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Stronger together than apart: The role of social support in adopting a healthy plant-based eating pattern

Ortiz, Robin; Massar, Rachel E; McMacken, Michelle; Albert, Stephanie L
The influence of the social environment on health behaviors is well documented. In recent years, there is mounting evidence of the health benefits of a plant-based eating pattern, yet little is known about how the social environment impacts the adoption of a plant-based eating pattern, specifically. In this convergent parallel mixed-methods study, we analyzed quantitative survey data and qualitative focus group data to assess how social support impacted participants of a lifestyle medicine intervention focused on the adoption of a plant-predominant eating pattern. Regression analysis of survey data showed a positive association between positive social support and healthy plant-based eating, while no association was found between negative social support and healthy plant-based eating. Focus groups yielded further insights into how positive aspects of social relationships with family and friends facilitated the adoption of plant-predominant eating among participants. Qualitative findings also showed the ways in which negative social support hindered progress to adopt a plant-predominant eating pattern including not eating the same foods as participants, being judgmental about new dietary behaviors, and encouraging participants to eat non-plant-based foods. Taken together, social support appears to be an important factor for individuals adopting a plant-predominant eating pattern. Future research is needed to explore mechanisms to enhance positive social support while mitigating negative aspects of social relationships for individuals participating in similar lifestyle medicine interventions that emphasize on plant-predominant eating.
PMID: 38599245
ISSN: 1095-8304
CID: 5655742

Advancing Lifestyle Medicine in New York City's Public Health Care System

Babich, John S; McMacken, Michelle; Correa, Lilian; Polito-Moller, Krisann; Chen, Kevin; Adams, Eric; Morgenstern, Samantha; Katz, Mitchell; Long, Theodore G; Joshi, Shivam; Wallach, Andrew B; Shah, Sapana; Boas, Rebecca
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the United States, and much of this burden can be attributed to lifestyle and behavioral risk factors. Lifestyle medicine is an approach to preventing and treating lifestyle-related chronic disease using evidence-based lifestyle modification as a primary modality. NYC Health + Hospitals, the largest municipal public health care system in the United States, is a national pioneer in incorporating lifestyle medicine systemwide. In 2019, a pilot lifestyle medicine program was launched at NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue to improve cardiometabolic health in high-risk patients through intensive support for evidence-based lifestyle changes. Analyses of program data collected from January 29, 2019 to February 26, 2020 demonstrated feasibility, high demand for services, high patient satisfaction, and clinically and statistically significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This pilot is being expanded to 6 new NYC Health + Hospitals sites spanning all 5 NYC boroughs. As part of the expansion, many changes have been implemented to enhance the original pilot model, scale services effectively, and generate more interest and incentives in lifestyle medicine for staff and patients across the health care system, including a plant-based default meal program for inpatients. This narrative review describes the pilot model and outcomes, the expansion process, and lessons learned to serve as a guide for other health systems.
PMID: 38828080
ISSN: 2542-4548
CID: 5664872

Patient-Reported Outcomes from a Pilot Plant-Based Lifestyle Medicine Program in a Safety-Net Setting

Massar, Rachel E; McMacken, Michelle; Kwok, Lorraine; Joshi, Shivam; Shah, Sapana; Boas, Rebecca; Ortiz, Robin; Correa, Lilian; Polito-Moller, Krisann; Albert, Stephanie L
Lifestyle medicine interventions that emphasize healthy behavior changes are growing in popularity in U.S. health systems. Safety-net healthcare settings that serve low-income and uninsured populations most at risk for lifestyle-related disease are ideal venues for lifestyle medicine interventions. Patient-reported outcomes are important indicators of the efficacy of lifestyle medicine interventions. Past research on patient-reported outcomes of lifestyle medicine interventions has occurred outside of traditional healthcare care settings. In this study, we aimed to assess patient-reported outcomes on nutrition knowledge, barriers to adopting a plant-based diet, food and beverage consumption, lifestyle behaviors, self-rated health, and quality-of-life of participants in a pilot plant-based lifestyle medicine program in an urban safety-net healthcare system. We surveyed participants at three time points (baseline, 3 months, 6 months) to measure change over time. After 6 months of participation in the program, nutrition knowledge increased by 7.2 percentage points, participants reported an average of 2.4 fewer barriers to adopting a plant-based diet, the score on a modified healthful plant-based diet index increased by 5.3 points, physical activity increased by 0.7 days per week while hours of media consumption declined by 0.7 h per day, and the percentage of participants who reported that their quality of sleep was "good" or "very good" increased by 12.2 percentage points. Our findings demonstrate that a lifestyle medicine intervention in a safety-net healthcare setting can achieve significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes. Key lessons for other lifestyle medicine interventions include using a multidisciplinary team; addressing all pillars of lifestyle medicine; and the ability for patients to improve knowledge, barriers, skills, and behaviors with adequate support.
PMID: 37447186
ISSN: 2072-6643
CID: 5535302

