Other lateral approaches to the posterior fossa
Initial Operative Experience and Short-term Hearing Preservation Results With a Mid-scala Cochlear Implant Electrode Array
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The MSE and 1j electrodes were compared in their angular depth of insertion and pre to postoperative change in hearing thresholds. Hearing preservation was analyzed as a function of angular depth of insertion. Secondary outcome measures included operative time, incidence of abnormal intraoperative impedance and telemetry values, and incidence of postsurgical complications. RESULTS: Depth of insertion was similar for both electrodes, but was more consistent for the MSE array and more variable for the 1j array. Patients with MSE electrodes had better hearing preservation. Thresholds shifts at four audiometric frequencies ranging from 250 to 2000 Hz were 10, 7, 2, and 6 dB smaller for the MSE electrode than for the 1j (p < 0.05). Hearing preservation at low frequencies was worse with deeper insertion, regardless of array. Secondary outcome measures were similar for both electrodes. CONCLUSION: The MSE electrode resulted in more consistent insertion depth and somewhat better hearing preservation than the 1j electrode. Differences in other surgical outcome measures were small or unlikely to have a meaningful effect.
Single-sided Deafness Cochlear Implantation: Candidacy, Evaluation, and Outcomes in Children and Adults
OBJECTIVES: Although there are various available treatment options for unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, these options do not provide the benefits of binaural hearing since sound is directed from the poorer ear to the better ear. The purpose of this investigation was to review our center's experience with cochlear implantation in such patients in providing improved auditory benefits and useful binaural hearing. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Twelve adult patients and four pediatric patients with unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss received an implant in the poorer ear. Outcome measures performed preoperatively on each ear and binaurally included consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) monosyllabic words and sentences in noise. The mean pure-tune average in the better ear was within normal range. RESULTS: Test scores revealed a significant improvement in CNC and sentence in noise test scores from the preoperative to most recent postoperative evaluation in the isolated implant ear. All adult subjects use the device full-time. CONCLUSIONS: The data reveal significant improvement in speech perception performance in quiet and in noise in patients with single-sided deafness after implantation. Performance might depend on factors including length of hearing loss, age at implantation, and device usage.
Transcochlear approach to resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors: Patient selection, surgical technique, and outcomes [Meeting Abstract]
Background: The transcochlear approach extends the anterior exposure afforded by the translabyrinthine technique. Although this wider exposure allows improved access to cranial nerves and the brainstem with less retraction on the cerebellum, the classical description involving facial nerve transposition often results in permanent facial paresis. This study discusses the role of the transcochlear approach in resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors including patient selection, surgical technique, and outcomes. Study Design: Retrospective review. Methods: This is a retrospective review conducted at a single academic institution. Cases performed by our skull base team (neurotologist and neurosurgeon) between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. All cases utilizing the transcochlear approach were included. Factors including tumor size, completeness of resection, facial nerve function, post-operative complications, and length of stay were analyzed. Results: Fourteen cases were included. All of these patients had pre-operative severe hearing loss except for two in which surgery was performed urgently in the setting of hydrocephalus and brainstem compression. Eight out of 14 patients had pre-operative facial paresis. Tumor size ranged from 2.2-7 cm in greatest dimension (mean = 4.56 cm). All patients underwent a transcochlear approach to and removal of tumor with blind sac of the external auditory canal. In addition, 3 patients underwent an immediate facial nerve to hypoglossal anastomosis. Post-operatively, patients remained in the hospital for 3-5 days (mean = 4). Of the patients who started out with normal facial nerve function (n = 6), 3 recovered to House-Brackmann scores II or greater. There were no reported CSF leaks requiring hospitalization and 1 abdominal hematoma from fat graft harvest. There was a single mortality reported in the peri-operative period; however, on autopsy the cause of death was unrelated to the surgery itself or any subsequent intracranial event. Conclusions: As in other surgical approaches destructive to the labyrinth, patients were selected with consideration of their pre-operative hearing status and/or their candidacy for hearing preservation surgery. Patients with pre-operative facial nerve paralysis and hearing loss were deemed particularly appropriate candidates for the transcochlear technique given the additional exposure and the lack of added morbidity. In these cases the surgeon also has the option to perform dynamic facial nerve reanimation at the time of tumor resection
