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Treating Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Jails as an Offset to Declines in Treatment Activity in the Community, New York City, NY, 2014-2020

Chan, Justin; Akiyama, Matthew J; Julian, Emily; Joseph, Rodrigue; McGahee, Wendy; Rosner, Zachary; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:There are scant data on implementation of large-scale direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus in jails in the U.S. New York City Health + Hospitals/Correctional Health Services aimed to scale up hepatitis C virus treatment in the New York City jail system. This study describes the trends in annual hepatitis C virus treatment in New York City jails compared with those in Medicaid-funded treatment in the New York City community from 2014 to 2020. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:In this observational study, we extracted annual counts of direct-acting antiviral prescriptions for hepatitis C virus for those (1) in the New York City community who were covered by Medicaid and (2) those detained in New York City jails for 2014-2020. Data sources were New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene annual reports and Correctional Health Services treatment records, respectively. We used linear regression analysis to test for significant trends in annual treatment in these 2 cohorts during 2015-2019. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:<0.001). In 2019, New York City jail-based treatment initiations totaled the equivalent of 10% of treatment covered by Medicaid in New York City, up from 0.3% in 2015. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Scale up of jail-based hepatitis C virus treatment is an important strategy to offset declines observed in the community. Addressing barriers to care in jail, such as improving testing, linkage to care, and affordability of direct-acting antivirals for jail-based health services, can help sustain high levels of treatment in U.S. jails and other carceral facilities.
PMID: 38322001
ISSN: 2773-0654
CID: 5632612

Jail-based medication for opioid use disorder and patterns of reincarceration and acute care use after release: A sequence analysis

Lim, Sungwoo; Cherian, Teena; Katyal, Monica; Goldfeld, Keith S; McDonald, Ryan; Wiewel, Ellen; Khan, Maria; Krawczyk, Noa; Braunstein, Sarah; Murphy, Sean M; Jalali, Ali; Jeng, Philip J; Rosner, Zachary; MacDonald, Ross; Lee, Joshua D
BACKGROUND:Treatment with methadone and buprenorphine medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) during incarceration may lead to better community re-entry, but evidence on these relationships have been mixed. We aimed to identify community re-entry patterns and examine the association between in-jail MOUD and a pattern of successful reentry defined by rare occurrence of reincarceration and preventable healthcare utilization. METHODS:Data came from a retrospective, observational cohort study of 6066 adults with opioid use disorder who were incarcerated in New York City jails and released to the community during 2011-14. An outcome was community re-entry patterns identified by sequence analysis of 3-year post-release reincarceration, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. An exposure was receipt of in-jail MOUD versus out-of-treatment (42 % vs. 58 %) for the last 3 days before discharge. The study accounted for differences in baseline demographic, clinical, behavioral, housing, and criminal legal characteristics between in-jail MOUD and out-of-treatment groups via propensity score matching. RESULTS:This study identified five re-entry patterns: stability (64 %), hospitalization (23 %), delayed reincarceration (7 %), immediate reincarceration (4 %), and continuous incarceration (2 %). After addressing confounding, 64 % and 57 % followed the stability pattern among MOUD and out-of-treatment groups who were released from jail in 2011, respectively. In 2012-14, the prevalence of following the stability pattern increased year-by-year while a consistently higher prevalence was observed among those with in-jail MOUD. CONCLUSIONS:Sequence analysis helped define post-release stability based on health and criminal legal system involvement. Receipt of in-jail MOUD was associated with a marker of successful community re-entry.
PMID: 38072387
ISSN: 2949-8759
CID: 5589462

Association between jail-based methadone or buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder and overdose mortality after release from New York City jails 2011-2017

