
Prevalence and clinical implications of valvular calcification on coronary computed tomography angiography
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Valvular heart disease can be identified by calcification on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We assessed aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients presenting with stable chest pain and their association with cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:In 1769 patients (58â€‰Â±â€‰9â€‰years, 56% male) undergoing CCTA for stable chest pain, aortic and mitral valve calcification were quantified using Agatston score. Aortic valve calcification was present in 241 (14%) and mitral calcification in 64 (4%). Independent predictors of aortic valve calcification were age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease, whereas the only predictor of mitral valve calcification was age. Patients with aortic and mitral valve calcification had higher coronary artery calcium scores and more obstructive coronary artery disease. The composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke was higher in those with aortic [hazard ratio (HR) 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-5.17; Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001] or mitral (HR 3.50; 95% CI 1.47-8.07; Pâ€‰=â€‰0.004) valve calcification, but this was not independent of coronary artery calcification or obstructive coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Aortic and mitral valve calcification occurs in one in six patients with stable chest pain undergoing CCTA and is associated with concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. Whilst valvular calcification is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, this was not independent of the burden of coronary artery disease.
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography assessment of aortic stenosis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Non-contrast CT aortic valve calcium scoring ignores the contribution of valvular fibrosis in aortic stenosis. We assessed aortic valve calcific and non-calcific disease using contrast-enhanced CT. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of 164 patients (median age 71 (IQR 66-77) years, 78% male) with aortic stenosis (41 mild, 89 moderate, 34 severe; 7% bicuspid) who underwent echocardiography and contrast-enhanced CT as part of imaging studies. Calcific and non-calcific (fibrosis) valve tissue volumes were quantified and indexed to annulus area, using Hounsfield unit thresholds calibrated against blood pool radiodensity. The fibrocalcific ratio assessed the relative contributions of valve fibrosis and calcification. The fibrocalcific volume (sum of indexed non-calcific and calcific volumes) was compared with aortic valve peak velocity and, in a subgroup, histology and valve weight. RESULTS:). Fibrocalcific volume correlated with ex vivo valve weight (r=0.72, p<0.001). Compared with the Agatston score, fibrocalcific volume demonstrated a better correlation with peak aortic jet velocity (r=0.59â€‰and r=0.67, respectively), particularly in females (r=0.38â€‰and r=0.72, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Contrast-enhanced CT assessment of aortic valve calcific and non-calcific volumes correlates with aortic stenosis severity and may be preferable to non-contrast CT when fibrosis is a significant contributor to valve obstruction.
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Dynamic Modeling of Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve
Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve caused by the interplay between increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and an abnormal mitral valve anatomy and geometry. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve has revolutionized the practice of cardiology, paving the way for new methods to see and treat valvular heart disease. Here we present the novel and incremental value of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) of SAM visualization. This review first provides step-by-step instructions on acquiring and optimizing 3D TEE imaging of SAM. It then describes the unique and novel findings using standard 3D TEE rendering as well as dynamic mitral valve modeling of SAM from 3D data sets, which can provide a more detailed visualization of SAM features. The findings include double-orifice LVOT caused by the residual leaflet, the dolphin smile phenomenon, and delineation of SAM width. Finally, the review discusses the essential role of 3D TEE imaging for preprocedural assessment and intraprocedural guidance of surgical and novel percutaneous treatments of SAM.
Mechanisms of mitral annular calcification
The mitral annulus is a fibrous structure that surrounds the mitral valve leaflets and is prone to calcification. Despite its common occurrence, association with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and relationship with dysfunction of the mitral valve, the pathobiology of mitral annular calcification is incompletely understood. Mitral annular calcification is no longer regarded as a local, chronic and degenerative process resulting in precipitation of calcium and phosphate, but as an active and regulated molecular process that is related to lipid metabolism, hemodynamic stress, chronic kidney disease, bone and mineral metabolism and inflammation. This review summarizes the current evidence examining the pathophysiologic determinants of mitral annular calcification.
