Association between jail-based methadone or buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder and overdose mortality after release from New York City jails 2011-2017
Lim, Sungwoo; Cherian, Teena; Katyal, Monica; Goldfeld, Keith S; McDonald, Ryan; Wiewel, Ellen; Khan, Maria; Krawczyk, Noa; Braunstein, Sarah; Murphy, Sean M; Jalali, Ali; Jeng, Philip J; MacDonald, Ross; Lee, Joshua D
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death during the immediate time after release from jail or prison. Most jails in the United States do not provide methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD), and research in estimating its impact in jail settings is limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that in-jail MOUD is associated with lower overdose mortality risk post-release. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Retrospective, observational cohort study of 15 797 adults with opioid use disorder who were released from New York City jails to the community in 2011-17. They experienced 31 382 incarcerations and were followed up to 1 year. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:The primary outcomes were death caused by accidental drug poisoning and all-cause death. The exposure was receipt of MOUD (17 119 events) versus out-of-treatment (14 263 events) during the last 3 days before community reentry. Covariates included demographic, clinical, behavioral, housing, healthcare utilization, and legal characteristics variables. We performed multivariable, mixed-effect Cox regression analysis to test association between in-jail MOUD and deaths. FINDINGS/RESULTS:A majority were male (82%) and their average age was 42 years. Receiving MOUD was associated with misdemeanor charges, being female, injection drug use, and homelessness. During 1 year post-release, 111 overdose deaths occurred, and crude death rates were 0.49 and 0.83 per 100 person-years for in-jail MOUD and out-of-treatment groups, respectively. Accounting for confounding and random effects, in-jail MOUD was associated with lower overdose mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.08-0.46), and all-cause mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.11-0.42) for the first month post-release. CONCLUSIONS:Methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder during incarceration was associated with an 80% reduction in overdose mortality risk for the first month post-release.
Perceptions and experiences toward extended-release buprenorphine among persons leaving jail with opioid use disorders before and during COVID-19: an in-depth qualitative study
Cheng, Anna; Badolato, Ryan; Segoshi, Andrew; McDonald, Ryan; Malone, Mia; Vasudevan, Kumar; Badiei, Beita; Sugarman, Allison; Macdonald, Ross; Mangat, Jasdeep; Giftos, Jonathan; Lee, Joshua D; Tofighi, Babak
BACKGROUND:Extended-release buprenorphine (XRB) offers a novel approach to sustained monthly treatment for people who use opioids in criminal justice settings (CJS). This study explores the experiences of adults receiving XRB as a jail-to-community treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS:In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted among adult participants with opioid use disorder (OUD; nâ€‰ =â€‰16) who were recently released from NYC jails and maintained on XRB after switching from daily sublingual buprenorphine (SLB). Interviews elaborated on the acceptability and barriers and facilitators of XRB treatment pre- and post-release. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for content related to factors influencing XRB treatment uptake and community reentry. Important themes were grouped into systems, medication, and patient-level factors. Key systems-level factors influencing initiation of XRB in jail included an alternative to perceived stigmatization and privacy concerns associated with daily in-jail SLB administration and less concerns with buprenorphine diversion. In-jail peer networks positively influenced participant adoption of XRB. XRB satisfaction was attributed to reduced in-jail clinic and medication administration visits, perceived efficacy and blockade effects upon the use of heroin/fentanyl following release, and averting the risk of criminal activities to fund opioid use. Barriers to retention included post-injection withdrawal symptoms and cravings attributed to perceived suboptimal medication dosing, injection site pain, and lack of in-jail provider information about the medication. CONCLUSION:Participants were generally favorable to XRB initiation in jail and retention post-release. Further studies are needed to address factors influencing access to XRB in criminal justice settings, including stigma, ensuring patient privacy following initiation on XRB, and patient-, provider-, and correctional staff education pertaining to XRB. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identified: NCT03604159.