Lim, Sungwoo; Cherian, Teena; Katyal, Monica; Goldfeld, Keith S; McDonald, Ryan; Wiewel, Ellen; Khan, Maria; Krawczyk, Noa; Braunstein, Sarah; Murphy, Sean M; Jalali, Ali; Jeng, Philip J; MacDonald, Ross; Lee, Joshua D
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death during the immediate time after release from jail or prison. Most jails in the United States do not provide methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD), and research in estimating its impact in jail settings is limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in-jail MOUD is associated with lower overdose mortality risk post-release. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Retrospective, observational cohort study of 15 797 adults with opioid use disorder who were released from New York City jails to the community in 2011-17. They experienced 31 382 incarcerations and were followed up to 1 year. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:The primary outcomes were death caused by accidental drug poisoning and all-cause death. The exposure was receipt of MOUD (17 119 events) versus out-of-treatment (14 263 events) during the last 3 days before community reentry. Covariates included demographic, clinical, behavioral, housing, healthcare utilization, and legal characteristics variables. We performed multivariable, mixed-effect Cox regression analysis to test association between in-jail MOUD and deaths. FINDINGS/RESULTS:A majority were male (82%) and their average age was 42 years. Receiving MOUD was associated with misdemeanor charges, being female, injection drug use, and homelessness. During 1 year post-release, 111 overdose deaths occurred, and crude death rates were 0.49 and 0.83 per 100 person-years for in-jail MOUD and out-of-treatment groups, respectively. Accounting for confounding and random effects, in-jail MOUD was associated with lower overdose mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.08-0.46), and all-cause mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.11-0.42) for the first month post-release. CONCLUSIONS:Methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder during incarceration was associated with an 80% reduction in overdose mortality risk for the first month post-release.
PMID: 36305669
ISSN: 1360-0443
CID: 5359662

Perceptions and experiences toward extended-release buprenorphine among persons leaving jail with opioid use disorders before and during COVID-19: an in-depth qualitative study

Cheng, Anna; Badolato, Ryan; Segoshi, Andrew; McDonald, Ryan; Malone, Mia; Vasudevan, Kumar; Badiei, Beita; Sugarman, Allison; Macdonald, Ross; Mangat, Jasdeep; Giftos, Jonathan; Lee, Joshua D; Tofighi, Babak
BACKGROUND:Extended-release buprenorphine (XRB) offers a novel approach to sustained monthly treatment for people who use opioids in criminal justice settings (CJS). This study explores the experiences of adults receiving XRB as a jail-to-community treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS:In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted among adult participants with opioid use disorder (OUD; n  = 16) who were recently released from NYC jails and maintained on XRB after switching from daily sublingual buprenorphine (SLB). Interviews elaborated on the acceptability and barriers and facilitators of XRB treatment pre- and post-release. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for content related to factors influencing XRB treatment uptake and community reentry. Important themes were grouped into systems, medication, and patient-level factors. Key systems-level factors influencing initiation of XRB in jail included an alternative to perceived stigmatization and privacy concerns associated with daily in-jail SLB administration and less concerns with buprenorphine diversion. In-jail peer networks positively influenced participant adoption of XRB. XRB satisfaction was attributed to reduced in-jail clinic and medication administration visits, perceived efficacy and blockade effects upon the use of heroin/fentanyl following release, and averting the risk of criminal activities to fund opioid use. Barriers to retention included post-injection withdrawal symptoms and cravings attributed to perceived suboptimal medication dosing, injection site pain, and lack of in-jail provider information about the medication. CONCLUSION:Participants were generally favorable to XRB initiation in jail and retention post-release. Further studies are needed to address factors influencing access to XRB in criminal justice settings, including stigma, ensuring patient privacy following initiation on XRB, and patient-, provider-, and correctional staff education pertaining to XRB. Trial Registration Identified: NCT03604159.
PMID: 35093164
ISSN: 1940-0640
CID: 5153262

Comparison of Treatment Retention of Adults With Opioid Addiction Managed With Extended-Release Buprenorphine vs Daily Sublingual Buprenorphine-Naloxone at Time of Release From Jail