Distinctive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Anatomy and Obstructive Physiology in Patients Admitted With Takotsubo Syndrome
Clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) has been expanded to include patients with mild or no thickening of the left ventricle (LV), who nevertheless have outflow tract obstruction at rest or after exercise, due to systolic anterior motion (SAM) and ventricular septal contact, with mitral valve elongation and papillary muscles anomalies. Apical ballooning mimicking a takotsubo syndrome (TS) wall motion pattern can occur in HC with mild septal thickening when latent obstruction becomes unrelenting. To define the prevalence of anatomic abnormalities characteristic of HC in patients diagnosed with TS, we analyzed echocardiograms of 44 unselected TS patients, age 67Â±12 years, 95% women including studies performed before the event (nâ€¯=â€¯11, median 515 days) and after recovery of left ventricular function (nâ€¯=â€¯33, median 92 days, interquartile rangeâ€¯=â€¯29 to 327) and compared the findings to 60 age and sexed matched controls. Analysis of echocardiograms was blinded to event timing, and patient vs. control status. During the ballooning event, 13 patients (30%) had SAM including 9 with LV outflow obstruction, peak gradients 71Â±40 mmHg, as well as: ventricular septal thickening (16 Â± 4 mm), elongated anterior leaflets (30 Â± 3mm), and increased mitral coaptation to posterior wall distance (17 Â± 5 mm), consistent with diagnosis of the HC phenotype. Compared to 31 TS patients without SAM, study patients with SAM had longer anterior leaflets (30 Â± 3 vs 26 Â± 4 mm, pâ€¯=â€¯0.006), thicker septum (16 Â± 4 vs 12 Â± 3 mm), increased coaptation to posterior wall distance (17 Â± 5 vs 14 Â± 4 mm, p < 0.04) and reduced distance from coaptation to septum (19 Â± 5 vs 27 Â± 5, p < 0.001). In the 13 patients with SAM, morphologic characteristics of HC persisted after normalization of LV function. In conclusion, a subset of patients experiencing TS events demonstrates a constellation of morphologic abnormalities characteristic of HC that persist after recovery of LV wall motion. These findings suggest that dynamic outflow obstruction may cause apical ballooning in susceptible patients.
Analytical quantification of aortic valve 18F-sodium fluoride PET uptake
BACKGROUND:Challenges to cardiac PET-CT include patient motion, prolonged image acquisition and a reduction of counts due to gating. We compared two analytical tools, FusionQuant and OsiriX, for quantification of gated cardiac 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-fluoride) PET-CT imaging. METHODS:Twenty-seven patients with aortic stenosis were included, 15 of whom underwent repeated imaging 4Â weeks apart. Agreement between analytical tools and scan-rescan reproducibility was determined using the Bland-Altman method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). RESULTS:was similar (Â±â€‰10% vsâ€‰Â±â€‰8% pâ€‰=â€‰.252). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:values.
A NOVEL SUBSET OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY PATIENTS CHARACTERIZED BY ASSOCIATION WITH TAKOTSUBO-LIKE LV BALLOONING AND HOSPITAL ADMISSION [Meeting Abstract]
Background Recently the clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been expanded to include patients with mild or no thickening of the left ventricle (LV) yet who have outflow tract obstruction at rest or after exercise, principally due to characteristic HCM anterior mitral leaflet (AML) elongation and papillary muscle anomalies. Apical ballooning mimicking a takotsubo syndrome (TTS) wall motion pattern can occur in mild-septal-thickening HCM when latent obstruction becomes unrelenting. The objective of this study is to define the prevalence of anatomic abnormalities characteristic of HCM in an unselected population of patients diagnosed clinically with TTS. Methods We analyzed echocardiograms of 44 admitted TTS patients including studies performed during admission, before the event (n=11, median 515 days before) and after recovery of left ventricular function (n=33, median 92 days, IQR=29-327) and compared them to 60 controls, age-matched normal women. Analysis of 148 echocardiograms was blinded to timing, and patient vs. control status. Results Age was 67+/-12 years, 42 female (95%). During the ballooning event, 13 (30%) had SAM and 9 patients (20%) had LV outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), gradients 71+/-40 mmHg. Compared to TTS patients without SAM, those with SAM had longer AML (30 vs. 26mm), and thicker septum (16 vs. 12 mm) and less distance from septum to coaptation (19 vs. 27mm), all p <=0.006. Eleven of the SAM patients had >=2 anatomic abnormalities predisposing to obstruction (defined as > 2 SD above normal), and/or an anomalous papillary muscle/chordae. In the 44 TTS patients each parameter differed from controls before, during and after the TTS event. Eight (18%) had abnormal right ventricular wall motion, none of whom were obstructed. Conclusion Thirty percent of unselected TTS patients have SAM and 20% have significant LVOT gradients. This subset had AML abnormalities and septal thickening typical of obstructive HCM and known to predispose to LVOT obstruction. They are phenotypically identical to patients with documented HCM with mild septal thickening and LVOT obstruction, who have experienced episodes of ballooning.