Comparison of Treatment Retention of Adults With Opioid Addiction Managed With Extended-Release Buprenorphine vs Daily Sublingual Buprenorphine-Naloxone at Time of Release From Jail
Lee, Joshua D; Malone, Mia; McDonald, Ryan; Cheng, Anna; Vasudevan, Kumar; Tofighi, Babak; Garment, Ann; Porter, Barbara; Goldfeld, Keith S; Matteo, Michael; Mangat, Jasdeep; Katyal, Monica; Giftos, Jonathan; MacDonald, Ross
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Extended-release buprenorphine (XRB), a monthly injectable long-acting opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment, has not been studied for use in corrections facilities. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To compare treatment retention following release from jail among adults receiving daily sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (SLB) vs those receiving XRB. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This open-label, randomized comparative effectiveness study included 52 incarcerated adults in New York City observed for 8 weeks postrelease between June 2019 and May 2020. Participants were soon-to-be-released volunteers from 1 men's and 1 women's jail facility who had OUDs already treated with SLB. Follow-up treatment was received at a primary care clinic in Manhattan. Data were analyzed between June 2020 and December 2020. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:XRB treatment was offered prior to release and continued monthly through 8 weeks after release. SLB participants continued to receive daily directly observed in-jail SLB administration, were provided a 7-day SLB supply at jail release, and followed up at a designated clinic (or other preferred clinics). Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Buprenorphine treatment retention at 8 weeks postrelease. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 52 participants were randomized 1:1 to XRB (26 participants) and SLB (26 participants). Participants had a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (10.0) years; 45 participants (87%) were men; and 40 (77%) primarily used heroin prior to incarceration. Most participants (30 [58%]) reported prior buprenorphine use; 18 (35%) reported active community buprenorphine treatment prior to jail admission. Twenty-one of 26 assigned to XRB received 1 or more XRB injection prior to release; 3 initiated XRB postrelease; and 2 did not receive XRB. Patients in the XRB arm had fewer jail medical visits compared with daily SLB medication administration (mean [SD] visits per day: XRB, 0.11 [0.03] vs SLB, 1.06 [0.08]). Community buprenorphine treatment retention at week 8 postrelease was 18 participants in the XRB group (69.2%) vs 9 in the SLB group (34.6%), and rates of opioid-negative urine tests were 72 of 130 tests in the XRB group (55.3%) and 50 of 130 tests in the SLB group (38.4%). There were no differences in rates of serious adverse events, no overdoses, and no deaths. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:XRB was acceptable among patients currently receiving SLB, and patients had fewer in-jail clinic visits and increased community buprenorphine treatment retention when compared with standard daily SLB treatment. These results support wider use and further study of XRB as correctional and reentry OUD treatment. Trial Registration/UNASSIGNED:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03604159.
COVID-19 in the New York City Jail System: Epidemiology and Health Care Response, March-April 2020
Chan, Justin; Burke, Kelsey; Bedard, Rachael; Grigg, James; Winters, John; Vessell, Colleen; Rosner, Zachary; Cheng, Jeffrey; Katyal, Monica; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:People detained in correctional facilities are at high risk for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in a large urban jail system, including signs and symptoms at time of testing and risk factors for hospitalization. METHODS:This retrospective observational cohort study included all patients aged â‰¥18 years who were tested for COVID-19 during March 11-April 28, 2020, while in custody in the New York City jail system (N = 978). We described demographic characteristics and signs and symptoms at the time of testing and performed Cox regression analysis to identify factors associated with hospitalization among those with a positive test result. RESULTS:Of 978 people tested for COVID-19, 568 received a positive test result. Among symptomatic patients, the most common symptoms among those who received a positive test result were cough (n = 293 of 510, 57%) and objective fever (n = 288 of 510, 56%). Of 257 asymptomatic patients who were tested, 58 (23%) received a positive test result. Forty-five (8%) people who received a positive test result were hospitalized for COVID-19. Older age (aged â‰¥55 vs 18-34) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 13.41; 95% CI, 3.80-47.33) and diabetes mellitus (aHR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.00-3.95) were significantly associated with hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS:A substantial proportion of people tested in New York City jails received a positive test result for COVID-19, including a large proportion of people tested while asymptomatic. During periods of ongoing transmission, asymptomatic screening should complement symptom-driven COVID-19 testing in correctional facilities. Older patients and people with diabetes mellitus should be closely monitored after COVID-19 diagnosis because of their increased risk for hospitalization.
