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Using Photovoice to Explore the Lived Environment and Experience of Older Adults with Frailty on their Kidney Transplant Journey

Hladek, Melissa deCardi; Wilson, Deborah; Krasnansky, Katie; McDaniel, Kennedy; Shanbhag, Meera; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Crews, Deidra C; Brennan, Daniel C; Taylor, Janiece; Segev, Dorry; Walston, Jeremy; Xue, Qian-Li; Szanton, Sarah L
BACKGROUND:Older adults with frailty and kidney failure face higher waitlist mortality and are more likely to be listed as inactive on the kidney transplant (KT) wait list. Photovoice is a qualitative participatory research method where participants use photographs to represent their environment, needs and experiences. It offers unique insight into the lived environment and experience of patients and may offer direction in how to improve functional independence, symptom burden, and kidney transplant outcomes in adults with frailty. METHODS:This photovoice study was embedded within a larger intervention adaptation project. Participants with pre-frailty or frailty awaiting a KT or recently post-transplant took photos with Polaroid cameras and wrote short descriptions for 11 prompts. Each participant completed a semi-structured interview wherein their photos were discussed. The team coded and discussed photos and interviews to determine overarching themes and implications. Focus groups were used to triangulate visual data findings. RESULTS:Sixteen participants completed both the photovoice and interview. Participants were a mean age of 60.5 years, 31.2% female, 43.4% self-identifying as Black, and 69% were frail. Outcomes were categorized into seven themes: functional space, home safety, medication management, adaptive coping, life changing nature of dialysis, support and communication. Visual data clarified and sometimes changed the interpretations of the text alone. Especially within the themes of home safety and functional space, safety hazards not previously recognized in the literature, like dialysis fluid storage, were identified. CONCLUSIONS:Photovoice contextualizes the living conditions and experiences of adults with frailty on the kidney transplant journey and could be a useful tool in geriatric nephrology and transplant. Addressing issues of home storage, organization, and accessibility should be explored as potential intervention targets. Incorporating participant values and goals into care decisions and interventional design should be further explored.
PMID: 38379153
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5634252

Abdominal computed tomography measurements of body composition and waitlist mortality in kidney transplant candidates

Quint, Evelien E; Liu, Yi; Shafaat, Omid; Ghildayal, Nidhi; Crosby, Helen; Kamireddy, Arun; Pol, Robert A; Orandi, Babak J; Segev, Dorry L; Weiss, Clifford R; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
Body mass index is often used to determine kidney transplant (KT) candidacy. However, this measure of body composition (BC) has several limitations, including the inability to accurately capture dry weight. Objective computed tomography (CT)-based measures may improve pre-KT risk stratification and capture physiological aging more accurately. We quantified the association between CT-based BC measurements and waitlist mortality in a retrospective study of 828 KT candidates (2010-2022) with clinically obtained CT scans using adjusted competing risk regression. In total, 42.5% of candidates had myopenia, 11.4% had myopenic obesity (MO), 68.8% had myosteatosis, 24.8% had sarcopenia (probable = 11.2%, confirmed = 10.5%, and severe = 3.1%), and 8.6% had sarcopenic obesity. Myopenia, MO, and sarcopenic obesity were not associated with mortality. Patients with myosteatosis (adjusted subhazard ratio [aSHR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.45; after confounder adjustment) or sarcopenia (probable: aSHR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.10-2.88; confirmed: aSHR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01-2.82; and severe: aSHR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.12-5.66; after full adjustment) were at increased risk of mortality. When stratified by age, MO (aSHR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.28-3.83; P interaction = .005) and myosteatosis (aSHR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.18-3.21; P interaction = .038) were associated with elevated risk only among candidates <65 years. MO was only associated with waitlist mortality among frail candidates (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.28-5.05; P interaction = .021). Transplant centers should consider using BC metrics in addition to body mass index when a CT scan is available to improve pre-KT risk stratification at KT evaluation.
PMID: 37949413
ISSN: 1600-6143
CID: 5620322

Racial Disparities in Waiting List Outcomes of Patients Listed for Lung Transplantation