Lee, Joshua D; Malone, Mia; McDonald, Ryan; Cheng, Anna; Vasudevan, Kumar; Tofighi, Babak; Garment, Ann; Porter, Barbara; Goldfeld, Keith S; Matteo, Michael; Mangat, Jasdeep; Katyal, Monica; Giftos, Jonathan; MacDonald, Ross
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Extended-release buprenorphine (XRB), a monthly injectable long-acting opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment, has not been studied for use in corrections facilities. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To compare treatment retention following release from jail among adults receiving daily sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (SLB) vs those receiving XRB. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This open-label, randomized comparative effectiveness study included 52 incarcerated adults in New York City observed for 8 weeks postrelease between June 2019 and May 2020. Participants were soon-to-be-released volunteers from 1 men's and 1 women's jail facility who had OUDs already treated with SLB. Follow-up treatment was received at a primary care clinic in Manhattan. Data were analyzed between June 2020 and December 2020. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:XRB treatment was offered prior to release and continued monthly through 8 weeks after release. SLB participants continued to receive daily directly observed in-jail SLB administration, were provided a 7-day SLB supply at jail release, and followed up at a designated clinic (or other preferred clinics). Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Buprenorphine treatment retention at 8 weeks postrelease. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 52 participants were randomized 1:1 to XRB (26 participants) and SLB (26 participants). Participants had a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (10.0) years; 45 participants (87%) were men; and 40 (77%) primarily used heroin prior to incarceration. Most participants (30 [58%]) reported prior buprenorphine use; 18 (35%) reported active community buprenorphine treatment prior to jail admission. Twenty-one of 26 assigned to XRB received 1 or more XRB injection prior to release; 3 initiated XRB postrelease; and 2 did not receive XRB. Patients in the XRB arm had fewer jail medical visits compared with daily SLB medication administration (mean [SD] visits per day: XRB, 0.11 [0.03] vs SLB, 1.06 [0.08]). Community buprenorphine treatment retention at week 8 postrelease was 18 participants in the XRB group (69.2%) vs 9 in the SLB group (34.6%), and rates of opioid-negative urine tests were 72 of 130 tests in the XRB group (55.3%) and 50 of 130 tests in the SLB group (38.4%). There were no differences in rates of serious adverse events, no overdoses, and no deaths. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:XRB was acceptable among patients currently receiving SLB, and patients had fewer in-jail clinic visits and increased community buprenorphine treatment retention when compared with standard daily SLB treatment. These results support wider use and further study of XRB as correctional and reentry OUD treatment. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT03604159.
PMID: 34495340
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5011982

COVID-19 in the New York City Jail System: Epidemiology and Health Care Response, March-April 2020

Chan, Justin; Burke, Kelsey; Bedard, Rachael; Grigg, James; Winters, John; Vessell, Colleen; Rosner, Zachary; Cheng, Jeffrey; Katyal, Monica; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:People detained in correctional facilities are at high risk for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in a large urban jail system, including signs and symptoms at time of testing and risk factors for hospitalization. METHODS:This retrospective observational cohort study included all patients aged ≥18 years who were tested for COVID-19 during March 11-April 28, 2020, while in custody in the New York City jail system (N = 978). We described demographic characteristics and signs and symptoms at the time of testing and performed Cox regression analysis to identify factors associated with hospitalization among those with a positive test result. RESULTS:Of 978 people tested for COVID-19, 568 received a positive test result. Among symptomatic patients, the most common symptoms among those who received a positive test result were cough (n = 293 of 510, 57%) and objective fever (n = 288 of 510, 56%). Of 257 asymptomatic patients who were tested, 58 (23%) received a positive test result. Forty-five (8%) people who received a positive test result were hospitalized for COVID-19. Older age (aged ≥55 vs 18-34) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 13.41; 95% CI, 3.80-47.33) and diabetes mellitus (aHR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.00-3.95) were significantly associated with hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS:A substantial proportion of people tested in New York City jails received a positive test result for COVID-19, including a large proportion of people tested while asymptomatic. During periods of ongoing transmission, asymptomatic screening should complement symptom-driven COVID-19 testing in correctional facilities. Older patients and people with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored after COVID-19 diagnosis because of their increased risk for hospitalization.
PMID: 33673760
ISSN: 1468-2877
CID: 4807192

The hepatitis C virus care cascade in the New York City jail system during the direct acting antiviral treatment era, 2014-2017

Chan, Justin; Kaba, Fatos; Schwartz, Jessie; Bocour, Angelica; Akiyama, Matthew J; Rosner, Zachary; Winters, Ann; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
Background/UNASSIGNED:High patient turnover presents challenges and opportunity to provide hepatitis C virus (HCV) care in US jails (remand facilities). This study describes the HCV care cascade in the New York City (NYC) jail system during the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment era. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Patients admitted to the NYC jail system from January 2014 through December 2017 were included in this retrospective cohort analysis. We describe rates of screening, diagnosis, linkage to jail-based care, and treatment among the overall cohort, and among subgroups with long jail stays (≥120 days) or frequent stays (≥10 admissions). The study protocol was approved by a third-party institutional review board (BRANY, Lake Success, NY). Findings/UNASSIGNED:Among the 121,371 patients in our analysis, HCV screening was performed in 40,219 (33%), 4665 (12%) of whom were viremic, 1813 (39%) seen by an HCV clinician in jail, and 248 (5% of viremic patients) started on treatment in jail. Having a long stay (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 8·11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6·98, 9·42) or frequent stays (aRR 1·51, 95% CI 1·04, 2·18) were significantly associated with being seen by an HCV clinician. Patients with long stays had a higher rate of treatment (14% of viremic patients). Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks was achieved in 147/164 (90%) of patients with available virologic data. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:Jail health systems can reach large numbers of HCV-infected individuals. The high burden of HCV argues for universal screening in jail settings. Length of stay was strongly associated with being seen by an HCV clinician in jail. Treatment is feasible among those with longer lengths of stay. Funding/UNASSIGNED:None.
PMID: 33150329
ISSN: 2589-5370
CID: 4671202