The hepatitis C virus care cascade in the New York City jail system during the direct acting antiviral treatment era, 2014-2017
Chan, Justin; Kaba, Fatos; Schwartz, Jessie; Bocour, Angelica; Akiyama, Matthew J; Rosner, Zachary; Winters, Ann; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
Background/UNASSIGNED:High patient turnover presents challenges and opportunity to provide hepatitis C virus (HCV) care in US jails (remand facilities). This study describes the HCV care cascade in the New York City (NYC) jail system during the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment era. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Patients admitted to the NYC jail system from January 2014 through December 2017 were included in this retrospective cohort analysis. We describe rates of screening, diagnosis, linkage to jail-based care, and treatment among the overall cohort, and among subgroups with long jail stays (â‰¥120 days) or frequent stays (â‰¥10 admissions). The study protocol was approved by a third-party institutional review board (BRANY, Lake Success, NY). Findings/UNASSIGNED:Among the 121,371 patients in our analysis, HCV screening was performed in 40,219 (33%), 4665 (12%) of whom were viremic, 1813 (39%) seen by an HCV clinician in jail, and 248 (5% of viremic patients) started on treatment in jail. Having a long stay (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 8Â·11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6Â·98, 9Â·42) or frequent stays (aRR 1Â·51, 95% CI 1Â·04, 2Â·18) were significantly associated with being seen by an HCV clinician. Patients with long stays had a higher rate of treatment (14% of viremic patients). Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks was achieved in 147/164 (90%) of patients with available virologic data. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:Jail health systems can reach large numbers of HCV-infected individuals. The high burden of HCV argues for universal screening in jail settings. Length of stay was strongly associated with being seen by an HCV clinician in jail. Treatment is feasible among those with longer lengths of stay. Funding/UNASSIGNED:None.
Outcomes of Hepatitis C Virus Treatment in the New York City Jail Population: Successes and Challenges Facing Scale up of Care
Chan, Justin; Schwartz, Jessie; Kaba, Fatos; Bocour, Angelica; Akiyama, Matthew J; Hobstetter, Laura; Rosner, Zachary; Winters, Ann; Yang, Patricia; MacDonald, Ross
Background/UNASSIGNED:The population detained in the New York City (NYC) jail system bears a high burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Challenges to scaling up treatment include short and unpredictable lengths of stay. We report on the clinical outcomes of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment delivered by NYC Health + Hospitals/Correctional Health Services in NYC jails from 2014 to 2017. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of HCV patients with detectable HCV ribonucleic acid treated with DAA therapy while in NYC jails. Some patients initiated treatment in jail, whereas others initiated treatment in the community and were later incarcerated. Our primary outcome was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Results/UNASSIGNED:There were 269 patients included in our cohort, with 181 (67%) initiating treatment in jail and 88 (33%) continuing treatment started in the community. The SVR12 virologic outcome data were available for 195 (72%) individuals. Of these, 172 (88%) achieved SVR12. Patients who completed treatment in jail were more likely to achieve SVR12 relative to those who were released on treatment (adjusted risk ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.34). Of those who achieved SVR12, 114 (66%) had a subsequent viral load checked. We detected recurrent viremia in 18 (16%) of these individuals, which corresponded to 10.6 cases per 100 person-years of follow-up. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Hepatitis C virus treatment with DAA therapy is effective in a jail environment. Future work should address challenges related to discharging patients while they are on treatment, loss to follow-up, and a high incidence of probable reinfection.