Postoperative sinus thrombosis in the setting of skull base surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare but potentially dangerous complication following craniotomies involving the posterior fossa, the skull base, and craniotomies involving the superior sagittal sinus. Surgical manipulation of the sinuses has been shown to cause sinus thromboses of varying degrees. This phenomenon is often clinically silent, with only a small number of patients becoming symptomatic. Recent advances in neuroimaging provide higher resolution evaluation of cerebral sinuses pre and postoperatively, often revealing clinically silent filling defects. Although sinus thrombosis can be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, its incidence and factors that contribute to its formation in the postoperative population remain unclear. In addition, current guidelines advise to anticoagulate with Heparin upon diagnosis, which can be contraindicated for immediate post craniotomy patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate retrospective data of patient outcomes and factors that might contribute to sinus thrombus formation. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at NYU Langone Medical Center. Ninety-seven patients were included who underwent either a retrosigmoid/translabrynthine/suboccipital resection of a posterior fossa tumor or a supratentorial craniotomy for resection of parasagittal/falcine tumor between July 1, 2014 and July 1, 2015. Pre operative Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) was obtained per the attending surgeon's discretion. Based on intraoperative findings, clinical symptoms, and surgeon's preference, a postoperative MRV was obtained. Decision to treat a thrombosis was made based on the results of the MRV and clinical symptoms. Treatments included observation, intravenous fluids (IVF) alone, anti-platelet therapy with Aspirin alone, or a combination of the two. Results: A total of 7 of 97 patients (7.22%) had postoperative sinus thrombosis. Of those patients, 5 had occlusion of the venous sinuses. In the occlusion group, 4 had preoperative imaging documenting patency of the sinuses. An additional 2 patients had postoperative MRVs revealing partial thrombosis of the sinus, 1 that was new and 1 that did not have a preoperative MRV for comparison. Compared with the cohort of patients without postoperative thromboses, there was no significant difference in age, BMI, length of surgery, or surgical approach. Of the 5 patients with postoperative thrombotic occlusion, 4 underwent intervention (1 with IVF alone, 2 with IVF and aspirin, and 1 with aspirin alone). Two patients with thromboses also developed CSF leaks requiring lumbar drainage and operative repair. One patient had a persistent CSF leak requiring a shunt. Of the 2 patients with partial thrombosis, 1 was placed on IVF and aspirin. At 3 months follow up, 1 out of 5 patients in the occlusion group had recanalization of the previously thrombosed sinus. Conclusions: MRV is a non-invasive method to evaluate the caliber and patency of dural venous sinuses in post craniotomy patients. Symptomatic thrombosis is rare and can be managed either conservatively or with IVF and/or anti platelet therapy, both which are safer than anticoagulation with heparin in post craniotomy patients. A larger prospective trial is necessary to further characterize the incidence of postoperative venous sinus thrombosis, identify risk factors, and to devise recommendations for therapy
Effects of loss of residual hearing on speech performance with the CI422 and the hybrid-L electrode
Objective Preservation of residual low-frequency hearing has become a priority in cochlear implantation. The purpose of this study was to compare rates of hearing preservation and effects on performance of loss of low-frequency acoustic hearing with two different length electrodes. Study design Retrospective chart review. Setting Tertiary Care Hospital. Patients Twelve patients were implanted with the CI422 a slim-straight electrode; the second group consisted of 10 patients implanted with the Hybrid-L, a shorter hearing preservation electrode. Main outcome measure Audiometric thresholds and speech perception measures. Results At 1 year, 3/10 (30%) patients with the Hybrid-L and 7/12 (58%) patients with the CI422 lost residual acoustic hearing resulting in a profound hearing loss in the implanted ear. In comparing these patients in particular, mean CNC words in the implanted ear were 72% in the CI422 electrode group and 15% in the Hybrid-L electrode group at 1 year (P = 0.03). While hearing preservation rates with the Hybrid-L tended to be better, among recipients who lost residual hearing, speech perception was better in those with the longer CI422 electrode. Conclusions With emphasis on preservation of residual hearing, patients need to be counseled regarding possible outcomes and options should loss of residual hearing occur following implantation. While shorter electrodes may have better rates of hearing preservation, the patients with the longer straight electrode in our study had significantly better speech understanding following the loss of residual hearing.