Outcomes of Hepatitis C Virus Treatment in the New York City Jail Population: Successes and Challenges Facing Scale up of Care

Chan, Justin; Schwartz, Jessie; Kaba, Fatos; Bocour, Angelica; Akiyama, Matthew J; Hobstetter, Laura; Rosner, Zachary; Winters, Ann; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
Background/UNASSIGNED:The population detained in the New York City (NYC) jail system bears a high burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Challenges to scaling up treatment include short and unpredictable lengths of stay. We report on the clinical outcomes of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment delivered by NYC Health + Hospitals/Correctional Health Services in NYC jails from 2014 to 2017. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of HCV patients with detectable HCV ribonucleic acid treated with DAA therapy while in NYC jails. Some patients initiated treatment in jail, whereas others initiated treatment in the community and were later incarcerated. Our primary outcome was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Results/UNASSIGNED:There were 269 patients included in our cohort, with 181 (67%) initiating treatment in jail and 88 (33%) continuing treatment started in the community. The SVR12 virologic outcome data were available for 195 (72%) individuals. Of these, 172 (88%) achieved SVR12. Patients who completed treatment in jail were more likely to achieve SVR12 relative to those who were released on treatment (adjusted risk ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.34). Of those who achieved SVR12, 114 (66%) had a subsequent viral load checked. We detected recurrent viremia in 18 (16%) of these individuals, which corresponded to 10.6 cases per 100 person-years of follow-up. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Hepatitis C virus treatment with DAA therapy is effective in a jail environment. Future work should address challenges related to discharging patients while they are on treatment, loss to follow-up, and a high incidence of probable reinfection.
PMID: 33123613
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 4671132


Goodwin, Alexandra M.; Kladney, Mat; Rosner, Zachary; Martelle, Michelle; Epstein, Ellie; Jackson, Hannah; Johnson, Amanda; Singh, Deomattie; Wiersema, Janet J.; Dreamer, Lucas; Holmes, Isaac; MacDonald, Ross; Yang, Patricia; Long, Theodore G.; Wallach, Andrew B.
ISSN: 0884-8734
CID: 4800072

Linkage to hepatitis C care after incarceration in jail: a prospective, single arm clinical trial

Akiyama, Matthew J; Columbus, Devin; MacDonald, Ross; Jordan, Alison O; Schwartz, Jessie; Litwin, Alain H; Eckhardt, Benjamin; Carmody, Ellie
BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem in correctional settings. HCV treatment is often not possible in U.S. jails due to short lengths of stay. Linkage to care is crucial in these settings, but competing priorities complicate community healthcare engagement and retention after incarceration. METHODS:We conducted a single arm clinical trial of a combined transitional care coordination (TCC) and patient navigation intervention and assessed the linkage rate and factors associated with linkage to HCV care after incarceration. RESULTS:During the intervention, 84 participants returned to the community after their index incarceration. Most participants were male and Hispanic, with a history of mental illness and a mean age of 45 years. Of those who returned to the community, 26 (31%) linked to HCV care within a median of 20.5 days; 17 (20%) initiated HCV treatment, 15 (18%) completed treatment, 9 (11%) had a follow-up lab drawn to confirm sustained virologic response (SVR), and 7 (8%) had a documented SVR. Among those with follow-up labs the known SVR rate was (7/9) 78%. Expressing a preference to be linked to the participant's existing health system, being on methadone prior to incarceration, and feeling that family or a loved one were concerned about the participant's wellbeing were associated with linkage to HCV care. Reporting drinking alcohol to intoxication prior to incarceration was negatively associated with linkage to HCV care. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate that an integrated strategy with combined TCC and patient navigation may be effective in achieving timely linkage to HCV care. Additional multicomponent interventions aimed at treatment of substance use disorders and increasing social support could lead to further improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT04036760 July 30th, 2019 (retrospectively registered).
PMID: 31395019
ISSN: 1471-2334
CID: 4034412