Medication Deprescribing Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Case Series of Lifestyle Medicine Practitioner Protocols

Bradley, Michael D; Arnold, Matthew E; Biskup, Bradley G; Campbell, Thomas M; Fuhrman, Joel; Guthrie, George E; Kelly, John H; Lacagnina, Salvatore; Loomis, James F; McMacken, Michelle M; Trapp, Caroline; Karlsen, Micaela C
This study is a qualitative case series of lifestyle medicine practitioners' protocols for medication de-escalation in the context of reduced need for glucose-lowering medications due to lifestyle modifications. Increasing numbers of lifestyle medicine practitioners report achieving reductions in medications among patients with type 2 diabetes, and in some cases remission, but limited data exist on the clinical decision-making process used to determine when and how medications are deprescribed. Practitioners interviewed here provide accounts of their deprescribing protocols. This information can serve as pilot data for other practitioners seeking examples of how deprescribing in the context of lifestyle medicine treatment is conducted.
PMID: 37092156
ISSN: 0891-8929
CID: 5464982

Change in cardiometabolic risk factors in a pilot safety-net plant-based lifestyle medicine program

Albert, Stephanie L; Massar, Rachel E; Correa, Lilian; Kwok, Lorraine; Joshi, Shivam; Shah, Sapana; Boas, Rebecca; Alcalá, Héctor E; McMacken, Michelle
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Interventions emphasizing healthful lifestyle behaviors are proliferating in traditional health care settings, yet there is a paucity of published clinical outcomes, outside of pay-out-of-pocket or employee health programs. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We assessed weight, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol for 173 patients of the Plant-Based Lifestyle Medicine Program piloted in a New York City safety-net hospital. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to assess changes in means, from baseline to six-months, for the full sample and within baseline diagnoses (i.e., overweight or obesity, type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia). We calculated the percentage of patients with clinically meaningful changes in outcomes for the full sample and within diagnoses. FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED:The full sample had statistically significant improvements in weight, HbA1c, and diastolic blood pressure. Patients with prediabetes or overweight or obesity experienced significant improvements in weight and those with type 2 diabetes had significant improvements in weight and HbA1c. Patients with hypertension had significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure and weight. Data did not show differences in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), but differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were approaching significance for the full sample and those with hyperlipidemia. The majority of patients achieved clinically meaningful improvements on all outcomes besides systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Our study demonstrates that a lifestyle medicine intervention within a traditional, safety-net clinical setting improved biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease. Our findings are limited by small sample sizes. Additional large-scale, rigorous studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of lifestyle medicine interventions in similar settings.
PMID: 37153909
ISSN: 2296-861x
CID: 5519462

Nutrition-An Evidence-Based, Practical Approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Treatment

Hauser, Michelle E; McMacken, Michelle; Lim, Anthony; Shetty, Paulina
PMID: 35389838
ISSN: 1533-7294
CID: 5218832

Pilot Plant-Based Lifestyle Medicine Program in an Urban Public Healthcare System: Evaluating Demand and Implementation

Albert, Stephanie L.; Massar, Rachel E.; Kwok, Lorraine; Correa, Lilian; Polito-Moller, Krisann; Joshi, Shivam; Shah, Sapana; McMacken, Michelle
ISSN: 1559-8276
CID: 5519472

Successful Implementation of Healthful Nutrition Initiatives into Hospitals

Aggarwal, Monica; Grady, Ariel; Desai, Daya; Hartog, Katrina; Correa, Lilian; Ostfeld, Robert J; Freeman, Andrew M; McMacken, Michelle; Gianos, Eugenia; Reddy, Koushik; Batiste, Columbus; Wenger, Christopher; Blankstein, Ron; Williams, Kim; Allen, Kathleen; Seifried, Rebecca M; Barnard, Neal D
Poor dietary quality is a leading contributor to mortality in the United States and to most cardiovascular risk factors. By providing education on lifestyle changes and specifically, dietary changes, hospitals have the opportunity to use the patient experience as a "teachable moment." The food options provided to inpatients and outpatients can be a paradigm for patients to follow upon discharge from the hospital. There are hospitals in the United States that are showcasing novel ways to increase awareness of optimal dietary patterns and can serve as a model for hospitals nationwide.
PMID: 31494109
ISSN: 1555-7162
CID: 4087382

Ketogenic Diets for Diabetes and Obesity-Reply

Joshi, Shivam; Ostfeld, Robert J; McMacken, Michelle
PMID: 31790534
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 4249812

The Ketogenic Diet for Obesity and Diabetes-Enthusiasm Outpaces Evidence

Joshi, Shivam; Ostfeld, Robert J; McMacken, Michelle
PMID: 31305866
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 3977632