THE PORT PRACTICES - CONNECTING INDIVIDUALS RELEASED FROM NYC JAILS TO MEDICAL CARE AND SUPPORTIVE SERVICES [Meeting Abstract]
Goodwin, Alexandra M.; Kladney, Mat; Rosner, Zachary; Martelle, Michelle; Epstein, Ellie; Jackson, Hannah; Johnson, Amanda; Singh, Deomattie; Wiersema, Janet J.; Dreamer, Lucas; Holmes, Isaac; MacDonald, Ross; Yang, Patricia; Long, Theodore G.; Wallach, Andrew B.
Linkage to hepatitis C care after incarceration in jail: a prospective, single arm clinical trial
Akiyama, Matthew J; Columbus, Devin; MacDonald, Ross; Jordan, Alison O; Schwartz, Jessie; Litwin, Alain H; Eckhardt, Benjamin; Carmody, Ellie
BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem in correctional settings. HCV treatment is often not possible in U.S. jails due to short lengths of stay. Linkage to care is crucial in these settings, but competing priorities complicate community healthcare engagement and retention after incarceration. METHODS:We conducted a single arm clinical trial of a combined transitional care coordination (TCC) and patient navigation intervention and assessed the linkage rate and factors associated with linkage to HCV care after incarceration. RESULTS:During the intervention, 84 participants returned to the community after their index incarceration. Most participants were male and Hispanic, with a history of mental illness and a mean age of 45â€‰years. Of those who returned to the community, 26 (31%) linked to HCV care within a median of 20.5â€‰days; 17 (20%) initiated HCV treatment, 15 (18%) completed treatment, 9 (11%) had a follow-up lab drawn to confirm sustained virologic response (SVR), and 7 (8%) had a documented SVR. Among those with follow-up labs the known SVR rate was (7/9) 78%. Expressing a preference to be linked to the participant's existing health system, being on methadone prior to incarceration, and feeling that family or a loved one were concerned about the participant's wellbeing were associated with linkage to HCV care. Reporting drinking alcohol to intoxication prior to incarceration was negatively associated with linkage to HCV care. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate that an integrated strategy with combined TCC and patient navigation may be effective in achieving timely linkage to HCV care. Additional multicomponent interventions aimed at treatment of substance use disorders and increasing social support could lead to further improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04036760 July 30th, 2019 (retrospectively registered).
Witnessed overdoses and naloxone use among visitors to Rikers Island jails trained in overdose rescue
Huxley-Reicher, Zina; Maldjian, Lara; Winkelstein, Emily; Siegler, Anne; Paone, Denise; Tuazon, Ellenie; Nolan, Michelle L; Jordan, Alison; MacDonald, Ross; Kunins, Hillary V
With the opioid overdose mortality rates rising nationally, The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has worked to expand overdose rescue training (ORT) and naloxone distribution. This study sought to determine rates of overdose witnessing and naloxone use among overdose rescue-trained visitors to the NYC jails on Rikers Island. We conducted a six-month prospective study of visitors to NYC jails on Rikers Island who received ORT. We collected baseline characteristics of study participants, characteristics of overdose events, and responses to witnessed overdose events, including whether the victim was the incarcerated individual the participant was visiting on the day of training. Bivariate analyses compared baseline characteristics of participants who witnessed overdoses to those who did not, and of participants who used naloxone to those who did not. Overall, we enrolled 283 participants visiting NYC's Rikers Island jails into the study. Six months after enrollment, we reached 226 participants for follow-up by phone. 40 participants witnessed 70 overdose events, and 28 participants reported using naloxone. Of the 70 overdose events, three victims were the incarcerated individuals visited on the day of training; nine additional victims were recently released from jail and/or prison. Visitors to persons incarcerated at Rikers Island witness overdose events and are able to perform overdose rescues with naloxone. This intervention reaches a population that includes not only those recently released, but also other people who experienced overdose.
Linkage to HCV care and reincarceration following release from New York City jails [Meeting Abstract]
Akiyama, M.; Macdonald, R.; Jordan, A.; Columbus, D.; Schwartz, J.; Litwin, A.; Eckhardt, B.; Carmody, E.