Transcochlear approach to resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors: Patient selection, surgical technique, and outcomes [Meeting Abstract]
Background: The transcochlear approach extends the anterior exposure afforded by the translabyrinthine technique. Although this wider exposure allows improved access to cranial nerves and the brainstem with less retraction on the cerebellum, the classical description involving facial nerve transposition often results in permanent facial paresis. This study discusses the role of the transcochlear approach in resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors including patient selection, surgical technique, and outcomes. Study Design: Retrospective review. Methods: This is a retrospective review conducted at a single academic institution. Cases performed by our skull base team (neurotologist and neurosurgeon) between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. All cases utilizing the transcochlear approach were included. Factors including tumor size, completeness of resection, facial nerve function, post-operative complications, and length of stay were analyzed. Results: Fourteen cases were included. All of these patients had pre-operative severe hearing loss except for two in which surgery was performed urgently in the setting of hydrocephalus and brainstem compression. Eight out of 14 patients had pre-operative facial paresis. Tumor size ranged from 2.2-7 cm in greatest dimension (mean = 4.56 cm). All patients underwent a transcochlear approach to and removal of tumor with blind sac of the external auditory canal. In addition, 3 patients underwent an immediate facial nerve to hypoglossal anastomosis. Post-operatively, patients remained in the hospital for 3-5 days (mean = 4). Of the patients who started out with normal facial nerve function (n = 6), 3 recovered to House-Brackmann scores II or greater. There were no reported CSF leaks requiring hospitalization and 1 abdominal hematoma from fat graft harvest. There was a single mortality reported in the peri-operative period; however, on autopsy the cause of death was unrelated to the surgery itself or any subsequent intracranial event. Conclusions: As in other surgical approaches destructive to the labyrinth, patients were selected with consideration of their pre-operative hearing status and/or their candidacy for hearing preservation surgery. Patients with pre-operative facial nerve paralysis and hearing loss were deemed particularly appropriate candidates for the transcochlear technique given the additional exposure and the lack of added morbidity. In these cases the surgeon also has the option to perform dynamic facial nerve reanimation at the time of tumor resection
Postoperative sinus thrombosis in the setting of skull base surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare but potentially dangerous complication following craniotomies involving the posterior fossa, the skull base, and craniotomies involving the superior sagittal sinus. Surgical manipulation of the sinuses has been shown to cause sinus thromboses of varying degrees. This phenomenon is often clinically silent, with only a small number of patients becoming symptomatic. Recent advances in neuroimaging provide higher resolution evaluation of cerebral sinuses pre and postoperatively, often revealing clinically silent filling defects. Although sinus thrombosis can be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, its incidence and factors that contribute to its formation in the postoperative population remain unclear. In addition, current guidelines advise to anticoagulate with Heparin upon diagnosis, which can be contraindicated for immediate post craniotomy patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate retrospective data of patient outcomes and factors that might contribute to sinus thrombus formation. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at NYU Langone Medical Center. Ninety-seven patients were included who underwent either a retrosigmoid/translabrynthine/suboccipital resection of a posterior fossa tumor or a supratentorial craniotomy for resection of parasagittal/falcine tumor between July 1, 2014 and July 1, 2015. Pre operative Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) was obtained per the attending surgeon's discretion. Based on intraoperative findings, clinical symptoms, and surgeon's preference, a postoperative MRV was obtained. Decision to treat a thrombosis was made based on the results of the MRV and clinical symptoms. Treatments included observation, intravenous fluids (IVF) alone, anti-platelet therapy with Aspirin alone, or a combination of the two. Results: A total of 7 of 97 patients (7.22%) had postoperative sinus thrombosis. Of those patients, 5 had occlusion of the venous sinuses. In the occlusion group, 4 had preoperative imaging documenting patency of the sinuses. An additional 2 patients had postoperative MRVs revealing partial thrombosis of the sinus, 1 that was new and 1 that did not have a preoperative MRV for comparison. Compared with the cohort of patients without postoperative thromboses, there was no significant difference in age, BMI, length of surgery, or surgical approach. Of the 5 patients with postoperative thrombotic occlusion, 4 underwent intervention (1 with IVF alone, 2 with IVF and aspirin, and 1 with aspirin alone). Two patients with thromboses also developed CSF leaks requiring lumbar drainage and operative repair. One patient had a persistent CSF leak requiring a shunt. Of the 2 patients with partial thrombosis, 1 was placed on IVF and aspirin. At 3 months follow up, 1 out of 5 patients in the occlusion group had recanalization of the previously thrombosed sinus. Conclusions: MRV is a non-invasive method to evaluate the caliber and patency of dural venous sinuses in post craniotomy patients. Symptomatic thrombosis is rare and can be managed either conservatively or with IVF and/or anti platelet therapy, both which are safer than anticoagulation with heparin in post craniotomy patients. A larger prospective trial is necessary to further characterize the incidence of postoperative venous sinus thrombosis, identify risk factors, and to devise recommendations for therapy