Classification of middle fossa floor dehiscence syndromes
OBJECT/OBJECTIVE:Middle fossa floor dehiscence (MFFD) can present as multiple syndromes depending on dehiscence location, tissue herniation, and dural integrity. The authors propose a classification system for MFFD with the potential to guide clinical decision making. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records (years 1995-2012) of patients who had undergone temporal craniotomy for the surgical repair of an MFFD syndrome at a single institution was undertaken. Reviewed data included demographic, operative, presentation, and outcome details. Middle fossa floor dehiscence was classified as follows: Class A, bony dehiscence without herniation of the brain and/or meninges; Class B, herniation of the brain and/or meninges through the middle fossa floor without CSF leakage; Class C, dehiscence with CSF leakage without meningitis; or Class D, dehiscence with meningitis. RESULTS:Fifty-one patients, 22 males and 29 females, were included in the analysis. The mean age was 48.7 Â± 15.5 years, mean body mass index was 32.65 Â± 6.86 kg/m(2), and mean symptom duration was 33 Â± 42 months. Seven patients underwent repeat surgery for symptomatic recurrence; therefore, there were 58 surgical encounters. Repair included bony reconstruction with hydroxyapatite with or without resection of encephaloceles and/or repair of a dural defect. According to the MFFD classification system described, 15, 8, 27, and 8 cases were categorized as Class A, B, C, and D, respectively. The prevalence of hearing loss was 87%, 63%, and 70% in Classes A, B, and C, respectively. Vestibular symptoms were more prevalent in Class A. Seven patients reported persistent symptoms at the last follow-up. Transient complications were similar in each classification (13%-25%), and a single permanent complication related to anesthesia was observed. There were no mortalities or severe neurological morbidities in the series. CONCLUSIONS:Middle fossa floor dehiscence has a spectrum of clinical presentations. A classification system may help to clarify the diagnosis and guide therapy. Surgery, the mainstay of treatment, is safe and well tolerated.
Pitch adaptation patterns in bimodal cochlear implant users: over time and after experience
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Pitch plasticity has been observed in Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) users. Does pitch plasticity also occur in bimodal CI users with traditional long-electrode CIs, and is pitch adaptation pattern associated with electrode discrimination or speech recognition performance? The goals of this study were to characterize pitch adaptation patterns in long-electrode CI users, to correlate these patterns with electrode discrimination and speech perception outcomes, and to analyze which subject factors are associated with the different patterns. DESIGN/METHODS:Electric-to-acoustic pitch matches were obtained in 19 subjects over time from CI activation to at least 12 months after activation, and in a separate group of 18 subjects in a single visit after at least 24 months of CI experience. Audiometric thresholds, electrode discrimination performance, and speech perception scores were also measured. RESULTS:Subjects measured over time had pitch adaptation patterns that fit one of the following categories: (1) "Pitch-adapting," that is, the mismatch between perceived electrode pitch and the corresponding frequency-to-electrode allocations decreased; (2) "Pitch-dropping," that is, the pitches of multiple electrodes dropped and converged to a similar low-pitch; and (3) "Pitch-unchanging," that is, the electrode pitches did not change. Subjects measured after CI experience had a parallel set of adaptation patterns: (1) "Matched-pitch," that is, the electrode pitch was matched to the frequency allocation; (2) "Low-pitch," that is, the pitches of multiple electrodes were all around the lowest frequency allocation; and (3) "Nonmatched-pitch," that is, the pitch patterns were compressed relative to the frequency allocations and did not fit either the matched-pitch or low-pitch categories. Unlike Hybrid CI users which were mostly in the pitch-adapting or matched-pitch category, the majority of bimodal CI users were in the latter two categories, pitch-dropping/low-pitch or