Florissi, Isabella; Chidi, Alexis P; Liu, Yi; Ruck, Jessica M; Mauney, Carrinton; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Merlo, Christian A; Shah, Pali; Stewart, Darren E; Segev, Dorry L; Bush, Errol L
BACKGROUND:The Lung Allocation Score, implemented in 2005, prioritized lung transplant candidates by medical urgency rather than waiting list time and was expected to improve racial disparities in transplant allocation. We evaluated whether racial disparities in lung transplant persisted after 2005. METHODS:We identified all wait-listed adult lung transplant candidates in the United States from 2005 through 2021 using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. We evaluated the association between race and receipt of a transplant by using a multivariable competing risk regression model adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, Lung Allocation Score, clinical measures, and time. We evaluated interactions between race and age, sex, socioeconomic status, and Lung Allocation Score. RESULTS:We identified 33,158 candidates on the lung transplant waiting list between 2005 and 2021: 27,074 White (82%), 3350 African American (10%), and 2734 Hispanic (8%). White candidates were older, had higher education levels, and had lower Lung Allocation Scores (P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, African American and Hispanic candidates were less likely to receive lung transplants than White candidates (African American: adjusted subhazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.91; Hispanic: adjusted subhazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87). Lung transplant was significantly less common among Hispanic candidates aged >65 years (P = .003) and non-White candidates from higher-poverty communities (African-American: P = .013; Hispanic: P =.0036). CONCLUSIONS:Despite implementation of the Lung Allocation Score, racial disparities persisted for wait-listed African American and Hispanic lung transplant candidates and differed by age and poverty status. Targeted interventions are needed to ensure equitable access to this life-saving intervention.
PMID: 37673311
ISSN: 1552-6259
CID: 5633682

Advance Care Planning and Palliative Care Consultation in Kidney Transplantation

Fisher, Marlena C; Chen, Xiaomeng; Crews, Deidra C; DeGroot, Lyndsay; Eneanya, Nwamaka D; Ghildayal, Nidhi; Gold, Marshall; Liu, Yi; Sanders, Justin J; Scherer, Jennifer S; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:Because of the high risk of waitlist mortality and posttransplant complications, kidney transplant (KT) patients may benefit from advance care planning (ACP) and palliative care consultation (PCC). We quantified the prevalence and racial disparities in ACP and PCC among KT candidates and recipients. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:2,575 adult KT candidates and 1,233 adult recipients (2008-2020). EXPOSURE/METHODS:Race and ethnicity. OUTCOMES/RESULTS:All reports of ACP and PCC were abstracted from chart review. ACP was defined as patient self-report of an advance directive, presence of an advance directive in the medical record, or a documented goals-of-care conversation with a provider. PCC was defined as an ordered referral or a documented palliative care note in the medical record. ANALYTICAL APPROACH/METHODS:Racial/ethnic disparities in ACP/PCC were estimated using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS:21.4% of KT candidates and 34.9% of recipients engaged in ACP. There were racial/ethnic disparities in ACP among KT candidates (White, 24.4%; Black, 19.1%; Hispanic, 15%; other race and ethnicity, 21.1%; P=0.008) and recipients (White, 39.5%; Black, 31.2%; Hispanic, 26.3%; other race and ethnicity, 26.6%; P=0.007). After adjustment, Black KT recipients had a 29% lower likelihood of engaging in ACP (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.91) than White KT recipients. Among older (aged≥65 years) recipients, those who were Black had a lower likelihood of engaging in ACP, but there was no racial disparity among younger recipients (P=0.020 for interaction). 4.2% of KT candidates and 5.1% of KT recipients engaged in PCC; there were no racial disparities in PCC among KT candidates (White, 5.3%; Black, 3.6%; Hispanic, 2.5%; other race and ethnicity, 2.1%; P=0.13) or recipients (White, 5.5%; Black, 5.6%; Hispanic, 0.0%; other race and ethnicity, 1.3%; P = 0.21). LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Generalizability may be limited to academic transplant centers. CONCLUSIONS:ACP is not common among KT patients, and minoritized transplant patients are least likely to engage in ACP; PCC is less common. Future efforts should aim to integrate ACP and PCC into the KT process. PLAIN-LANGUAGE SUMMARY/UNASSIGNED:Kidney transplant (KT) candidates and recipients are at elevated risk of morbidity and mortality. They may benefit from completing a document or conversation with their palliative care provider that outlines their future health care wishes, known as advance care planning (ACP), which is a component of palliative care consultation (PCC). We wanted to determine how many KT candidates and recipients have engaged in ACP or PCC and identify potential racial disparities. We found that 21.4% of candidates and 34.9% of recipients engaged in ACP. After adjustment, Black recipients had a 29% lower likelihood of engaging in ACP. We found that 4.2% of KT candidates and 5.1% of KT recipients engaged in PCC, with no racial disparities found in PCC.
PMID: 37734687
ISSN: 1523-6838
CID: 5620472