Effects of loss of residual hearing on speech performance with the CI422 and the hybrid-L electrode
Objective Preservation of residual low-frequency hearing has become a priority in cochlear implantation. The purpose of this study was to compare rates of hearing preservation and effects on performance of loss of low-frequency acoustic hearing with two different length electrodes. Study design Retrospective chart review. Setting Tertiary Care Hospital. Patients Twelve patients were implanted with the CI422 a slim-straight electrode; the second group consisted of 10 patients implanted with the Hybrid-L, a shorter hearing preservation electrode. Main outcome measure Audiometric thresholds and speech perception measures. Results At 1 year, 3/10 (30%) patients with the Hybrid-L and 7/12 (58%) patients with the CI422 lost residual acoustic hearing resulting in a profound hearing loss in the implanted ear. In comparing these patients in particular, mean CNC words in the implanted ear were 72% in the CI422 electrode group and 15% in the Hybrid-L electrode group at 1 year (P = 0.03). While hearing preservation rates with the Hybrid-L tended to be better, among recipients who lost residual hearing, speech perception was better in those with the longer CI422 electrode. Conclusions With emphasis on preservation of residual hearing, patients need to be counseled regarding possible outcomes and options should loss of residual hearing occur following implantation. While shorter electrodes may have better rates of hearing preservation, the patients with the longer straight electrode in our study had significantly better speech understanding following the loss of residual hearing.
Staged resection of large vestibular schwannomas
Object Staged resection of large vestibular schwannomas (VSs) has been proposed as a strategy to improve facial nerve outcomes and morbidity. The authors report their experience with 2-stage resections of large VSs and analyze the indications, facial nerve outcomes, surgical results, and complications. The authors compare these results with those of a similar cohort of patients who underwent a single-stage resection. Methods A retrospective review of all patients (age > 18 years) who underwent surgery from 2002 to 2010 for large (>/= 3 cm) VSs at the authors' institution with a minimum of 6 months follow-up was undertaken. A first-stage retrosigmoid approach (without meatal drilling) was performed to remove the cerebellopontine angle portion of the tumor and to decompress the brainstem. A decision to stage the operation was made intraoperatively if there was cerebellar or brainstem edema, excessive tumor adherence to the facial nerve or brainstem, a poorly stimulating facial nerve, or a thinned or splayed facial nerve. A second-stage translabyrinthine approach was performed at a later date to remove the remaining tumor. The single-stage resection consisted of a retrosigmoid approach with meatal drilling. Patient charts were evaluated for tumor size, extent of resection, tumor recurrence, House-Brackmann facial nerve function grade, and complications. Results Twenty-eight and 19 patients underwent 2- or single-stage resection of a large VS, respectively. The average tumor size was 3.9 cm (range 3.2-7 cm) in the 2-stage group and 3.9 cm (range 3.1-5 cm) in the single-stage group. The mean follow-up was 36 +/- 19 months in the 2-stage group versus 24 +/- 14 months in the single-stage group. Gross-total or near-total resection was achieved in 27 (96.4%) of 28 patients in the 2-stage group and 15 (79%) of 19 patients in the single-stage group (p < 0.01). Anatomical facial nerve preservation was achieved in all but 1 patient (94.7%), and there were no recurrences on follow-up imaging in the 2-stage group. Good facial nerve functional outcome (House-Brackmann Grades I and II) at last follow-up was achieved in 23 (82%) of 28 patients in the 2-stage group and 10 (53%) of 19 patients in the single-stage group (p < 0.01). Cerebrospinal fluid leak-related complications (intracranial hypotension, blood patch, and lumboperitoneal shunt for pseudomeningocele) were more common in the 2-stage group. There were no postoperative strokes, hemorrhages, or deaths in either group. Conclusions The authors' results suggest that staged resection of large VSs may potentially achieve better facial nerve outcomes. There does not appear to be added neurological morbidity with staged resections.
Cochlear implantation: current and future device options
Today most cochlear implant users achieve above 80% on standard speech recognition in quiet testing, and enjoy excellent device reliability. Despite such success, conventional designs often fail to provide the frequency resolution required for complex listening tasks. Furthermore, performance variability remains a vexing problem, with a select group of patients performing poorly despite using the most recent technologies and processing strategies. This article provides a brief history of the development of cochlear implant technologies, reviews current implant systems from all 3 major manufacturers, examines recently devised strategies aimed at improving device performance, and discusses potential future developments.