pitch-unchanging/nonmatched-pitch. Subjects with pitch-adapting or matched-pitch patterns tended to have better low-frequency thresholds than subjects in the latter categories. Changes in electrode discrimination over time were not associated with changes in pitch differences between electrodes. Reductions in speech perception scores over time showed a weak but nonsignificant association with dropping-pitch patterns. CONCLUSIONS:Bimodal CI users with more residual hearing may have somewhat greater similarity to Hybrid CI users and be more likely to adapt pitch perception to reduce mismatch with the frequencies allocated to the electrodes and the acoustic hearing. In contrast, bimodal CI users with less residual hearing exhibit either no adaptation, or surprisingly, a third pattern in which the pitches of the basal electrodes drop to match the frequency range allocated to the most apical electrode. The lack of association of electrode discrimination changes with pitch changes suggests that electrode discrimination does not depend on perceived pitch differences between electrodes, but rather on some other characteristics such as timbre. In contrast, speech perception may depend more on pitch perception and the ability to distinguish pitch between electrodes, especially since during multielectrode stimulation, cues such as timbre may be less useful for discrimination.
Partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal resection of petroclival meningioma [Case Report]
A petroclival meningioma represents a challenging tumor to resect in the cerebellopontine angle and ventral to the brain stem. Multiple cranial nerves and blood vessels may be intimately involved with the tumor. A partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal approach can facilitate resection while preserving hearing. This approach allows for a direct line of sight along the petrous bone while sealing the canals can preserve hearing. In this video operative manuscript, we demonstrate a step-by-step illustration of a partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal resection of a petroclival meningioma. This approach affords the best chance of hearing preservation and an opportunity for maximum tumor resection. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/29I4KEXz1vY .
Quantitative verification of the keyhole concept: a comparison of area of exposure in the parasellar region via supraorbital keyhole, frontotemporal pterional, and supraorbital approaches
OBJECT/OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to determine if the "keyhole concept," proposed by Perneczky's group, can be verified quantitatively. METHODS:Fourteen (3 bilateral and 8 unilateral) sides of embalmed latex-injected cadaveric heads were dissected via 3 sequential craniotomy approaches: supraorbital keyhole, frontotemporal pterional, and supraorbital. Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates were recorded using a stereotactic localizer. The orthocenter of the ipsilateral anterior clinoid process, the posterior clinoid process, and the contralateral anterior clinoid process are expressed as a center point (the apex). Seven vectors project from the apex to their corresponding target points in a radiating manner on the parasellar skull base. Each 2 neighboring vectors border what could be considered a triangle, and the total area of the 7 triangles sharing the same apex was geometrically expressed as the area of exposure in the parasellar region. RESULTS:Values are expressed as the mean Â± SD (mm(2)). The total area of exposure was as follows: supraorbital keyhole 1733.1 Â± 336.0, pterional 1699.3 Â± 361.9, and supraorbital 1691.4 Â± 342.4. The area of exposure on the contralateral side was as follows: supraorbital keyhole 602.2 Â± 194.7, pterional 595.2 Â± 228.0, and supraorbital 553.3 Â± 227.2. The supraorbital keyhole skull flap was 2.0 cm(2), and the skull flap size ratio was 1:5:6.5 (supraorbital keyhole/pterional/supraorbital). CONCLUSIONS:The area of exposure of the parasellar region through the smaller supraorbital keyhole approach is as adequate as the larger pterional and supraorbital approaches. The keyhole concept can be verified quantitatively as follows: 1) a wide area of exposure on the skull base can be obtained through a small keyhole skull opening, and 2) the side opposite the opening can also be visualized.