Association of Postoperative Delirium With Incident Dementia and Graft Outcomes Among Kidney Transplant Recipients

Ruck, Jessica M; Chu, Nadia M; Liu, Yi; Li, Yiting; Chen, Yusi; Mathur, Aarti; Carlson, Michelle C; Crews, Deidra C; Chodosh, Joshua; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara
BACKGROUND:Kidney transplant (KT) recipients have numerous risk factors for delirium, including those shared with the general surgical population (eg, age and major surgery) and transplant-specific factors (eg, neurotoxic immunosuppression medications). Evidence has linked delirium to long-term dementia risk in older adults undergoing major surgery. We sought to characterize dementia risk associated with post-KT delirium. METHODS:Using the United States Renal Data System datasets, we identified 35 800 adult first-time KT recipients ≥55 y. We evaluated risk factors for delirium using logistic regression. We evaluated the association between delirium and incident dementia (overall and by subtype: Alzheimer's, vascular, and other/mixed-type), graft loss, and death using Fine and Gray's subhazards models and Cox regression. RESULTS:During the KT hospitalization, 0.9% of recipients were diagnosed with delirium. Delirium risk factors included age (OR = 1.40, 95% CI, 1.28-1.52) and diabetes (OR = 1.38, 95% CI, 1.10-1.73). Delirium was associated with higher risk of death-censored graft loss (aHR = 1.52, 95% CI, 1.12-2.05) and all-cause mortality (aHR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.25-1.89) at 5 y post-KT. Delirium was also associated with higher risk of dementia (adjusted subhazard ratio [aSHR] = 4.59, 95% CI, 3.48-6.06), particularly vascular dementia (aSHR = 2.51, 95% CI, 1.01-6.25) and other/mixed-type dementia (aSHR = 5.58, 95% CI, 4.24-7.62) subtypes. The risk of all-type dementia associated with delirium was higher for younger recipients aged between 55 and 64 y (Pinteraction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Delirium is a strong risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of dementia among KT recipients, particularly those aged between 55 and 64 y at the time of transplant. Patients experiencing posttransplant delirium might benefit from early interventions to enhance cognitive health and surveillance for cognitive impairment to enable early referral for dementia care.
PMID: 37643030
ISSN: 1534-6080
CID: 5618452

Frailty and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With CKD: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

Hannan, Mary; Chen, Jinsong; Hsu, Jesse; Zhang, Xiaoming; Saunders, Milda R; Brown, Julia; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Mohanty, Madhumita Jena; Vyas, Rahul; Hajjiri, Zahraa; Carmona-Powell, Eunice; Meza, Natalie; Porter, Anna C; Ricardo, Ana C; Lash, James P; ,
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:Frailty is common in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases the risk of adverse outcomes in adults with kidney failure requiring dialysis. However, this relationship has not been thoroughly evaluated among those with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:2,539 adults in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. EXPOSURE/METHODS:Frailty status assessed using 5 criteria: slow gait speed, muscle weakness, low physical activity, exhaustion, and unintentional weight loss. OUTCOME/RESULTS:Atherosclerotic events, incident heart failure, all-cause death, and cardiovascular death. ANALYTICAL APPROACH/METHODS:Cause-specific hazards models. RESULTS:, and the median urine protein was 0.2mg/day. Frailty status was as follows: 12% frail, 51% prefrail, and 37% nonfrail. Over a median follow-up of 11.4 years, there were 393 atherosclerotic events, 413 heart failure events, 497 deaths, and 132 cardiovascular deaths. In multivariable regression analyses, compared with nonfrailty, both frailty and prefrailty status were each associated with higher risk of an atherosclerotic event (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.41-2.91] and 1.77 [95% CI, 1.35-2.31], respectively) and incident heart failure (HR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.59-3.10] and 1.39 [95% CI, 1.07-1.82], respectively), as well as higher risk of all-cause death (HR, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.84-3.45] and 1.76 [95% CI, 1.37-2.24], respectively) and cardiovascular death (HR, 3.01 [95% CI, 1.62-5.62] and 1.78 [95% 1.06-2.99], respectively). LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Self-report of aspects of the frailty assessment and comorbidities, which may have led to bias in some estimates. CONCLUSIONS:In adults with CKD, frailty status was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of interventions to reduce frailty on cardiovascular outcomes in this population. PLAIN-LANGUAGE SUMMARY/UNASSIGNED:Frailty is common in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. We sought to evaluate the association of frailty status with cardiovascular events and death in adults with CKD. Frailty was assessed according to the 5 phenotypic criteria detailed by Fried and colleagues. Among 2,539 participants in the CRIC Study, we found that 12% were frail, 51% were prefrail, and 37% were nonfrail. Frailty status was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic events, incident heart failure, and death.
PMID: 37741609
ISSN: 1523-6838
CID: 5614092

