Medical Student Engagement and Educational Value of a Remote Clinical Radiology Learning Environment: Creation of Virtual Read-Out Sessions in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The need for social distancing has resulted in rapid restructuring of medical student education in radiology. While students traditionally spend time learning in the reading room, remote clinical learning requires material shared without direct teaching at the radiology workstation. Can remote clinical learning meet or exceed the educational value of the traditional in-person learning experience? Can student engagement be matched or exceeded in a remote learning environment? MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:To replace the in-person reading room experience, a small-group learning session for medical students named Virtual Read-Out (VRO) was developed using teleconferencing software. After Institutional Review Board approval, two student groups were anonymously surveyed to assess differences in student engagement and perceived value between learning environments: "Conventional" students participating in the reading room (before the pandemic) and "Remote" students participating in VRO sessions. Students reported perceived frequency of a series of five-point Likert statements. Based on number of respondents, an independent t-test was performed to determine the significance of results between two groups. RESULTS:Twenty-seven conventional and 41 remote students responded. Remote students reported modest but significantly higher frequency of active participation in reviewing radiology exams (p < 0.05). There was significantly lower frequency of reported boredom among Remote students (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in perceived educational value between the two groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Students report a high degree of teaching quality, clinical relevance, and educational value regardless of remote or in-person learning format. Remote clinical radiology education can be achieved with equal or greater student interaction and perceived value in fewer contact hours than conventional learning in the reading room.
Pulmonary Embolism at CT Pulmonary Angiography in Patients with COVID-19
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate pulmonary embolism (PE) prevalence at CT pulmonary angiography in patients testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and factors associated with PE severity. Materials and Methods/UNASSIGNED:value < .05 was considered significant. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .001). One additional patient with negative results at CT pulmonary angiography had deep venous thrombosis, thus resulting in 38.7% with PE or deep venous thrombosis, despite 40% receiving prophylactic anticoagulation. Other factors did not demonstrate significant PE association. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Â© RSNA, 2020.
High Incidence of Barotrauma in Patients with COVID-19 Infection on Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
Background We observed a high number of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who had barotrauma related to invasive mechanical ventilation at our institution. Purpose To determine if the rate of barotrauma in patients with COVID-19 infection was greater than other patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at our institution. Methods In this retrospective study, clinical and imaging data of patients seen between 03/01/2020 and 04/06/2020 who tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced barotrauma associated with invasive mechanical ventilation were compared to patients without COVID-19 infection during the same period. Historical comparison was made to barotrauma rates of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from 02/01/2016 to 02/01/2020 at our institution. Comparison of patient groups was performed using categorical or continuous statistical testing as appropriate with multivariable regression analysis. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves analysis. Results 601 patients with COVID-19 infection underwent invasive mechanical ventilation (63 Â± 15 years, 71% men). There were 89/601 (15%) patients with one or more barotrauma events, for a total of 145 barotrauma events (24% overall events) (95% CI 21-28%). During the same period, 196 patients without COVID-19 infection (64 Â± 19 years, 52% male) with invasive mechanical ventilation had 1 barotrauma event (.5% 95% CI, 0-3%, p<.001 vs. the group with COVID-19 infection). Of 285 patients with ARDS over the prior 4 years on invasive mechanical ventilation (68 Â± 17 years, 60% men), 28 patients (10%) had 31 barotrauma events, with overall barotrauma rate of 11% (95% CI 8-15%, p<.001 vs. the group with COVID-19 infection). Barotrauma is an independent risk factor for death in COVID-19 (OR=2.2, p=.03), and is associated with longer hospital length of stay (OR=.92, p<.001). Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 infection and invasive mechanical ventilation had a higher rate of barotrauma than patients with ARDS and patients without COVID-19 infection.
CT screening for lung cancer: comparison of three baseline screening protocols
Purpose: Clinical management decisions arising from the baseline round for lung cancer screening are the most challenging, as findings have accumulated over a lifetime and may be of no clinical concern. To minimize unnecessary harms and costs of workup prior to the first, annual repeat screening, workup should be limited to participants with the highest suspicion of lung cancer while still aiming to identify small, early lung cancers.
Method(s): We compared recommendations for immediate, delayed (by 3 or 6 months) workup to assess growth at a malignant rate, and the resulting overall and potential biopsies of three baseline screening protocols: I-ELCAP, the two scenarios of ACR-LungRADS, and the European Consortium. For each protocol, the efficiency ratio (ER) of each recommendation was calculated by dividing the number of participants recommended for that workup by the number of resulting lung cancer diagnoses. The ER for potential biopsies was calculated, assuming that biopsies were performed on all participants recommended for immediate workup as well as those diagnosed with lung cancer after delayed workup.
Result(s): For I-ELCAP, ACR-LungRADS Scenario 1, ACR-LungRADS Scenario 2, and the European consortium, the overall ER was 13.9, 18.3, 18.3, and 31.9, respectively, and for potential biopsies, it was 2.2, 8.1, 3.2, and 4.4, respectively. ER for immediate workup was 2.9, 8.6, 3.9, and 5.6, respectively, and for delayed workup was 36.1, 160.3, 57.8, and 111.9, respectively.
Conclusion(s): I-ELCAP recommendations had the lowest ER values for overall, immediate, and delayed workup, and for potential biopsies. Key Points: * Small differences in protocol thresholds can lead to many unnecessary diagnostic workups. * I-ELCAP recommendations were the most efficient for immediate and overall workup, and potential biopsies. * Definition of a "positive result" and recommendations for further workup in the baseline round needs to be continually reevaluated and updated.