Meningioma causing superior canal dehiscence syndrome [Case Report]
Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for large medial sphenoid wing meningiomas
Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy (MOZC) is an anterior lateral skull base approach characterized by simplicity and wide exposure. The approach was first introduced in 2003 and there are few clinical reports. This report details treatment of patients with large (>4 cm) sphenoid wing meningiomas via a MOZC approach, and to the authors' knowledge, the first published in English. Total resection was achieved in all 5 patients in this study. One patient experienced a postoperative epidural hematoma that was successfully treated. All patients returned to daily activity without neurological sequellae. The advantages of MOZC are sparing of the zygomatic arch and removal of the orbital rim; hence, the surgeon can plan a capacious operative field without excessive brain retraction and resect the tumor before opening the dura. The MOZC approach is a clinically feasible, low morbidity, surgical option for paraclinoid lesions, such as large sphenoid wing meningiomas.
Dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior condylar confluence and hypoglossal canal mimicking a jugular foramen tumor [Case Report]
The anterior condylar confluence (ACC) is located on the external orifice of the canal of the hypoglossal nerve and provides multiple connections with the dural venous sinuses of the posterior fossa, internal jugular vein, and the vertebral venous plexus. Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the ACC and hypoglossal canal (anterior condylar vein) are extremely rare. The authors present a case involving an ACC DAVF and hypoglossal canal that mimicked a hypervascular jugular bulb tumor. This 53-year-old man presented with right hypoglossal nerve palsy. A right pulsatile tinnitus had resolved several months previously. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enhancing right-sided jugular foramen lesion involving the hypoglossal canal. Cerebral angiography revealed a hypervascular lesion at the jugular bulb, with early venous drainage into the extracranial vertebral venous plexus. This was thought to represent either a glomus jugulare tumor or a DAVF. The patient underwent preoperative transarterial embolization followed by surgical exploration via a far-lateral transcondylar approach. At surgery, a DAVF was identified draining into the ACC and hypoglossal canal. The fistula was surgically obliterated, and this was confirmed on postoperative angiography. The patient's hypoglossal nerve palsy resolved. Dural arteriovenous fistulas of the ACC and hypoglossal canal are rare lesions that can present with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsies. They should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypervascular jugular bulb lesions. The authors review the anatomy of the ACC and discuss the literature on DAVFs involving the hypoglossal canal.
Spontaneous middle fossa encephalocele and cerebrospinal fluid leakage: diagnosis and management
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, operative findings, and surgical management of patients with spontaneous middle fossa encephalocele (SMFE) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage repaired using a middle fossa craniotomy (MFC) approach. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Fifteen consecutive patients with 16 SMFE repaired using an MFC approach between January 1999 and April 2006 were included. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Encephaloceles were approached via MFC, and the cranial base was repaired in multilayered fashion using a variety of materials, including hydroxyapatite cement. Patients were followed clinically after discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications, including CSF leak and the need for surgical revision, are evaluated. Patient factors, diagnostic testing, and operative findings are reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made using clinical and radiologic evaluation in most patients. Beta2-transferrin testing was occasionally used in the diagnostic workup. Intraoperatively, multiple defects of the floor of the middle fossa were found in more than half of patients. Fifteen SMFE in 14 patients were successfully repaired via MFC alone. One patient required revision with a combined transmastoid/MFC approach due to recurrent CSF leakage. Hydroxyapatite cement was used for repair of the cranial base in 9 patients without complication. CONCLUSION: An MFC approach can be used to repair SMFE with CSF leakage with a high level of success. Hydroxyapatite cement is a safe and useful adjunct to aid in reconstruction of the cranial base defects in cases of SMFE.
A novel treatment approach to cholesterol granulomas. Technical note [Case Report]
The authors report a novel technique for the treatment of cholesterol granulomas. An extradural middle fossa approach was used to access the granuloma, with drainage through silastic tubes into the sphenoid sinus via the anteromedial triangle between V1 and V2. Cholesterol granulomas occur when the normal aeration and drainage of temporal bone air cells is occluded, resulting in vacuum formation and transudation of blood into the air cells. This process results in anaerobic breakdown of the blood with resulting cholesterol crystal formation and an inflammatory reaction. Traditional treatment of this lesion involves extensive drilling of the temporal bone to drain the granuloma cyst and establish a drainage tract into the middle ear. Such drainage procedures can be time consuming and difficult, and potentially involve structural damage to the inner ear and facial nerve. An extradural middle fossa approach provides easy access to the granuloma and anterior petrous bone entry into the granuloma for resection. Granuloma drainage is then achieved using shunt tubing in the sphenoid sinus via a small hole in the anteromedial triangle between V1 and V2. Five patients with symptomatic cholesterol granuloma were treated without complication using this novel extradural middle fossa approach. One patient required reoperation 1-year postoperatively for cyst regrowth and occlusion of the drainage tube. At the 5-year follow-up examination, no patient reported recurrent symptoms. Extradural middle fossa craniotomy and silastic tube drainage into the sphenoid sinus is a viable alternative method for treatment of cholesterol granuloma.