Development and Validation of an Abridged Physical Frailty Phenotype for Clinical Use: A Cohort Study Among Kidney Transplant Candidates

Chen, Xiaomeng; Chu, Nadia M; Thompson, Valerie; Quint, Evelien E; Alasfar, Sami; Xue, Qian-Li; Brennan, Daniel C; Norman, Silas P; Lonze, Bonnie E; Walston, Jeremy D; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
BACKGROUND:Frailty is associated with poor outcomes in surgical patients including kidney transplant recipients. Transplant centers that measure frailty have better pre- and post-operative outcomes. However, clinical utility of existing tools is low due to time constraints. To address this major barrier to implementation in the pre-operative evaluation of patients, we developed an abridged frailty phenotype. METHODS:The abridged frailty phenotype was developed by simplifying the 5 Physical Frailty Phenotype (PFP) components in a two-center prospective cohort of 3,220 kidney transplant candidates and tested for efficiency (time to completion) in 20 candidates evaluation (1/2009-3/2020). We examined area under curve (AUC) and Cohen's kappa agreement to compare the abridged assessment with the PFP. We compared waitlist mortality risk (competing risks models) by frailty using the PFP and abridged assessment, respectively. Model discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-statistic. RESULTS:Of 3,220 candidates, the PFP and abridged assessment identified 23.8% and 27.4% candidates as frail, respectively. The abridged frailty phenotype had substantial agreement (kappa=0.69, 95%CI:0.66-0.71) and excellent discrimination (area under the curve=0.861). Among 20 patients at evaluation, abridged assessment took 5-7 minutes to complete. The PFP and abridged assessment had similar associations with waitlist mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]=1.62, 95%CI:1.26-2.08 vs. SHR=1.70, 95%CI:1.33-2.16) and comparable mortality discrimination (p=0.51). CONCLUSIONS:The abridged assessment is an efficient and valid way to identify frailty. It predicts waitlist mortality without sacrificing discrimination. Surgical departments should consider utilizing the abridged assessment to evaluate frailty in patients when time is limited.
PMID: 37466327
ISSN: 1758-535x
CID: 5535742

COVID-19 and Access to Kidney Transplantation for Older Candidates in the United States: A National Registry Study