Incidentally Detected Mediastinal Mass on a Chest Radiograph
Developing a Job Description for a Vice Chair of Education in Radiology: The ADVICER Template
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The newly formed Alliance of Directors and Vice Chairs of Education in Radiology (ADVICER), a group within the Alliance for Clinician Educators in Radiology, identified an acute need for a generic job description template for Vice Chairs of Education in Radiology, a role that is being developed in many academic Departments of Radiology. Eighty-three percent of current members who responded to a survey had no detailed job description, and over half had no job description at all. Having a comprehensive and detailed job description is vital to developing this key position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the results of a survey sent to ADVICER members and seven Education Vice Chair job descriptions provided by members, the authors developed a detailed job description encompassing all potential elements of this position. RESULTS: Only 17% of survey respondents had a detailed job description. The role of an Education Vice Chair varies significantly between institutions in its scope and level of responsibilities. The resultant generic job description that was devised is intended to provide a template that would be modified by the candidate or the Department Chair. It is unlikely that any one individual would perform all the described activities. CONCLUSIONS: ADVICER has developed a comprehensive, flexible job description for Vice Chair of Education in Radiology that can be adapted by institutions as appropriate. It can be downloaded from http://aur.org/ADVICER/.
Radiation therapy for stage I lung cancer detected on computed tomography screening: Results from the international early lung cancer action program
Objective: The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) is a collaborative group designed to demonstrate reduction in lung cancer mortality by using low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening to identify early stage disease in high-risk individuals. While the majority of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with surgical resection, some patients were treated with definitive radiation. This study explores the characteristics and outcomes of this population. Methods: Clinical stage I NSCLC patients in North America treated by radiotherapy or surgery alone were identified in the I-ELCAP database. All had undergone low-dose CT screening according to a common protocol from 1993 to 2009. Patient characteristics and lung cancer-specific Kaplan-Meier survival rates were compared. Results: From 32,521 baseline and 34,394 annual repeat screenings, 455 cases of clinical stage I NSCLC were identified. Only 12 of these patients (2.6 %) underwent definitive radiation with median follow-up of 5.3 years. These 12 patients when compared with the 376 patients treated by surgery alone were older (72 vs. 67 years, p = 0.01), had more pre-existing comorbidities (1.5 vs. 1.0, p = 0.005), but had no significant differences in male gender, pack-years of smoking, emphysema, or tumor size. The median radiation dose was 6,150 cGy. There was no difference in lung cancer-specific survival between surgery and radiation (92 vs. 90 %, p = 0.78). Conclusion: This is the first study to show outcomes of definitive radiation for stage I NSCLC in a screened population. Although only used in a small number of cases, there is no difference in lung cancer-specific survival when comparing definitive radiation to surgical resection. 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
The challenging case conference: initial observations and feedback
CT Scan Screening for Lung Cancer: Risk Factors for Nodules and Malignancy in a High-Risk Urban Cohort
BACKGROUND: Low-dose computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening can reduce lung cancer mortality. The National Lung Screening Trial reported a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. However, CT scanning is extremely sensitive and detects non-calcified nodules (NCNs) in 24-50% of subjects, suggesting an unacceptably high false-positive rate. We hypothesized that by reviewing demographic, clinical and nodule characteristics, we could identify risk factors associated with the presence of nodules on screening CT, and with the probability that a NCN was malignant. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal lung cancer biomarker discovery trial (NYU LCBC) that included low-dose CT-screening of high-risk individuals over 50 years of age, with more than 20 pack-year smoking histories, living in an urban setting, and with a potential for asbestos exposure. We used case-control studies to identify risk factors associated with the presence of nodules (n = 625) versus no nodules (n = 557), and lung cancer patients (n = 30) versus benign nodules (n = 128). RESULTS: The NYU LCBC followed 1182 study subjects prospectively over a 10-year period. We found 52% to have NCNs >4 mm on their baseline screen. Most of the nodules were stable, and 9.7% of solid and 26.2% of sub-solid nodules resolved. We diagnosed 30 lung cancers, 26 stage I. Three patients had synchronous primary lung cancers or multifocal disease. Thus, there were 33 lung cancers: 10 incident, and 23 prevalent. A sub-group of the prevalent group were stable for a prolonged period prior to diagnosis. These were all stage I at diagnosis and 12/13 were adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: NCNs are common among CT-screened high-risk subjects and can often be managed conservatively. Risk factors for malignancy included increasing age, size and number of nodules, reduced FEV1 and FVC, and increased pack-years smoking. A sub-group of screen-detected cancers are slow-growing and may contribute to over-diagnosis and lead-time biases.
Computed tomographic screening for lung cancer: Individualising the benefit of the screening
Individuals concerned about their risk of lung cancer are recommended to talk with their physicians about computed tomographic screening for lung cancer. To provide the necessary information, the survival benefit of the screening, specific to a particular person for a particular round of screening, is needed. The probability of survival gain from the first, baseline, round of screening was addressed as the product of: 1) the screening resulting in a diagnosis of lung cancer; 2) not dying from some other cause for a sufficiently long period of time; and 3) cure resulting from pre-symptomatic treatment of lung cancer. These probabilities were estimated using the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program data on individuals aged 40-85 yrs with a cigarette smoking history of 0-150 pack-yrs. The estimated probability of survival gain ranged from 0.4% for a 60-yr-old with a 10-pack-yr smoking history who quit smoking 20 yrs ago, to 3.1% for a 70-yr-old current smoker with a 100 pack-yr history and 2.0% for an 85-yr-old current smoker with a 150-pack-yr history. When seeking counsel about initiation of screening for lung cancer, an estimate of the probability of survival gain from the first round of computed tomographic screening, specific to the person's age and history of smoking, can be provided