Menon, Gayathri; Li, Yiting; Musunuru, Amrusha; Zeiser, Laura B.; Massie, Allan B.; Segev, Dorry L.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.
Rationale & Objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 has likely impacted accessibility to transplantation services among older adults (age ≥65 years). We quantified the impact of COVID-19 on kidney transplantation access for older kidney-only candidates registered on the United States (US) kidney waitlist. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of registry data. Setting & Participants: 57,222 older adults who were part of or added to the US kidney waitlist between January 1, 2016 and February 28, 2022, identified using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Exposures: Four COVID-19 waves and one nonwave period based on the national incidence of COVID-19 in the US (initial: March 15-May 30, 2020; winter 2020-2021: December 1, 2020-January 31, 2021; delta: August 1, 2021-September 30, 2021; omicron: December 1, 2021-February 28, 2022; nonwave: inter-wave periods). Outcomes: Waitlist registrations, deceased-donor kidney transplants, living-donor kidney transplants, waitlist mortality, and waitlist removals due to deteriorating condition (hereafter referred to as removals). Analytical Approach: Poisson regression for the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of each outcome during the COVID-19 waves and the nonwave period relative to reference (January 1, 2016-December 31, 2019), adjusted for seasonality and secular trends. Results: Waitlist registrations initially declined and increased henceforth. Deceased-donor kidney transplants and living-donor kidney transplants remained below-expected levels during all waves. Waitlist mortality peaked during the winter 2020-2021 wave (aIRR: 1.701.982.30) and has declined since; mortality rates were 139%, 107%, and 251% above expected for Black candidates, men, and candidates aged ≥75 years, respectively, during the winter 2020-2021 wave. Removals increased from 22% below expected levels (initial wave) to 26% above expected levels (omicron wave); removals were nonsignificantly higher than expected during the omicron wave for older Black and Hispanic candidates. Limitations: The findings are not generalizable to those listed at earlier ages with prolonged waitlist times. Additionally, using national COVID-19 incidence does not consider local policy and health care variations. Lastly, aIRRs must be interpreted cautiously due to smaller daily event counts. Conclusions: COVID-19 was associated with fewer transplants and increased mortality and removals in older kidney transplant candidates. Transplant providers should consider this impact and implement policies and practices to ensure the continuity of care. Plain-Language Summary: The proportion of older adults on the kidney transplant waitlist is increasing, but the impact of COVID-19 on this population is not well characterized. In this study, we looked at incident waitlist registrations, deceased- and living-donor kidney transplants, and waitlist mortality and removals due to deteriorating condition over 4 waves of COVID-19. We found that transplantation services did not fully recover to prepandemic levels as of March 2022. Notably, racial/ethnic minorities and older men experienced lower rates of kidney transplants and higher rates of waitlist mortality, respectively, relative to White candidates and older women. Identifying vulnerable subpopulations affected by COVID-19 and its long-term impact is crucial for creating strategies to ensure the continuity of care in this population during public health emergencies.
ISSN: 2590-0595
CID: 5630412

Authors' Reply: Lipid Management and Interactions with Immunosuppressants in Kidney Transplant Patients: Some Opinions and Prospects

Bae, Sunjae; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
PMID: 38170603
ISSN: 1533-3450
CID: 5626052

Preoperative Risk Factors for Adverse Events in Adults Undergoing Bowel Resection for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: 15-Year Assessment of ACS-NSQIP

Fernandez, Cristina; Gajic, Zoran; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Hudesman, David; Adhikari, Samrachana; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Segev, Dorry L; Chodosh, Joshua; Dodson, John; Shaukat, Aasma; Faye, Adam S
IntroductionOlder adults with IBD are at higher risk for postoperative complications as compared to their younger counterparts, however factors contributing to this are unknown. We assessed risk factors associated with adverse IBD-related surgical outcomes, evaluated trends in emergency surgery, and explored differential risks by age.MethodsUsing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, we identified adults ≥18 years of age who underwent an IBD-related intestinal resection from 2005-2019. Our primary outcome included a 30-day composite of mortality, readmission, reoperation, and/or major postoperative complication.ResultsOverall, 49,746 intestinal resections were performed with 9,390 (18.8%) occurring among older adults with IBD. Nearly 37% of older adults experienced an adverse outcome as compared to 28.1% among younger adults with IBD (p<0.01). Among all adults with IBD, the presence of preoperative sepsis (aOR, 2.08; 95%CI 1.94-2.24), malnutrition (aOR, 1.22; 95%CI 1.14-1.31), dependent functional status (aOR, 6.92; 95%CI 4.36-11.57), and requiring emergency surgery (aOR, 1.50; 95%CI 1.38-1.64) increased the odds of an adverse postoperative outcome, with similar results observed when stratifying by age. Further, 8.8% of surgeries among older adults were emergent, with no change observed over time (p=0.16).DiscussionPreoperative factors contributing to the risk of an adverse surgical outcome are similar between younger and older individuals with IBD, and include elements such as malnutrition and functional status. Incorporating these measures into surgical decision-making can reduce surgical delays in older individuals at low-risk and help target interventions in those at high risk, transforming care for thousands of older adults with IBD.
PMID: 37410929
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5539322